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Libya vs. Niger

Introduction

LibyaNiger
BackgroundThe Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when they were defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations.
Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the QADHAFI regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government known as the National Transitional Council (NTC). In 2012, the NTC handed power to an elected parliament, the General National Congress (GNC). Voters chose a new parliament to replace the GNC in June 2014 - the House of Representatives (HoR), which relocated to the eastern city of Tobruk after fighting broke out in Tripoli.
In October 2015, the UN brokered an agreement among a broad array of Libyan political parties and social groups - known as the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA). Members of the Libyan Political Dialogue, including representatives of the HoR and ex-GNC, signed the LPA in December 2015. The LPA called for the formation of an interim Government of National Accord or GNA, with a nine-member Presidency Council, the HoR, and an advisory High Council of State that most ex-GNC members joined. The LPA’s roadmap for a two-year transition to a new constitution and elected government was subsequently endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2259, which also called upon member states to cease official contact with parallel institutions. In January 2016, the HoR voted to approve the LPA, including the Presidency Council, while voting against a controversial provision on security leadership positions. In March 2016, the GNA Presidency Council seated itself in Tripoli. In 2016, the GNA twice announced a slate of ministers who operate de facto, but the HoR did not endorse the ministerial list. HoR and ex-GNC-affiliated hardliners continued to oppose the GNA and hamper the LPA’s implementation. In September 2017, UN Special Representative Ghassan SALAME announced a new roadmap for political reconciliation. SALAME’s plan called for amendments to the LPA, a national conference of Libyan leaders, and a constitutional referendum and general elections within a year
Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.

Geography

LibyaNiger
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria
Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Geographic coordinates25 00 N, 17 00 E
16 00 N, 8 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km
Area - comparativeabout 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly larger than Alaska
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 4,339 km
border countries (6): Algeria 989 km, Chad 1,050 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 342 km, Sudan 382 km, Tunisia 461 km
total: 5,834 km
border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1,196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1,608 km
Coastline1,770 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
none (landlocked)
ClimateMediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrainmostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 423 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
mean elevation: 474 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes 2,022 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, gypsum
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Land useagricultural land: 8.8%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 7.6%
forest: 0.1%
other: 91.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 35.1%
arable land 12.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 22.7%
forest: 1%
other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land4,700 sq km (2012)
1,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
recurring droughts
Environment - current issuesdesertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notemore than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
Population distributionwell over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the west and Al Bayda to the east; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water
majority of the populace is located in the southernmost extreme of the country along the border with Nigeria and Benin

