Mali vs. Guinea


Population20,137,527 (July 2021 est.)12,877,894 (July 2021 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 47.69% (male 4,689,121/female 4,636,685)

15-24 years: 19% (male 1,768,772/female 1,945,582)

25-54 years: 26.61% (male 2,395,566/female 2,806,830)

55-64 years: 3.68% (male 367,710/female 352,170)

65 years and over: 3.02% (male 293,560/female 297,401) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 41.2% (male 2,601,221/female 2,559,918)

15-24 years: 19.32% (male 1,215,654/female 1,204,366)

25-54 years: 30.85% (male 1,933,141/female 1,930,977)

55-64 years: 4.73% (male 287,448/female 305,420)

65 years and over: 3.91% (male 218,803/female 270,492) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 16 years

male: 15.3 years

female: 16.7 years (2020 est.)
total: 19.1 years

male: 18.9 years

female: 19.4 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate2.97% (2021 est.)2.76% (2021 est.)
Birth rate41.6 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)35.86 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate8.77 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)8.28 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-3.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 62.31 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 67.79 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 56.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 50.99 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 55.83 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 46 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 62.01 years

male: 59.81 years

female: 64.28 years (2021 est.)
total population: 63.53 years

male: 61.7 years

female: 65.42 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate5.63 children born/woman (2021 est.)4.89 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.9% (2020 est.)1.4% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Malian(s)

adjective: Malian
noun: Guinean(s)

adjective: Guinean
Ethnic groupsBambara 33.3%, Fulani (Peuhl) 13.3%, Sarakole/Soninke/Marka 9.8%, Senufo/Manianka 9.6%, Malinke 8.8%, Dogon 8.7%, Sonrai 5.9%, Bobo 2.1%, Tuareg/Bella 1.7%, other Malian 6%, from members of Economic Community of West Africa 0.4%, other 0.3% (2018 est.)Fulani (Peuhl) 33.4%, Malinke 29.4%, Susu 21.2%, Guerze 7.8%, Kissi 6.2%, Toma 1.6%, other/foreign 0.4% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS110,000 (2020 est.)110,000 (2020 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 93.9%, Christian 2.8%, animist .7%, none 2.5% (2018 est.)Muslim 89.1%, Christian 6.8%, animist 1.6%, other 0.1%, none 2.4% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,600 (2020 est.)3,300 (2020 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peuhl/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, other 6.3%, unspecified 0.7% (2009 est.)

note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language
French (official), Pular, Maninka, Susu, other native languages

note: about 40 languages are spoken; each ethnic group has its own language
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 35.5%

male: 46.2%

female: 25.7% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 30.4%

male: 38.1%

female: 22.8% (2015)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever (2016)

note: on 14 February 2021, the Guinea government declared an outbreak of Ebola in N'Zerekore; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has issued a Travel Advisory recommending travelers avoid non-essential travel to Guinea; travelers to this area could be infected with Ebola if they come into contact with an infected person's blood or other body fluids; travelers should seek medical care immediately if they develop fever, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, weakness, vomiting, stomach pain, or unexplained bleeding or bruising during or after travel
Food insecuritysevere localized food insecurity:

due to civil insecurity - according to the latest analysis, about 1.37 million people are estimated to be in a food "Crisis"  in the June-August 2021 period as a result of the escalation of the conflict that continues to cause population displacements, combined with the impacts of the pandemic and weather shocks


severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls of cereal production - despite overall favorable food security conditions, the most vulnerable households still need external food assistance; the aggregate number of severely food insecure people was estimated at 267,000 during the lean season between June and August 2020;  it is very likely that the number of food insecure population increased with the impact of COVID-19 (2021)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years

male: 8 years

female: 7 years (2017)
total: 9 years

male: 10 years

female: 8 years (2014)
Education expenditures3.8% of GDP (2017)2.3% of GDP (2018)
Urbanizationurban population: 44.7% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.57% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 37.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 97.1% of population

rural: 72.8% of population

total: 82.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.9% of population

rural: 27.2% of population

total: 17.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 97.9% of population

rural: 69.8% of population

total: 79.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.1% of population

rural: 27.6% of population

total: 20.1% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 82.5% of population

rural: 34.1% of population

total: 54.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 17.5% of population

rural: 65.9% of population

total: 45.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 85.6% of population

rural: 34.8% of population

total: 53% of population

unimproved: urban: 14.4% of population

rural: 65.2% of population

total: 47% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population2.713 million BAMAKO (capital) (2021)1.991 million CONAKRY (capital) (2021)
Maternal mortality rate562 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)576 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight18.1% (2019)16.3% (2018)
Health expenditures3.9% (2018)3.9% (2018)
Physicians density0.13 physicians/1,000 population (2018)0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.6% (2016)7.7% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.2 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 20-49
19.9 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 20-49
Demographic profile

Mali's total population is expected to double by 2035; its capital Bamako is one of the fastest-growing cities in Africa. A young age structure, a declining mortality rate, and a sustained high total fertility rate of 6 children per woman - the third highest in the world - ensure continued rapid population growth for the foreseeable future. Significant outmigration only marginally tempers this growth. Despite decreases, Mali's infant, child, and maternal mortality rates remain among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa because of limited access to and adoption of family planning, early childbearing, short birth intervals, the prevalence of female genital cutting, infrequent use of skilled birth attendants, and a lack of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care.

Mali's high total fertility rate has been virtually unchanged for decades, as a result of the ongoing preference for large families, early childbearing, the lack of female education and empowerment, poverty, and extremely low contraceptive use. Slowing Mali's population growth by lowering its birth rate will be essential for poverty reduction, improving food security, and developing human capital and the economy.

Mali has a long history of seasonal migration and emigration driven by poverty, conflict, demographic pressure, unemployment, food insecurity, and droughts. Many Malians from rural areas migrate during the dry period to nearby villages and towns to do odd jobs or to adjoining countries to work in agriculture or mining. Pastoralists and nomads move seasonally to southern Mali or nearby coastal states. Others migrate long term to Mali's urban areas, Cote d'Ivoire, other neighboring countries, and in smaller numbers to France, Mali's former colonial ruler. Since the early 1990s, Mali's role has grown as a transit country for regional migration flows and illegal migration to Europe. Human smugglers and traffickers exploit the same regional routes used for moving contraband drugs, arms, and cigarettes.

Between early 2012 and 2013, renewed fighting in northern Mali between government forces and Tuareg secessionists and their Islamist allies, a French-led international military intervention, as well as chronic food shortages, caused the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Malians. Most of those displaced domestically sought shelter in urban areas of southern Mali, except for pastoralist and nomadic groups, who abandoned their traditional routes, gave away or sold their livestock, and dispersed into the deserts of northern Mali or crossed into neighboring countries. Almost all Malians who took refuge abroad (mostly Tuareg and Maure pastoralists) stayed in the region, largely in Mauritania, Niger, and Burkina Faso.

Guinea's strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea's total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country's large youth population is unemployed.

Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea's borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d'Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile "Parrot's Beak" region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence.

Contraceptive prevalence rate17.2% (2018)10.9% (2018)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 98

youth dependency ratio: 93.1

elderly dependency ratio: 4.9

potential support ratio: 20.4 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 85.2

youth dependency ratio: 79.7

elderly dependency ratio: 5.5

potential support ratio: 18.3 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook