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Mali vs. Niger

Introduction

MaliNiger
BackgroundThe Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. An international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president. The Malian Government and northern armed groups signed an internationally-mediated peace accord in June 2015.
Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.

Geography

MaliNiger
Locationinterior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Geographic coordinates17 00 N, 4 00 W
16 00 N, 8 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,240,192 sq km
land: 1,220,190 sq km
water: 20,002 sq km
total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than twice the size of Texas
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 7,908 km
border countries (7): Algeria 1,359 km, Burkina Faso 1,325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1,062 km, Mauritania 2,236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km
total: 5,834 km
border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1,196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1,608 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatesubtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrainmostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 343 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
mean elevation: 474 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes 2,022 m
Natural resourcesgold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Land useagricultural land: 34.1%
arable land 5.6%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 28.4%
forest: 10.2%
other: 55.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 35.1%
arable land 12.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 22.7%
forest: 1%
other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land3,780 sq km (2012)
1,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
recurring droughts
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water
overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notelandlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
Population distributionthe overwhelming majority of the population lives in the southern half of the country, with greater density along the border with Burkina Faso
majority of the populace is located in the southernmost extreme of the country along the border with Nigeria and Benin

Demographics

MaliNiger
Population17,885,245 (July 2017 est.)
19,245,344 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 48.17% (male 4,330,370/female 4,285,171)
15-24 years: 18.84% (male 1,604,914/female 1,765,479)
25-54 years: 26.26% (male 2,171,171/female 2,525,109)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 335,023/female 326,910)
65 years and over: 3.03% (male 270,856/female 270,242) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 49.01% (male 4,757,806/female 4,674,437)
15-24 years: 19.1% (male 1,815,689/female 1,860,230)
25-54 years: 25.97% (male 2,495,927/female 2,501,362)
55-64 years: 3.28% (male 328,082/female 304,030)
65 years and over: 2.64% (male 259,046/female 248,735) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 15.8 years
male: 15.1 years
female: 16.4 years (2017 est.)
total: 15.4 years
male: 15.3 years
female: 15.5 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate3.02% (2017 est.)
3.19% (2017 est.)
Birth rate43.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
44.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
11.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 69.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 75.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 63.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 81.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 85.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 76.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 60.3 years
male: 58.2 years
female: 62.5 years (2017 est.)
total population: 55.9 years
male: 54.7 years
female: 57.3 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate6.01 children born/woman (2017 est.)
6.49 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1% (2016 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
Ethnic groupsBambara 34.1%, Fulani (Peul) 14.7%, Sarakole 10.8%, Senufo 10.5%, Dogon 8.9%, Malinke 8.7%, Bobo 2.9%, Songhai 1.6%, Tuareg 0.9%, other Malian 6.1%, from member of Economic Community of West African States 0.3%, other 0.4% (2012-13 est.)
Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peul) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS110,000 (2016 est.)
48,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 est.)
Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%
HIV/AIDS - deaths6,100 (2016 est.)
3,400 (2016 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3%
note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language (2009 est.)
French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 33.1%
male: 45.1%
female: 22.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.1%
male: 27.3%
female: 11% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2011)
total: 5 years
male: 6 years
female: 5 years (2012)
Education expenditures3.6% of GDP (2014)
6.7% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 41.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.97% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 19.3% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.49% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 96.5% of population
rural: 64.1% of population
total: 77% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.5% of population
rural: 35.9% of population
total: 23% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 58.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 41.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 37.5% of population
rural: 16.1% of population
total: 24.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 62.5% of population
rural: 83.9% of population
total: 75.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 37.9% of population
rural: 4.6% of population
total: 10.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 62.1% of population