Demographics

LibyaNiger
Population6,653,210 (July 2017 est.)
note: immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)
19,245,344 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.84% (male 879,311/female 839,824)
15-24 years: 17.09% (male 584,117/female 552,680)
25-54 years: 47.28% (male 1,651,362/female 1,494,106)
55-64 years: 5.48% (male 185,679/female 179,224)
65 years and over: 4.31% (male 141,867/female 145,040) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 49.01% (male 4,757,806/female 4,674,437)
15-24 years: 19.1% (male 1,815,689/female 1,860,230)
25-54 years: 25.97% (male 2,495,927/female 2,501,362)
55-64 years: 3.28% (male 328,082/female 304,030)
65 years and over: 2.64% (male 259,046/female 248,735) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.9 years
male: 29.1 years
female: 28.7 years (2017 est.)
total: 15.4 years
male: 15.3 years
female: 15.5 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.58% (2017 est.)
3.19% (2017 est.)
Birth rate17.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
44.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
11.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 81.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 85.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 76.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.7 years
male: 74.9 years
female: 78.5 years (2017 est.)
total population: 55.9 years
male: 54.7 years
female: 57.3 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.04 children born/woman (2017 est.)
6.49 children born/woman (2017 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
Ethnic groupsBerber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peul) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
48,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <0.1, Jewish <0.1, folk religion <0.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <0.1
note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims (2010 est.)
Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
3,400 (2016 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 96.7%
female: 85.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.1%
male: 27.3%
female: 11% (2015 est.)
Education expendituresNA
6.7% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 79% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.64% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 19.3% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.49% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 54.2% of population
rural: 54.9% of population
total: 54.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 45.8% of population
rural: 45.1% of population
total: 45.6% of population (2001 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 58.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 41.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 95.7% of population
total: 96.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 4.3% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 37.9% of population
rural: 4.6% of population
total: 10.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 62.1% of population
rural: 95.4% of population
total: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTRIPOLI (capital) 1.126 million (2015)
NIAMEY (capital) 1.09 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
553 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.6% (2007)
37.9% (2012)
Health expenditures5% of GDP (2014)
5.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.09 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate32.5% (2016)
5.5% (2016)
Demographic profileDespite continuing unrest, Libya remains a destination country for economic migrants. It is also a hub for transit migration to Europe because of its proximity to southern Europe and its lax border controls. Labor migrants have been drawn to Libya since the development of its oil sector in the 1960s. Until the latter part of the 1990s, most migrants to Libya were Arab (primarily Egyptians and Sudanese). However, international isolation stemming from Libya’s involvement in international terrorism and a perceived lack of support from Arab countries led QADHAFI in 1998 to adopt a decade-long pan-African policy that enabled large numbers of sub-Saharan migrants to enter Libya without visas to work in the construction and agricultural industries. Although sub-Saharan Africans provided a cheap labor source, they were poorly treated and were subjected to periodic mass expulsions.
By the mid-2000s, domestic animosity toward African migrants and a desire to reintegrate into the international community motivated QADHAFI to impose entry visas on Arab and African immigrants and to agree to joint maritime patrols and migrant repatriations with Italy, the main recipient of illegal migrants departing Libya. As his regime neared collapse in 2011, QADHAFI reversed his policy of cooperating with Italy to curb illegal migration and sent boats loaded with migrants and asylum seekers to strain European resources. Libya’s 2011 revolution decreased immigration drastically and prompted nearly 800,000 migrants to flee to third countries, mainly Tunisia and Egypt, or to their countries of origin. The inflow of migrants declined in 2012 but returned to normal levels by 2013, despite continued hostility toward sub-Saharan Africans and a less-inviting job market.
While Libya is not an appealing destination for migrants, since 2014, transiting migrants – primarily from East and West Africa – continue to exploit its political instability and weak border controls and use it as a primary departure area to migrate across the central Mediterranean to Europe in growing numbers. In addition, more than 200,000 people were displaced internally as of August 2017 by fighting between armed groups in eastern and western Libya and, to a lesser extent, by inter-tribal clashes in the country’s south.
Niger has the highest total fertility rate (TFR) of any country in the world, averaging close to 7 children per woman in 2016. A slight decline in fertility over the last few decades has stalled. This leveling off of the high fertility rate is in large part a product of the continued desire for large families. In Niger, the TFR is lower than the desired fertility rate, which makes it unlikely that contraceptive use will increase. The high TFR sustains rapid population growth and a large youth population – almost 70% of the populace is under the age of 25. Gender inequality, including a lack of educational opportunities for women and early marriage and childbirth, also contributes to high population growth.
Because of large family sizes, children are inheriting smaller and smaller parcels of land. The dependence of most Nigeriens on subsistence farming on increasingly small landholdings, coupled with declining rainfall and the resultant shrinkage of arable land, are all preventing food production from keeping up with population growth.
For more than half a century, Niger's lack of economic development has led to steady net outmigration. In the 1960s, Nigeriens mainly migrated to coastal West African countries to work on a seasonal basis. Some headed to Libya and Algeria in the 1970s to work in the booming oil industry until its decline in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, the principal destinations for Nigerien labor migrants have been West African countries, especially Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, while emigration to Europe and North America has remained modest. During the same period, Niger’s desert trade route town Agadez became a hub for West African and other sub-Saharan migrants crossing the Sahara to North Africa and sometimes onward to Europe.
More than 60,000 Malian refugees have fled to Niger since violence between Malian government troops and armed rebels began in early 2012. Ongoing attacks by the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency, dating to 2013 in northern Nigeria and February 2015 in southeastern Niger, have pushed tens of thousands of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien returnees across the border to Niger and to displace thousands of locals in Niger’s already impoverished Diffa region.
Contraceptive prevalence rate41.9% (2007)
16.9% (2016)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49.1
youth dependency ratio: 42.6
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
potential support ratio: 15.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 111.6
youth dependency ratio: 106.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4
potential support ratio: 18.6 (2015 est.)

Government

LibyaNiger
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: none
local short form: Libiya
etymology: name derives from the Libu, an ancient Libyan tribe first mentioned in texts from the 13th century B.C.
"conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger
etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term ""Ni Gir"" meaning ""River Gir""
"
Government typein transition
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Niamey
geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions22 districts (shabiyat, singular - shabiyat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati
7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communaute urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Independence24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
3 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayLiberation Day, 23 October (2011)
Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
Constitutionhistory: previous 1951, 1977; drafting of a new constitution by the Constitution Drafting Assembly continued into 2017 (2017)
history: several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; consideration of amendments requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires at least four-fifths majority vote; if disapproved, the proposed amendment is dropped or submitted to a referendum; constitutional articles on the form of government, the multiparty system, the separation of state and religion, disqualification of Assembly members, amendment procedures, and amnesty of participants in the 2010 coup d’Etat cannot be amended; amended 2011 (2017)
Legal systemLibya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities
mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age, universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
cabinet: new cabinet awaiting approval by the House of Representatives
elections/appointments: NA
election results: NA
chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 with a runoff on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly
election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral House of Representative or Majlis Al Nuwab (200 seats including 32 reserved for women; members elected by direct popular vote; member term NA)
elections: election last held in June 2014; note - the Libyan Supreme Court in November 2014 declared the Council election unconstitutional, but the Council rejected the ruling
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independent 200; note - not all 200 seats were filled in the June election because of boycotts and lack of security at some polling stations; some elected members of the House also boycotted the election
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election
elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 1.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8
Judicial branchhighest court(s): NA; note - government is in transition
highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
Political parties and leadersNA

Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA]
Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR]
Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU]
Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO]
National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU]
Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]
Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU]
Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE]
Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]
Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA]
Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri
Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA]
Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]
Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU]
Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR]
Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE]
note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BDEAC, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Wafa M.T. BUGHAIGHIS (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606
chief of mission: Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Peter William BODDE (since 21 December 2015)
note: the embassy closed in July 2014 due to major fighting near the embassy related to the Libyan civil war; embassy staff and operations temporarily moved to Tunis, Tunisia
embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli
mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] (0) 91-220-3239
chief of mission: Ambassador Eunice S. REDDICK (since 12 September 2014)
embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
telephone: [227] 20-73-31-69 or [227] 20-72-39-41
FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band; the orange band denotes the drier northern regions of the Sahara; white stands for purity and innocence; green symbolizes hope and the fertile and productive southern and western areas, as well as the Niger River; the orange disc represents the sun and the sacrifices made by the people
note: similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
National anthem"name: ""Libya, Libya, Libya""
lyrics/music: Al Bashir AL AREBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: also known as ""Ya Beladi"" or ""Oh, My Country!""; adopted 1951; readopted 2011 with some modification to the lyrics; during the QADHAFI years between 1969 and 2011, the anthem was ""Allahu Akbar,"" (God is Great) a marching song of the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War
"
"name: ""La Nigerienne"" (The Nigerien)
lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET
note: adopted 1961
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)star and crescent, hawk; national colors: red, black, green
zebu; national colors: orange, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

Economy

LibyaNiger
Economy - overviewLibya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, struggled during the period 2014-16 as the country plunged into civil war and world oil prices dropped to seven-year lows. In early 2015, armed conflict between rival forces for control of the country’s largest oil terminals caused a decline in Libyan crude oil production, which never recovered to more than one-third of the average pre-Revolution highs of 1.6 million barrels per day. The Central Bank of Libya continued to pay government salaries to a majority of the Libyan workforce and to fund subsidies for fuel and food, resulting in an estimated budget deficit of about 17% of GDP in 2017. The economy recovered handsomely in 2017 as conflict subsided.

Libya’s economic transition away from QADHAFI’s notionally socialist model has completely stalled as political chaos persists and security continues to deteriorate. Libya’s leaders have hindered economic development by failing to use its financial resources to invest in national infrastructure. The country suffers from widespread power outages in its largest cities, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing, have all declined as the civil war has forced more people to become internally displaced, further straining local resources.

Extremists affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) attacked Libyan oilfields in the first half of 2015; ISIL has a presence in many cities across Libya including near oil infrastructure, threatening future government revenues from oil and gas.
Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes approximately 25% of GDP and provides livelihood for 87% of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the second least developed country in the world in 2016 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding.

Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up public investment, particularly that related to infrastructure, as well as due to increased security spending. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity and kidnappings near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali and in the Diffa region of the country; concerns about security have resulted in increased support from regional and international partners on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances.

Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Although Niger has sizable reserves of oil, the prolonged drop in oil prices has reduced profitability. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest more in irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility (ECF) agreement for the years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016. In February 2017, the IMF approved a new 3-year $134 million ECF. A $437 million Millennium Challenge Account compact for Niger, commencing in FY17, will focus on large-scale irrigation infrastructure development and community-based, climate-resilient agriculture, while promoting sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and sales.

Formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness. Although President ISSOUFOU is courting foreign investors, including those from the US, as of April 2017, there were no US firms operating in Niger.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$63.14 billion (2017 est.)
$40.72 billion (2016 est.)
$41.96 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$21.62 billion (2017 est.)
$20.75 billion (2016 est.)
$19.76 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate55.1% (2017 est.)
-3% (2016 est.)
-10.3% (2015 est.)
4.2% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$9,800 (2017 est.)
$6,400 (2016 est.)
$6,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$1,200 (2017 est.)
$1,100 (2016 est.)
$1,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 1.3%
industry: 63.8%
services: 34.9% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 44.3%
industry: 14.9%
services: 40.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line
45.4% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 28.5% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)32.8% (2017 est.)
27.1% (2016 est.)
1% (2017 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force1.114 million (2017 est.)
6.5 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)
agriculture: 87%
industry: 4%
services: 9% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate30% (2004 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $16.33 billion
expenditures: $22.32 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $1.68 billion
expenditures: $2.235 billion (2017 est.)
Industriespetroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Industrial production growth rate76.5% (2017 est.)
5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Exports$19.72 billion (2017 est.)
$11.99 billion (2016 est.)
$1.177 billion (2017 est.)
$1.101 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiescrude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partnersItaly 24.2%, Egypt 21.1%, Spain 9.5%, France 7.8%, Croatia 5%, Netherlands 5%, China 4.3% (2016)
France 31.3%, Thailand 11.6%, Malaysia 11.1%, Nigeria 9.5%, Mali 5.6%, China 5.3% (2016)
Imports$12.66 billion (2017 est.)
$11.01 billion (2016 est.)
$2.194 billion (2017 est.)
$2.031 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partnersChina 14.4%, South Korea 13.3%, Turkey 10.4%, Italy 5.9% (2016)
France 28.3%, China 16.1%, US 7.8%, Nigeria 5.8%, Thailand 5.8% (2016)
Debt - external$2.927 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.116 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.09 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.926 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesLibyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar -
1.413 (2017 est.)
1.3904 (2016 est.)
1.3904 (2015 est.)
1.379 (2014 est.)
1.2724 (2013 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt5.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
7.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
45.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
41.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$591 million (2017 est.)
-$4.575 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.471 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.159 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$33.31 billion (2016 est.)
$7.892 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate9.52% (31 December 2010)
3% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2015)
4.25% (31 December 2014)
Commercial bank prime lending rate7.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
6% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$16.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.454 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.267 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$76.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$62.57 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.767 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.535 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$77.89 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$63.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.322 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.018 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues49% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-18% of GDP (2017 est.)
-7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 48.7%
male: 40.8%
female: 67.8% (2012 est.)
total: 2.3%
male: 4.4%
female: 0.8% (2007 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 76.1%
government consumption: 19.4%
investment in fixed capital: 2.8%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 39.7%
imports of goods and services: -39.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 66.8%
government consumption: 14.4%
investment in fixed capital: 42.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 16.4%
imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving1.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
-11% of GDP (2016 est.)
-8% of GDP (2015 est.)
23.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

LibyaNiger
Electricity - production35.45 billion kWh
note: persistent electricity shortages have contributed to the ongoing instability throughout the country (2015 est.)
499.4 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption8.131 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.072 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports88 million kWh (2015 est.)
782 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production384,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
13,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports383,500 bbl/day
note: Libyan crude oil export values are highly volatile because of continuing protests and other disruptions across the country (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves48.36 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
150 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.505 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production11.6 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption7.55 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports7.11 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity9.46 million kW (2015 est.)
179,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels99.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
96.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
4.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production102,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
16,570 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption262,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
13,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports16,450 bbl/day (2014 est.)
6,187 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports169,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
2,465 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy57 million Mt (2013 est.)
900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 13,083
electrification - total population: 99.8%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.1% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,200,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 62%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)

Telecommunications

LibyaNiger
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1,374,408
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 113,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 7,660,068
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (July 2016 est.)
total: 9.791 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Libya's civil war has disrupted its telecommunications sector, but much of its infrastructure remains superior to that in most other African countries
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular service generally adequate, but pressure to rebuild damaged infrastructure growing
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2015)
general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains only about 50 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.ly
.ne
Internet userstotal: 1,326,194
percent of population: 20.3% (July 2016 est.)
total: 805,702
percent of population: 4.3% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2012)
state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

LibyaNiger
Roadwaystotal: 100,024 km
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
total: 18,949 km
paved: 3,912 km
unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
Merchant marinetotal: 98
by type: general cargo 2, oil tanker 16, other 80 (2017)
total: 2
by type: oil tanker 1, other 1 (2017)
Airports146 (2013)
30 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 68
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 78
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 8
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 23
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,566,465
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3,833,542 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,242
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix5A (2016)
5U (2016)

Military

LibyaNiger
Military branchesnote - in transition; government has affiliated Army, Air Force, Navy, and Coast Guard forces (2016)
Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for mandatory or voluntary service (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2017)

Transnational Issues

LibyaNiger
Disputes - internationaldormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 5,379 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (2016)
IDPs: 180,937 (conflict between pro-QADHAFI and anti-QADHAFI forces in 2011; post-QADHAFI tribal clashes 2014) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 108,470 (Nigeria); 57,286 (Mali) (2017)
IDPs: 129,015 (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook