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Malaysia vs. Indonesia

Geography

MalaysiaIndonesia
Location
Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates
2 30 N, 112 30 E
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Area
total: 329,847 sq km
land: 328,657 sq km
water: 1,190 sq km
total: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly larger than New Mexico
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries
total: 2,742 km
border countries (3): Brunei 266 km, Indonesia 1881 km, Thailand 595 km
total: 2,958 km
border countries (3): Malaysia 1881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km, Timor-Leste 253 km
Coastline
4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
54,716 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
Climate
tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain
coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 419 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,095 m
mean elevation: 367 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
Natural resources
tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use
agricultural land: 23.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 2.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 19.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.9% (2011 est.)
forest: 62% (2011 est.)
other: 14.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 31.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 13% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 12.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 6.1% (2011 est.)
forest: 51.7% (2011 est.)
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
3,800 sq km (2012)
67,220 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
flooding; landslides; forest fires

occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Environment - current issues
air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires; endangered species; coastal reclamation damaging mangroves and turtle nesting sites
large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note
strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea

note 1: according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

note 2: Indonesia is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon

Population distribution
a highly uneven distribution with over 80% of the population residing on the Malay Peninsula
major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated

Source: CIA Factbook