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Malaysia vs. Vietnam

Introduction

MalaysiaVietnam
BackgroundDuring the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula except Singapore formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore, as well as Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo, joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's independence were marred by a communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's withdrawal in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to the development of manufacturing, services, and tourism. Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (in office since April 2009) has continued these pro-business policies.
"The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the communist North and anti-communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However, since the enactment of Vietnam's ""doi moi"" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The communist leaders maintain tight control on political expression but have demonstrated some modest steps toward better protection of human rights. The country continues to experience small-scale protests, the vast majority connected to either land-use issues, calls for increased political space, or the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. The small-scale protests in the urban areas are often organized by human rights activists, but many occur in rural areas and involve various ethnic minorities such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands, Hmong in the Northwest Highlands, and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region.
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Geography

MalaysiaVietnam
LocationSoutheastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, as well as China, Laos, and Cambodia
Geographic coordinates2 30 N, 112 30 E
16 10 N, 107 50 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Southeast Asia
Areatotal: 329,847 sq km
land: 328,657 sq km
water: 1,190 sq km
total: 331,210 sq km
land: 310,070 sq km
water: 21,140 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than New Mexico
about three times the size of Tennessee; slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 2,742 km
border countries (3): Brunei 266 km, Indonesia 1,881 km, Thailand 595 km
total: 4,616 km
border countries (3): Cambodia 1,158 km, China 1,297 km, Laos 2,161 km
Coastline4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
3,444 km (excludes islands)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatetropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
Terraincoastal plains rising to hills and mountains
low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 419 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,095 m
mean elevation: 398 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m
Natural resourcestin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 23.2%
arable land 2.9%; permanent crops 19.4%; permanent pasture 0.9%
forest: 62%
other: 14.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 34.8%
arable land 20.6%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 2.1%
forest: 45%
other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land3,800 sq km (2012)
46,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding; landslides; forest fires
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
Environment - current issuesair pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
Population distributiona highly uneven distribution with over 80% of the population residing on the Malay Peninsula
though it has one of the highest population densities in the world, the population is not evenly dispersed; clustering is heaviest along the South China Sea and Gulf of Tonkin, with the Mekong Delta (in the south) and the Red River Valley (in the north) having the largest concentrations of people

Demographics

MalaysiaVietnam
Population31,381,992 (July 2017 est.)
96,160,163 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.83% (male 4,493,084/female 4,238,991)
15-24 years: 16.81% (male 2,677,834/female 2,598,958)
25-54 years: 41% (male 6,507,499/female 6,358,762)
55-64 years: 8.27% (male 1,316,331/female 1,277,558)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 907,850/female 1,005,125) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 23.55% (male 11,909,326/female 10,735,324)
15-24 years: 16.23% (male 8,098,019/female 7,509,021)
25-54 years: 45.56% (male 22,087,095/female 21,719,615)
55-64 years: 8.55% (male 3,798,928/female 4,419,837)
65 years and over: 6.12% (male 2,281,923/female 3,601,075) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.5 years
male: 28.2 years
female: 28.8 years (2017 est.)
total: 30.5 years
male: 29.4 years
female: 31.7 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.37% (2017 est.)
0.93% (2017 est.)
Birth rate19.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
15.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.2 years
male: 72.4 years
female: 78.2 years (2017 est.)
total population: 73.7 years
male: 71.2 years
female: 76.4 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.5 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.81 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.4% (2016 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian
noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese
Ethnic groupsBumiputera 61.7% (Malays and indigenous peoples, including Orang Asli, Dayak, Anak Negeri), Chinese 20.8%, Indian 6.2%, other 0.9%, non-citizens 10.4% (2017 est.)
Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, Hoa 1%, other 4.3%
note: 54 ethnic groups are recognized by the Vietnamese Government (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS97,000 (2016 est.)
250,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official) 61.3%, Buddhist 19.8%, Christian 9.2%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 1.3%, other 0.4%, none 0.8%, unspecified 1% (2010 est.)
Buddhist 7.9%, Catholic 6.6%, Hoa Hao 1.7%, Cao Dai 0.9%, Protestant 0.9%, Muslim 0.1%, none 81.8% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths7,000 (2016 est.)
8,000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesBahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
note: Malaysia has 134 living languages - 112 indigenous languages and 22 non-indigenous languages; in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.6%
male: 96.2%
female: 93.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 96.3%
female: 92.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis (2016)
Education expenditures5% of GDP (2015)
5.7% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 76% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.19% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 34.9% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 98.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 1.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 97.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 96.1% of population
rural: 95.9% of population
total: 96% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.9% of population
rural: 4.1% of population
total: 4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 94.4% of population
rural: 69.7% of population
total: 78% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.6% of population
rural: 30.3% of population
total: 22% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKUALA LUMPUR (capital) 6.837 million; Johor Bahru 912,000 (2015)
Ho Chi Minh City 7.298 million; HANOI (capital) 3.629 million; Can Tho 1.175 million; Haiphong 1.075 million; Da Nang 952,000; Bien Hoa 834,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate40 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
54 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight12.4% (2015)
14.1% (2015)
Health expenditures4.2% of GDP (2014)
7.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.28 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
1.18 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density1.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate15.6% (2016)
2.1% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate52.2% (2014)
75.7% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 44.6
youth dependency ratio: 36.1
elderly dependency ratio: 8.5
potential support ratio: 11.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 42.5
youth dependency ratio: 32.9
elderly dependency ratio: 9.6
potential support ratio: 10.4 (2015 est.)

Government

MalaysiaVietnam
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
local long form: none
local short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaya
etymology: the name means ""Land of the Malays""
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"conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form: Viet Nam
abbreviation: SRV
etymology: ""Viet nam"" translates as ""Viet south,"" where ""Viet"" is an ethnic self identification dating to a second century B.C. kingdom and ""nam"" refers to its location in relation to other Viet kingdoms
"
Government typefederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
note: all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
communist state
Capitalname: Kuala Lumpur; note - nearby Putrajaya is referred to as a federal government administrative center but not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Hanoi (Ha Noi)
geographic coordinates: 21 02 N, 105 51 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural)
provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai
municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
Independence31 August 1957 (from the UK)
2 September 1945 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day (or Merdeka Day), 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day, 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
Independence Day (National Day), 2 September (1945)
Constitutionprevious 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957; amended many times, last in 2010 (2016)
several previous; latest adopted 15 April 1992, effective 1 January 1995; amended 2001, 2013 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Court at request of supreme head of the federation
civil law system; note - the civil code of 2005 reflects a European-style civil law
Suffrage21 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King MUHAMMAD V (formerly known as Tuanku Muhammad Faris Petra) (selected on 14 October 2016; installed on 13 December 2016); note - the position of the king is primarily ceremonial, but he is the final arbiter on the appointment of the prime minister
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (since 3 April 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad ZAHID Hamidi (since 29 July 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament with the consent of the king
elections/appointments: king elected by and from the hereditary rulers of 9 states for a 5-year term; election is on a rotational basis among rulers of the 9 states; election last held on 14 October 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister designated from among members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister
election results: Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (UMNO) sworn in as prime minister for second term on 3 April 2009
chief of state: President Tran Dai QUANG (since 2 April 2016); Vice President Dang Thi Ngoc THINH (since 7 April 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan PHUC (since 7 April 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Truong Hoa BINH (since 9 April 2016), Vuong Dinh HUE (since 9 April 2016), Vu Duc DAM (since 13 November 2013), Trinh Dinh DUNG (since 9 April 2016), Pham Binh MINH (since 13 November 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet proposed by prime minister, appointed by the president, and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National Assembly from among its members for a single 5-year term; election last held on 2 April 2016 (next to be held in spring 2021); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly, confirmed by National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister, confirmed by National Assembly
election results: Tran Dai QUANG (CPV) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 98.9%; Nguyen Xuan PHUC elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 91.0%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king and 26 indirectly elected by 13 state legislatures; members serve 3-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 May 2013 (next to be held by 24 August 2018)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - BN 47.4%, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 50.9%, other 1.7%; seats by party/coalition - BN 133, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 89
note: seats by party/coalition as of October 2016 - BN 132, PH 72 (DAP 37, PKR 28, AMANAH 6, PPBM 1), PAS 14, WARISAN 2, PSM 1, independent 1
description: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi (500 seats; members directly elected by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - CPV 95.8%, non-party members 4.2%; seats by party - CPV 473, non-party CPV-approved 19, self-nominated 2; note - 496 candidates elected, 2 CPV candidates-elect were disqualified
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Court (consists of the chief justice, president of the Court of Appeal, chief justice of the High Court of Malaya, chief judge of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak and 7 judges); note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of the chief justice and 13 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president for a 5-year, renewable term; other judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and labor courts; Central Military Court; People's Special Courts; note - the National Assembly can establish special tribunals
Political parties and leadersNational Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN: Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or GERAKAN [MAH Siew Keong]
Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [TEO Chee Kang]
Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [LIOW Tiong Lai]
Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [S. SUBRAMANIAM]
Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]
Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [Dr. SIM Kui Hian]
United Malays National Organization or UMNO [NAJIB bin Abdul Razak]
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Wilfred Madius TANGAU]
Coalition of Hope (Pakatan Harapan) or PH (formerly the People's Alliance):: Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [TAN Kok Wai, Acting National Chairman]
National Trust Party (Parti Amanah Negara) or AMANAH [Mohamad SABU]
People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail]
Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia or PPBM [MAHATHIR Mohamad]
Other: Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]
Sabah Heritage Party or WARISAN [Shafie APDAL]
Socialist Party of Malaysia (Parti Sosialis Malaysia) or PSM [Mohd Nasir HASHIM]
Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nguyen Phu TRONG]

note: other parties proscribed
Political pressure groups and leadersBar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
ISMA (Muslim NGO)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)
other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
8406 Bloc
Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV
People's Democratic Party Vietnam or PDP-VN
Alliance for Democracy
note: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador ZULHASNAN Rafique (since 9 January 2017)
chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700
FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Pham Quang VINH (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737
FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917
consulate(s) general: Houston, San Francisco
consulate: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Kamala Shirin LAKHDIR (since 21 February 2017)
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000
FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel KRITENBRINK (since 6 November 2017)
embassy: 7 Lang Ha Street, Hanoi
mailing address: 7 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi; 4550 Hanoi Place, Washington, DC 20521-4550
telephone: [84] (4) 3850-5000
FAX: [84] (4) 3850-5010
consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh City
Flag description14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the flag is often referred to as Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory); the 14 stripes stand for the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal government; the 14 points on the star represent the unity between these entities; the crescent is a traditional symbol of Islam; blue symbolizes the unity of the Malay people and yellow is the royal color of Malay rulers
note: the design is based on the flag of the US
red field with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center; red symbolizes revolution and blood, the five-pointed star represents the five elements of the populace - peasants, workers, intellectuals, traders, and soldiers - that unite to build socialism
National anthem"name: ""Negaraku"" (My Country)
lyrics/music: collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER
note: adopted 1957; full version only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled ""La Rosalie,"" was originally the anthem of Perak, one of Malaysia's 13 states
"
"name: ""Tien quan ca"" (The Song of the Marching Troops)
lyrics/music: Nguyen Van CAO
note: adopted as the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945; it became the national anthem of the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976; although it consists of two verses, only the first is used as the official anthem
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)tiger, hibiscus; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow
yellow, five-pointed star on red field; lotus blossom; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malaysia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 out 12 years preceding application
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Vietnam
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

MalaysiaVietnam
Economy - overviewMalaysia, an upper middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into a multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move further up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in high technology, knowledge-based industries and services. NAJIB's Economic Transformation Program is a series of projects and policy measures intended to accelerate the country's economic growth. The government has also taken steps to liberalize some services sub-sectors. Malaysia is vulnerable to a fall in world commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity.

The NAJIB administration is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy's dependence on exports. Domestic demand continues to anchor economic growth, supported mainly by private consumption, which accounts for 53% of GDP. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, and palm oil - remain a significant driver of the economy. In 2015, gross exports of goods and services were equivalent to 73% of GDP. The oil and gas sector supplied about 22% of government revenue in 2015, down significantly from prior years amid a decline in commodity prices and diversification of government revenues. Malaysia has embarked on a fiscal reform program aimed at achieving a balanced budget by 2020, including rationalization of subsidies and the 2015 introduction of a 6% value added tax. Sustained low commodity prices throughout the period not only strained government finances, but also shrunk Malaysia’s current account surplus and weighed heavily on the Malaysian ringgit, which was among the region’s worst performing currencies during 2013-17. The ringgit hit new lows following the US presidential election amid a broader selloff of emerging market assets.

Bank Negara Malaysia (the central bank) maintains adequate foreign exchange reserves; a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia's exposure to riskier financial instruments, although it remains vulnerable to volatile global capital flows. In order to increase Malaysia’s competitiveness, Prime Minister NAJIB raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but retreated in 2013 after he encountered significant opposition from Malay nationalists and other vested interests. In September 2013 NAJIB launched the new Bumiputra Economic Empowerment Program, policies that favor and advance the economic condition of ethnic Malays.

Malaysia signed the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement in February 2016, although the future of the TPP remains unclear following the US withdrawal from the agreement. Along with nine other ASEAN members, Malaysia established the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015, which aims to advance regional economic integration.
Vietnam is a densely populated developing country that has been transitioning from the rigidities of a centrally planned, highly agrarian economy since 1986 to a more industrial and market based economy, raising incomes substantially. In 2016 and 2017, Vietnam missed its yearly growth target of 6.7% due to environmental issues – drought and salinization - impacting the agricultural sector, and low oil prices affecting the extractive sector. However, annual GDP growth reached 6.3%, reflecting strengthening domestic demand and strong manufacturing exports.

Vietnam has a young population, stable political system, commitment to sustainable growth, relatively low inflation, stable currency, strong FDI inflows, and strong manufacturing sector. In addition, the country is committed to continuing its global economic integration. Vietnam joined the WTO in January 2007 and concluded several free trade agreements in 2015-16, including the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement, the Korean Free Trade Agreement, and the Eurasian Economic Union Free Trade Agreement.

However, to continue its trajectory of strong economic growth, the government acknowledges the need to spark a ?second wave’ of reforms, including reforming state-owned-enterprises, reducing red tape, increasing business sector transparency, reducing the level of non-performing loans in the banking sector, and increasing financial sector transparency. Vietnam has demonstrated a commitment to sustainable growth over the last several years, but a recent slowdown in economic growth could test the government’s resolve.

In 2016, Vietnam cancelled its civilian nuclear energy development program, citing public concerns about safety and the high cost of the program, and is facing growing pressure on energy infrastructure. Overall, the country’s infrastructure fails to meet the needs of an expanding middle class. As the 2017 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) chair, Vietnam lead the dialogue on key APEC priorities such as inclusive growth, innovation, food security and climate change.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$926.1 billion (2017 est.)
$878.4 billion (2016 est.)
$842.8 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$643.9 billion (2017 est.)
$605.7 billion (2016 est.)
$570.3 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5.4% (2017 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
5% (2015 est.)
6.3% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
6.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$28,900 (2017 est.)
$27,800 (2016 est.)
$27,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$6,900 (2017 est.)
$6,500 (2016 est.)
$6,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.4%
industry: 36.9%
services: 54.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 15.9%
industry: 32.7%
services: 41.3% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line3.8% (2009 est.)
11.3% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 30.2% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.8% (2017 est.)
2.1% (2016 est.)
note: approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled
4.4% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force14.94 million (2017 est.)
56.46 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 11%
industry: 36%
services: 53% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 48%
industry: 21%
services: 31% (2012)
Unemployment rate3.4% (2017 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
2.3% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46.2 (2009)
49.2 (1997)
37.6 (2008)
36.1 (1998)
Budgetrevenues: $51.23 billion
expenditures: $60.26 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $49.41 billion
expenditures: $61.14 billion (2017 est.)
IndustriesPeninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semiconductors, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging
food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones
Industrial production growth rate4.6% (2017 est.)
6.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsPeninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber; Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper
rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; pork; poultry; seafood
Exports$188.2 billion (2017 est.)
$165.3 billion (2016 est.)
$194.6 billion (2017 est.)
$176.6 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiessemiconductors and electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals, solar panels
clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery
Exports - partnersSingapore 14.7%, China 12.6%, US 10.3%, Japan 8.1%, Thailand 5.7%, Hong Kong 4.8%, India 4.1% (2016)
US 20.2%, China 14.2%, Japan 8.2%, South Korea 6.2% (2016)
Imports$163.4 billion (2017 est.)
$140.9 billion (2016 est.)
$190.1 billion (2017 est.)
$162.6 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditieselectronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles
Imports - partnersChina 19.4%, Singapore 9.8%, Japan 7.7%, US 7.6%, Thailand 5.8%, South Korea 5%, Indonesia 4% (2016)
China 25.1%, South Korea 17.5%, Japan 7.9%, US 6%, Thailand 4.7% (2016)
Debt - external$213 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$195.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$91.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$84.34 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesringgits (MYR) per US dollar -
4.343 (2017 est.)
4.15 (2016 est.)
4.15 (2015 est.)
3.91 (2014 est.)
3.27 (2013 est.)
dong (VND) per US dollar -
22,784 (2017 est.)
22,355 (2016 est.)
22,355 (2015 est.)
21,909 (2014 est.)
21,189 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt52.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
52.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: this figure is based on the amount of federal government debt, RM501.6 billion ($167.2 billion) in 2012; this includes Malaysian Treasury bills and other government securities, as well as loans raised externally and bonds and notes issued overseas; this figure excludes debt issued by non-financial public enterprises and guaranteed by the federal government, which was an additional $47.7 billion in 2012
62.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
61.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: official data; data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$97.44 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$94.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$38.75 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$36.91 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$7.486 billion (2017 est.)
$6.996 billion (2016 est.)
$2.794 billion (2017 est.)
$8.235 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$309.9 billion (2016 est.)
$216 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$133.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$121.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$128.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$115.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$137.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$126.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$5.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$383 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$459 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$500.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$51.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$46.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$40.06 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate3% (31 December 2011)
2.83% (31 December 2010)
9% (31 December 2012)
15% (31 December 2011)
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.49% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.8% (31 December 2017 est.)
6.96% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$447.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$398.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$320.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$277.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$95.12 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$84.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$84.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$73.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$406.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$365.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$341.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$299.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues16.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
22.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
-5.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.7%
male: 9.9%
female: 11.8% (2015 est.)
total: 7%
male: 6.8%
female: 7.3% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.4%
government consumption: 12.5%
investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 75.2%
imports of goods and services: -69.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 68.5%
government consumption: 6.6%
investment in fixed capital: 24.8%
investment in inventories: 2.9%
exports of goods and services: 98.6%
imports of goods and services: -101.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving28% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
28% of GDP (2017 est.)
30.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

MalaysiaVietnam
Electricity - production141.9 billion kWh (2015 est.)
146.9 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption133 billion kWh (2015 est.)
134.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports3 million kWh (2015 est.)
811 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports13 million kWh (2015 est.)
2.393 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production666,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
301,800 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports194,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports310,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
183,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves3.6 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.183 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
699.4 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production63.43 billion cu m (2015 est.)
9.08 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption40.67 billion cu m (2015 est.)
15.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports34.99 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports3.27 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity33.34 million kW (2015 est.)
40.49 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels82.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
58% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants14% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
41% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production512,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
156,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption760,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
422,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports231,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
28,860 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports409,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
256,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy208 million Mt (2013 est.)
142 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 99.8%
electrification - rural areas: 98.7% (2013)
population without electricity: 2,600,000
electrification - total population: 99%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 98% (2013)

Telecommunications

MalaysiaVietnam
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4,510,200
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 5,598,017
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 43,912,600
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 142 (July 2016 est.)
total: 122 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern system featuring good intercity service on Peninsular Malaysia provided mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent
domestic: domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 155 per 100 persons
international: country code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2016)
general assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system
domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly
international: country code - 84; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3, the C2C, and Thailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong submarine cable systems; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable system, completed in 2009, provided new access links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2016)
Internet country code.my
.vn
Internet userstotal: 24,384,952
percent of population: 78.8% (July 2016 est.)
total: 49.741 million
percent of population: 52.7% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 TV networks with relays throughout the country, and the leading private commercial media group operates 4 TV stations with numerous relays throughout the country; satellite TV subscription service is available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates multiple national networks, as well as regional and local stations; many private commercial radio broadcasters and some subscription satellite radio services are available; about 55 radio stations overall (2012)
government controls all broadcast media exercising oversight through the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC); government-controlled national TV provider, Vietnam Television (VTV), operates a network of 9 channels with several regional broadcasting centers; programming is relayed nationwide via a network of provincial and municipal TV stations; law limits access to satellite TV but many households are able to access foreign programming via home satellite equipment; government-controlled Voice of Vietnam, the national radio broadcaster, broadcasts on 6 channels and is repeated on AM, FM, and shortwave stations throughout Vietnam (2008)

Transportation

MalaysiaVietnam
Railwaystotal: 1,851 km
standard gauge: 59 km 1.435-m gauge (59 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,792 km 1.000-m gauge (339 km electrified) (2014)
total: 2,600 km
standard gauge: 178 km 1.435-m gauge; 253 km mixed gauge
narrow gauge: 2,169 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 144,403 km (excludes local roads)
paved: 116,169 km (includes 1,821 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,234 km (2010)
total: 195,468 km
paved: 148,338 km
unpaved: 47,130 km (2013)
Waterways7,200 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km) (2011)
47,130 km (30,831 km weight under 50 tons) (2011)
Pipelinescondensate 354 km; gas 6,439 km; liquid petroleum gas 155 km; oil 1,937 km; oil/gas/water 43 km; refined products 114 km; water 26 km (2013)
condensate 72 km; condensate/gas 398 km; gas 955 km; oil 128 km; oil/gas/water 33 km; refined products 206 km; water 13 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bintulu, Johor Bahru, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang (Port Klang), Tanjung Pelepas
container port(s) (TEUs): George Town (Penang) (1,317,000), Port Kelang (Port Klang) (11,887,000), Tanjung Pelepas (8,797,000) (2015)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bintulu (Sarawak)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Sungei Udang
major seaport(s): Cam Pha Port, Da Nang, Haiphong, Phu My, Quy Nhon
river port(s): Ho Chi Minh (Mekong)
container port(s) (TEUs): Saigon (6,556,000), Saigon New Port (5,026,000) (2015)
Merchant marinetotal: 1,690
by type: bulk carrier 12, container ship 26, general cargo 188, oil tanker 129, other 1,335 (2017)
total: 1,818
by type: bulk carrier 81, container ship 34, general cargo 1,259, oil tanker 109, other 335 (2017)
Airports114 (2013)
45 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 39
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 8 (2017)
total: 38
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 69 (2013)
total: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports4 (2013)
1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 12
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 263
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 50,347,149
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,005,979,379 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 140
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 29,944,771
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 384,470,240 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix9M (2016)
VN (2016)

Military

MalaysiaVietnam
Military branchesMalaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM) (2013)
People's Armed Forces: People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, includes Vietnam People's Navy (with Naval Infantry), Vietnam People's Air and Air Defense Force, Border Defense Command, Coast Guard) (2013)
Military service age and obligation17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent and proof of age); mandatory retirement age 60; women serve in the Malaysian Armed Forces; no conscription (2013)
18-25 years of age for male compulsory and voluntary military service; females may volunteer for active duty military service; conscription typically takes place twice annually and service obligation is 18 months (Army, Air Defense), 2 years (Navy and Air Force); 18-45 years of age (male) or 18-40 years of age (female) for Militia Force or Self Defense Force service; males may enroll in military schools at age 17 (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.41% of GDP (2016)
1.53% of GDP (2015)
1.46% of GDP (2014)
1.52% of GDP (2013)
1.43% of GDP (2012)
2.44% of GDP (2016)
2.36% of GDP (2015)
2.29% of GDP (2014)
2.18% of GDP (2013)
2.16% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

MalaysiaVietnam
Disputes - international"while the 2002 ""Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea"" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding ""code of conduct"" sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
"
"southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 ""Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea"" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding ""code of conduct"" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
"
Illicit drugsdrug trafficking prosecuted vigorously, including enforcement of the death penalty; heroin still primary drug of abuse, but synthetic drug demand remains strong; continued ecstasy and methamphetamine producer for domestic users and, to a lesser extent, the regional drug market
minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; government continues to face domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems despite longstanding crackdowns; enforces the death penalty for drug trafficking
Refugees and internally displaced persons"refugees (country of origin): 87,036 (Burma) (2016)
stateless persons: 10,931 (2016); note - Malaysia's stateless population consists of Rohingya refugees from Burma, ethnic Indians, and the children of Filipino and Indonesian illegal migrants; Burma stripped the Rohingya of their nationality in 1982; Filipino and Indonesian children who have not been registered for birth certificates by their parents or who received birth certificates stamped ""foreigner"" are not eligible to attend government schools; these children are vulnerable to statelessness should they not be able to apply to their parents' country of origin for passports
"
stateless persons: 11,000 (2016); note - Vietnam's stateless ethnic Chinese Cambodian population dates to the 1970s when thousands of Cambodians fled to Vietnam to escape the Khmer Rouge and were no longer recognized as Cambodian citizens; Vietnamese women who gave up their citizenship to marry foreign men have found themselves stateless after divorcing and returning home to Vietnam; the government addressed this problem in 2009, and Vietnamese women are beginning to reclaim their citizenship

Source: CIA Factbook