rural: 95.4% of population
total: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBAMAKO (capital) 2.515 million (2015)
NIAMEY (capital) 1.09 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate587 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
553 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures6.9% of GDP (2014)
5.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.6% (2016)
5.5% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,485,027
percentage: 36% (2010 est.)
total number: 1,557,913
percentage: 43% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth18.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012/13 est.)
18.1 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Demographic profileMali’s total population is expected to double by 2035; its capital Bamako is one of the fastest-growing cities in Africa. A young age structure, a declining mortality rate, and a sustained high total fertility rate of 6 children per woman – the third highest in the world – ensure continued rapid population growth for the foreseeable future. Significant outmigration only marginally tempers this growth. Despite decreases, Mali’s infant, child, and maternal mortality rates remain among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa because of limited access to and adoption of family planning, early childbearing, short birth intervals, the prevalence of female genital cutting, infrequent use of skilled birth attendants, and a lack of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care.
Mali’s high total fertility rate has been virtually unchanged for decades, as a result of the ongoing preference for large families, early childbearing, the lack of female education and empowerment, poverty, and extremely low contraceptive use. Slowing Mali’s population growth by lowering its birth rate will be essential for poverty reduction, improving food security, and developing human capital and the economy.
Mali has a long history of seasonal migration and emigration driven by poverty, conflict, demographic pressure, unemployment, food insecurity, and droughts. Many Malians from rural areas migrate during the dry period to nearby villages and towns to do odd jobs or to adjoining countries to work in agriculture or mining. Pastoralists and nomads move seasonally to southern Mali or nearby coastal states. Others migrate long term to Mali’s urban areas, Cote d’Ivoire, other neighboring countries, and in smaller numbers to France, Mali’s former colonial ruler. Since the early 1990s, Mali’s role has grown as a transit country for regional migration flows and illegal migration to Europe. Human smugglers and traffickers exploit the same regional routes used for moving contraband drugs, arms, and cigarettes.
Between early 2012 and 2013, renewed fighting in northern Mali between government forces and Tuareg secessionists and their Islamist allies, a French-led international military intervention, as well as chronic food shortages, caused the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Malians. Most of those displaced domestically sought shelter in urban areas of southern Mali, except for pastoralist and nomadic groups, who abandoned their traditional routes, gave away or sold their livestock, and dispersed into the deserts of northern Mali or crossed into neighboring countries. Almost all Malians who took refuge abroad (mostly Tuareg and Maure pastoralists) stayed in the region, largely in Mauritania, Niger, and Burkina Faso.
Niger has the highest total fertility rate (TFR) of any country in the world, averaging close to 7 children per woman in 2016. A slight decline in fertility over the last few decades has stalled. This leveling off of the high fertility rate is in large part a product of the continued desire for large families. In Niger, the TFR is lower than the desired fertility rate, which makes it unlikely that contraceptive use will increase. The high TFR sustains rapid population growth and a large youth population – almost 70% of the populace is under the age of 25. Gender inequality, including a lack of educational opportunities for women and early marriage and childbirth, also contributes to high population growth.
Because of large family sizes, children are inheriting smaller and smaller parcels of land. The dependence of most Nigeriens on subsistence farming on increasingly small landholdings, coupled with declining rainfall and the resultant shrinkage of arable land, are all preventing food production from keeping up with population growth.
For more than half a century, Niger's lack of economic development has led to steady net outmigration. In the 1960s, Nigeriens mainly migrated to coastal West African countries to work on a seasonal basis. Some headed to Libya and Algeria in the 1970s to work in the booming oil industry until its decline in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, the principal destinations for Nigerien labor migrants have been West African countries, especially Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, while emigration to Europe and North America has remained modest. During the same period, Niger’s desert trade route town Agadez became a hub for West African and other sub-Saharan migrants crossing the Sahara to North Africa and sometimes onward to Europe.
More than 60,000 Malian refugees have fled to Niger since violence between Malian government troops and armed rebels began in early 2012. Ongoing attacks by the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency, dating to 2013 in northern Nigeria and February 2015 in southeastern Niger, have pushed tens of thousands of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien returnees across the border to Niger and to displace thousands of locals in Niger’s already impoverished Diffa region.
Contraceptive prevalence rate15.6% (2015)
16.9% (2016)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 101.9
youth dependency ratio: 96.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 111.6
youth dependency ratio: 106.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4
potential support ratio: 18.6 (2015 est.)

Government

MaliNiger
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
etymology: name derives from the West African Mali Empire of the 13th to 16th centuries A.D.
"conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger
etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term ""Ni Gir"" meaning ""River Gir""
"
Government typesemi-presidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Niamey
geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu); note - two new regions, Menaka and Taoudenni, were reportedly created in early 2016, but these have not yet been vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communaute urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Independence22 September 1960 (from France)
3 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 22 September (1960)
Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992, suspended briefly in 2012
amendments: roposed by the president of the republic or by members of the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum; constitutional sections on the integrity of the state, its republican and secular form of government, and its multiparty system cannot be amended; amended 1999 (2017)
history: several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; consideration of amendments requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires at least four-fifths majority vote; if disapproved, the proposed amendment is dropped or submitted to a referendum; constitutional articles on the form of government, the multiparty system, the separation of state and religion, disqualification of Assembly members, amendment procedures, and amnesty of participants in the 2010 coup d’Etat cannot be amended; amended 2011 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Constitutional Court
mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA (since 31 December 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 July 2013 with a runoff on 11 August 2013 (election delayed from April 2012 due to a coup in March 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%
chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 with a runoff on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly
election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; 13 seats reserved for citizens living abroad; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 November and 15 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); note - the scheduled July 2012 election was canceled due to a coup d'etat and the Tuareg Rebellion
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPM 66, URD 17, ADEMA 16, FARE 6, CODEM 5, SADI 5, CNID 4, other 24, independent 4
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election
elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 1.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office); magistrate courts; first instance courts; labor dispute courts; special court of state security
highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
Political parties and leadersAfrican Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO]
Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Tiemoko SANGARE]
Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (coalition includes ADEMA and URD)
Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]
Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE]
Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO]
Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR]
Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (coalition of smaller opposition parties)
National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]
Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]
Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA]
Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]
Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]
Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA]
Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR]
Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU]
Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO]
National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU]
Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]
Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU]
Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE]
Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]
Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA]
Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri
Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA]
Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]
Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU]
Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR]
Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE]
note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mohamed CISSE (since 13 April 2017)
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
chief of mission: Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Paul A. FOLMSBEE (since 3 June 2015)
embassy: located off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge west of the Bamako central district
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone: [223] 2070-2300
FAX: [223] 2070-2479
chief of mission: Ambassador Eunice S. REDDICK (since 12 September 2014)
embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
telephone: [227] 20-73-31-69 or [227] 20-72-39-41
FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band; the orange band denotes the drier northern regions of the Sahara; white stands for purity and innocence; green symbolizes hope and the fertile and productive southern and western areas, as well as the Niger River; the orange disc represents the sun and the sacrifices made by the people
note: similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
National anthem"name: ""Le Mali"" (Mali)
lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
note: adopted 1962; also known as ""Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali"" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and ""A ton appel Mali"" (At Your Call, Mali)
"
"name: ""La Nigerienne"" (The Nigerien)
lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET
note: adopted 1961
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Great Mosque of Djenne; national colors: green, yellow, red
zebu; national colors: orange, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mali
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

Economy

MaliNiger
Economy - overviewAmong the 25 poorest countries in the world, landlocked Mali depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid.

Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River; about 65% of Mali’s land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks.

Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will depend on global price trends. Although the political coup in 2012 slowed Mali’s growth, the economy has since bounced back, with GDP growth above 5% in 2014-17, although physical insecurity, high population growth, corruption, weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital continue to constrain economic development. Higher rainfall helped to boost cotton output in 2017, and the country’s 2017 budget increased spending more than 10%, much of which was devoted to infrastructure and agriculture. Corruption and political turmoil are strong downside risks in 2018 and beyond.
Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes approximately 25% of GDP and provides livelihood for 87% of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the second least developed country in the world in 2016 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding.

Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up public investment, particularly that related to infrastructure, as well as due to increased security spending. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity and kidnappings near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali and in the Diffa region of the country; concerns about security have resulted in increased support from regional and international partners on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances.

Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Although Niger has sizable reserves of oil, the prolonged drop in oil prices has reduced profitability. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest more in irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility (ECF) agreement for the years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016. In February 2017, the IMF approved a new 3-year $134 million ECF. A $437 million Millennium Challenge Account compact for Niger, commencing in FY17, will focus on large-scale irrigation infrastructure development and community-based, climate-resilient agriculture, while promoting sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and sales.

Formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness. Although President ISSOUFOU is courting foreign investors, including those from the US, as of April 2017, there were no US firms operating in Niger.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$40.98 billion (2017 est.)
$38.91 billion (2016 est.)
$36.78 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$21.62 billion (2017 est.)
$20.75 billion (2016 est.)
$19.76 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5.3% (2017 est.)
5.8% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
4.2% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,200 (2017 est.)
$2,100 (2016 est.)
$2,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$1,200 (2017 est.)
$1,100 (2016 est.)
$1,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 40.9%
industry: 18.9%
services: 40.2% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 44.3%
industry: 14.9%
services: 40.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line36.1% (2005 est.)
45.4% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 28.5% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.2% (2017 est.)
-1.8% (2016 est.)
1% (2017 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force6.447 million (2017 est.)
6.5 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
agriculture: 87%
industry: 4%
services: 9% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate8.1% (2016 est.)
8.1% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.1 (2001)
50.5 (1994)
34 (2007)
50.5 (1995)
Budgetrevenues: $3.068 billion
expenditures: $3.584 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $1.68 billion
expenditures: $2.235 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesfood processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Industrial production growth rate4.7% (2017 est.)
5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Exports$3.036 billion (2017 est.)
$2.803 billion (2016 est.)
$1.177 billion (2017 est.)
$1.101 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiescotton, gold, livestock
uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 30.4%, India 12.2%, Ukraine 5.1%, China 5.1%, Burkina Faso 4.9%, Senegal 4.3%, France 4%, South Africa 4% (2016)
France 31.3%, Thailand 11.6%, Malaysia 11.1%, Nigeria 9.5%, Mali 5.6%, China 5.3% (2016)
Imports$3.891 billion (2017 est.)
$3.443 billion (2016 est.)
$2.194 billion (2017 est.)
$2.031 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partnersSenegal 12.2%, China 12.2%, France 10.3%, Benin 8.6%, Cote dIvoire 8.4% (2016)
France 28.3%, China 16.1%, US 7.8%, Nigeria 5.8%, Thailand 5.8% (2016)
Debt - external$4.296 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.981 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.09 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.926 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt28% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
45.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
41.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.045 billion (2017 est.)
-$996 million (2016 est.)
-$1.471 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.159 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$15 billion (2016 est.)
$7.892 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate16% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2015)
4.25% (31 December 2014)
Commercial bank prime lending rate9% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.931 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.454 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.267 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$3.023 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.687 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.767 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.535 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$4.439 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.858 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.322 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.018 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues20.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 11.1%
male: NA
female: NA (2014 est.)
total: 2.3%
male: 4.4%
female: 0.8% (2007 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71.9%
government consumption: 17%
investment in fixed capital: 18.8%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 20.4%
imports of goods and services: -28.3% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 66.8%
government consumption: 14.4%
investment in fixed capital: 42.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 16.4%
imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving13% of GDP (2017 est.)
10.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
23.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

MaliNiger
Electricity - production2.175 billion kWh (2015 est.)
499.4 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption2.023 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.072 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
782 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
13,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
150 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity590,000 kW (2015 est.)
179,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels67.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
96.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants31.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
4.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
16,570 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption7,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
13,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
6,187 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports7,486 bbl/day (2014 est.)
2,465 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy800,000 Mt (2013 est.)
900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 11,400,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 53%
electrification - rural areas: 9% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,200,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 62%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)

Telecommunications

MaliNiger
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 200,812
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 113,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 20,182,160
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (July 2016 est.)
total: 9.791 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic system improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 115 per 100 persons
international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains only about 50 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.ml
.ne
Internet userstotal: 1,940,978
percent of population: 11.1% (July 2016 est.)
total: 805,702
percent of population: 4.3% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast medianational public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

MaliNiger
Roadwaystotal: 22,474 km
paved: 5,522 km
unpaved: 16,952 km (2009)
total: 18,949 km
paved: 3,912 km
unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
Waterways1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
Airports25 (2013)
30 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2 (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,242
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixTZ, TT (2016)
5U (2016)

Military

MaliNiger
Military branchesMalian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2013)
Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.63% of GDP (2016)
2.43% of GDP (2015)
1.56% of GDP (2014)
1.2% of GDP (2013)
1.2% of GDP (2012)
4% of GDP (2016)
5.46% of GDP (2015)
3.45% of GDP (2014)
1.06% of GDP (2012)
1.31% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MaliNiger
Disputes - internationaldemarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 15,298 (Mauritania) (2016)
IDPs: 40,743 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 108,470 (Nigeria); 57,286 (Mali) (2017)
IDPs: 129,015 (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook