Lebanon vs. Israel


BackgroundFollowing World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French demarcated the region of Lebanon in 1920 and granted this area independence in 1943. Since independence, the country has been marked by periods of political turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on its position as a regional center for finance and trade. The country's 1975-90 civil war, which resulted in an estimated 120,000 fatalities, was followed by years of social and political instability. Sectarianism is a key element of Lebanese political life. Neighboring Syria has historically influenced Lebanon's foreign policy and internal policies, and its military occupied Lebanon from 1976 until 2005. The Lebanon-based Hizballah militia and Israel continued attacks and counterattacks against each other after Syria's withdrawal, and fought a brief war in 2006. Lebanon's borders with Syria and Israel remain unresolved.Israel has emerged as a regional economic and military powerhouse, leveraging its booming high-tech sector, massive defense industry, and concerns about Iran to foster partnerships around the world, even with some of its former foes. The State of Israel was declared in 1948, after Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine. The UN proposed partitioning the area into Arab and Jewish states, and Arab armies that rejected the UN plan were defeated. Israel was admitted as a member of the UN in 1949 and saw rapid population growth, primarily due to migration from Europe and the Middle East, over the following years. Israel fought wars against its Arab neighbors in 1967 and 1973, followed by peace treaties with Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994. Israel took control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the 1967 war, and subsequently administered those territories through military authorities. Israel and Palestinian officials signed a number of interim agreements in the 1990s that created an interim period of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza. Israel withdrew from Gaza in 2005. While the most recent formal efforts to negotiate final status issues occurred in 2013-2014, the US continues its efforts to advance peace. Immigration to Israel continues, with more than20,000 new immigrants, mostly Jewish, in 2020.

The Israeli economy has undergone a dramatic transformation in the last 25 years, led by cutting-edge, high-tech sectors. Offshore gas discoveries in the Mediterranean, most notably in the Tamar and Leviathan gas fields, place Israel at the center of a potential regional natural gas market. However, longer-term structural issues such as low labor force participation among minority populations, low workforce productivity, high costs for housing and consumer staples, and a lack of competition, remain a concern for many Israelis and an important consideration for Israeli politicians. Former Prime Minister Benjamin NETANYAHU dominated Israel's political landscape from 2009 to June 2021, becoming Israel's longest serving prime minister before he was unseated by Naftali BENNETT, after Israel's fourth election in two years. BENNETT formed the most ideologically diverse coalition in Israel's history, including the participation of an Arab-Israeli party. Under the terms of the coalition agreement, BENNETT would remain as prime minister until August 2023, then Alternate Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Yair LAPID would succeed him. Israel signed normalization agreements - brokered by the US - with Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and Morocco in late 2020 and with Sudan in early 2021.


LocationMiddle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and SyriaMiddle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Geographic coordinates33 50 N, 35 50 E31 30 N, 34 45 E
Map referencesMiddle EastMiddle East
Areatotal: 10,400 sq km

land: 10,230 sq km

water: 170 sq km
total: 21,937 sq km

land: 21,497 sq km

water: 440 sq km
Area - comparativeabout one-third the size of Marylandslightly larger than New Jersey
Land boundariestotal: 484 km

border countries (2): Israel 81 km, Syria 403 km
total: 1,068 km

border countries (6): Egypt 208 km, Gaza Strip 59 km, Jordan 327 km (20 km are within the Dead Sea), Lebanon 81 km, Syria 83 km, West Bank 330 km
Coastline225 km273 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nmterritorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
ClimateMediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; the Lebanon Mountains experience heavy winter snowstemperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Terrainnarrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon MountainsNegev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
Elevation extremeshighest point: Qornet es Saouda 3,088 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 1,250 m
highest point: Mitspe Shlagim 2,224 m; note - this is the highest named point, the actual highest point is an unnamed dome slightly to the west of Mitspe Shlagim at 2,236 m; both points are on the northeastern border of Israel, along the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range

lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m

mean elevation: 508 m note - does not include elevation data from the Golan Heights
Natural resourceslimestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable landtimber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Land useagricultural land: 63.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 12.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 39.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 13.4% (2018 est.)

other: 23.3% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 23.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 7.1% (2018 est.)

other: 69.1% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land1,040 sq km (2012)2,250 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes; dust storms, sandstormssandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil deterioration, erosion; desertification; species loss; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills; waste-water managementlimited arable land and restricted natural freshwater resources; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notesmallest country in continental Asia; Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicitynote 1: Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source; the Dead Sea is the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lake Assal in Djibouti)

note 2: the Malham Cave in Mount Sodom is the world's longest salt cave at 10 km (6 mi); its survey is not complete and its length will undoubtedly increase; Mount Sodom is actually a hill some 220 m (722 ft) high that is 80% salt (multiple salt layers covered by a veneer of rock)

note 3: in March 2019, there were 380 Israeli settlements,to include 213 settlements and 132 outposts in the West Bank, and 35 settlements in East Jerusalem; there are no Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, as all were evacuated in 2005 (2019)
Total renewable water resources4.503 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)1.78 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionthe majority of the people live on or near the Mediterranean coast, and of these most live in and around the capital, Beirut; favorable growing conditions in the Bekaa Valley, on the southeastern side of the Lebanon Mountains, have attracted farmers and thus the area exhibits a smaller population densitypopulation concentrated in and around Tel-Aviv, as well as around the Sea of Galilee; the south remains sparsely populated with the exception of the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba


Population5,261,372 (July 2021 est.)8,787,045 (includes populations of the Golan Heights or Golan Sub-District and also East Jerusalem, which was annexed by Israel after 1967) (July 2021 est.)

note: approximately 227,100 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2019); following the March 2019 US recognition of the Golan Heights as being part of Israel, The World Factbook no longer includes Israeli settler population of the Golan Heights (estimated at 23,400 in 2019) in its overall Israeli settler total
Age structure0-14 years: 20.75% (male 581,015/female 554,175)

15-24 years: 14.98% (male 417,739/female 401,357)

25-54 years: 46.69% (male 1,296,250/female 1,257,273)

55-64 years: 9.62% (male 250,653/female 275,670)

65 years and over: 7.96% (male 187,001/female 248,479) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 26.76% (male 1,187,819/female 1,133,365)

15-24 years: 15.67% (male 694,142/female 665,721)

25-54 years: 37.2% (male 1,648,262/female 1,579,399)

55-64 years: 8.4% (male 363,262/female 365,709)

65 years and over: 11.96% (male 467,980/female 569,816) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 33.7 years

male: 33.1 years

female: 34.4 years (2020 est.)
total: 30.4 years

male: 29.8 years

female: 31 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate0.68% (2021 est.)1.45% (2021 est.)
Birth rate13.35 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)17.52 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate5.57 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)5.06 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)2.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 7.78 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 3.62 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.88 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 78.53 years

male: 77.12 years

female: 80 years (2021 est.)
total population: 83.15 years

male: 81.25 years

female: 85.15 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate1.71 children born/woman (2021 est.)2.57 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate<.1% (2020 est.)0.2% (2018)
Nationalitynoun: Lebanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Lebanese
noun: Israeli(s)

adjective: Israeli
Ethnic groupsArab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendants of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
Jewish 74.1% (of which Israel-born 78.1%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 15.2%, Africa-born 4.3%, Asia-born 2.4%), Arab 21%, other 4.9% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2,700 (2020 est.)9,000 (2018)
ReligionsMuslim 61.1% (30.6% Sunni, 30.5% Shia, smaller percentages of Alawites and Ismailis), Christian 33.7% (Maronite Catholics are the largest Christian group), Druze 5.2%, very small numbers of Jews, Baha'is, Buddhists, and Hindus (2018 est.)

note: data represent the religious affiliation of the citizen population (data do not include Lebanon's sizable Syrian and Palestinian refugee populations); 18 religious sects recognized
Jewish 74.1%, Muslim 17.9%, Christian 1.9%, Druze 1.6%, other 4.5% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths<100 (2020 est.)<100 (2018)
LanguagesArabic (official), French, English, Armenian

major-language sample(s):
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Hebrew (official), Arabic (special status under Israeli law), English (most commonly used foreign language)

major-language sample(s):
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Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.1%

male: 96.9%

female: 93.3% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.8%

male: 98.7%

female: 96.8% (2011)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years

male: 12 years

female: 11 years (2014)
total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2018)
Education expenditures2.5% of GDP (2013)6.1% of GDP (2017)
Urbanizationurban population: 89.1% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: -1.23% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 92.7% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.51% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: total: 100% of population

unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: total: 99% of population

unimproved: total: 1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population2.435 million BEIRUT (capital) (2021)4.264 million Tel Aviv-Yafo, 1.155 million Haifa, 944,000 JERUSALEM (capital) (2021)
Maternal mortality rate29 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures8.4% (2018)7.5% (2018)
Physicians density2.1 physicians/1,000 population (2018)4.63 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density2.7 beds/1,000 population (2017)3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate32% (2016)26.1% (2016)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 48.4

youth dependency ratio: 37.2

elderly dependency ratio: 11.2

potential support ratio: 8.9 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 67.3

youth dependency ratio: 46.6

elderly dependency ratio: 20.8

potential support ratio: 4.8 (2020 est.)


Country nameconventional long form: Lebanese Republic

conventional short form: Lebanon

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah

local short form: Lubnan

former: Greater Lebanon

etymology: derives from the Semitic root "lbn" meaning "white" and refers to snow-capped Mount Lebanon
conventional long form: State of Israel

conventional short form: Israel

local long form: Medinat Yisra'el

local short form: Yisra'el

etymology: named after the ancient Kingdom of Israel; according to Biblical tradition, the Jewish patriarch Jacob received the name "Israel" ("He who struggles with God") after he wrestled an entire night with an angel of the Lord; Jacob's 12 sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who formed the Kingdom of Israel
Government typeparliamentary republicparliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Beirut

geographic coordinates: 33 52 N, 35 30 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: derived from the Canaanite or Phoenician word "ber'ot," meaning "the wells" or "fountain," which referred to the site's accessible water table
name: Jerusalem; note - the US recognized Jerusalem as Israel's capital in December 2017 without taking a position on the specific boundaries of Israeli sovereignty

geographic coordinates: 31 46 N, 35 14 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, Friday before the last Sunday in March; ends the last Sunday in October

etymology: Jerusalem's settlement may date back to 2800 B.C.; it is named Urushalim in Egyptian texts of the 14th century B.C.; "uru-shalim" likely means "foundation of [by] the god Shalim", and derives from Hebrew/Semitic "yry", "to found or lay a cornerstone", and Shalim, the Canaanite god of dusk and the nether world; Shalim was associated with sunset and peace and the name is based on the same S-L-M root from which Semitic words for "peace" are derived (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew); this confluence has thus led to naming interpretations such as "The City of Peace" or "The Abode of Peace"
Administrative divisions8 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Aakkar, Baalbek-Hermel, Beqaa (Bekaa), Beyrouth (Beirut), Liban-Nord (North Lebanon), Liban-Sud (South Lebanon), Mont-Liban (Mount Lebanon), Nabatiye6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)14 May 1948 (following League of Nations mandate under British administration)
National holidayIndependence Day, 22 November (1943)Independence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May
Constitutionhistory: drafted 15 May 1926, adopted 23 May 1926

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic and introduced as a government bill to the National Assembly or proposed by at least 10 members of the Assembly and agreed upon by two thirds of its members; if proposed by the National Assembly, review and approval by two-thirds majority of the Cabinet is required; if approved, the proposal is next submitted to the Cabinet for drafting as an amendment; Cabinet approval requires at least two-thirds majority, followed by submission to the National Assembly for discussion and vote; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of a required two-thirds quorum of the Assembly membership and promulgation by the president; amended several times, last in 2004
history: no formal constitution; some functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws, and the Law of Return (as amended)

amendments: proposed by Government of Israel ministers or by the Knesset; passage requires a majority vote of Knesset members and subject to Supreme Court judicial review; 11 of the 13 Basic Laws have been amended at least once, latest in 2020 (Basic Law: the Knesset)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil law based on the French civil code, Ottoman legal tradition, and religious laws covering personal status, marriage, divorce, and other family relations of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian communitiesmixed legal system of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious laws
Suffrage21 years of age; authorized for all men and women regardless of religion; excludes persons convicted of felonies and other crimes or those imprisoned; excludes all military and security service personnel regardless of rank18 years of age; universal; 17 years of age for municipal elections
Executive branchchief of state: President Michel AWN (since 31 October 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Hassan DIAB (since 22 October 2020); note - the Lebanese Government is in "caretaker" status

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and National Assembly

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in the first round and if needed absolute majority vote in a second round for a 6-year term (eligible for non-consecutive terms); last held on 31 October 2016 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly; deputy prime minister determined during cabinet formation

election results: Michel AWN elected president in second round; National Assembly vote - Michel AWN (FPM) 83 votes; note - in the initial election held on 23 April 2014, no candidate received the required two-thirds vote, and subsequent attempts failed because the Assembly lacked the necessary quorum to hold a vote; the president was finally elected in its 46th attempt on 31 October 2016
chief of state: President Issac HERZOG (since 7 July 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Naftali BENNETT (since 13 June 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Knesset for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2 June 2021 (next to be held in June 2028); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, tasks a Knesset member (usually the member of the largest party) with forming a new government

election results: Issac HERZOG elected president; Knesset vote - Issac HERZOG (independent) 87, Miriam PERETZ (independent) 26, invalid/blank 7
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Nuwab in Arabic or Assemblee Nationale in French (128 seats; members directly elected by listed-based proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); prior to 2017, the electoral system was by majoritarian vote

elections: last held on 6 May 2018 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: percent of vote by coalition - NA; seats by coalition - Strong Lebanon Bloc (Free Patriotic Movement-led) 25; Future Bloc (Future Movement-led) 20; Development and Liberation Bloc (Amal Movement-led) 16; Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc (Hizballah-led) 15; Strong Republic Bloc (Lebanese Forces-led) 15; Democratic Gathering (Progressive Socialist Party-led) 9; Independent Centre Bloc 4; National Bloc (Marada Movement-led) 3; Syrian Social Nationalist Party 3; Tashnaq 3; Kata'ib 3; other 8; independent 4;  composition - men 122, women 6, percent of women 4.6%

note: Lebanon's constitution states the National Assembly cannot conduct regular business until it elects a president when the position is vacant
description: unicameral Knesset (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote, with a 3.25% vote threshold to gain representation; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 23 March 2021 (next to be held in 2025)

election results: percent by party - Likud 24.2%, Yesh Atid 13.9%, Shas 7.2%, Blue and White 6.6%, Yamina 6.2%, Labor 6.1%, UTJ 5.6%, Yisrael Beiteinu 5.6%, Religious Zionist Party 5.1%, Joint List 4.8%, New Hope 4.7%, Meretz 4.6%, Ra'am 3.8%, other 0.5%; seats by party - Likud 30, Yesh Atid 17, Shas 9, Blue and White 8, Yamina 7, Labor 7, UTJ 7, Yisrael Beiteinu 7, Religious Zionist Party 6, Joint List 6, New Hope 6, Meretz 6, Ra'am 4 - NA
Judicial branchhighest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (organized into 8 chambers, each with a presiding judge and 2 associate judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 10 members)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by Supreme Judicial Council, a 10-member body headed by the chief justice, and includes other judicial officials; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the Council of Ministers and 5 by parliament; members serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; specialized tribunals, religious courts; military courts
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the president, deputy president, 13 justices, and 2 registrars) and normally sits in panels of 3 justices; in special cases, the panel is expanded with an uneven number of justices

judge selection and term of office: judges selected by the 9-member Judicial Selection Committee, consisting of the Minister of Justice (chair), the president of the Supreme Court, two other Supreme Court justices, 1 other Cabinet minister, 2 Knesset members, and 2 representatives of the Israel Bar Association; judges can serve up to mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: district and magistrate courts; national and regional labor courts; family and juvenile courts; special and religious courts
Political parties and leaders

Al-Ahbash or Association of Islamic Charitable Projects [Adnan TARABULSI]
Amal Movement [Nabih BERRI]
Azm Movement [Najib MIQATI]
Ba'th Arab Socialist Party of Lebanon [Fayiz SHUKR]
Free Patriotic Movement or FPM [Gibran BASSIL]
Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad al-HARIRI]
Hizballah [Hassan NASRALLAH]
Islamic Actions Front [Sheikh Zuhayr al-JU'AYD]
Kata'ib Party [Sami GEMAYEL]
Lebanese Democratic Party [Talal ARSLAN]
Lebanese Forces or LF [Samir JA'JA]
Marada Movement [Sulayman FRANJIEH]
Progressive Socialist Party or PSP [Walid JUNBLATT]
Social Democrat Hunshaqian Party [Sabuh KALPAKIAN]Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO]
Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Hanna al-NASHIF]
Tashnaq or Armenian Revolutionary Federation [Hagop PAKRADOUNIAN]

Democratic Union [Nitzan HOROWITZ] (alliance includes Democratic Israel, Meretz, Green Movement)
Joint List [Ayman ODEH] (alliance includes Hadash, Ta'al, United Arab List, Balad)
Kahol Lavan [Benny GANTZ] (alliance includes Israeli Resilience, Yesh Atid, Telem)
Labor-Gesher [Amir PERETZ]
Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]
Otzma Yehudit [Itamar BEN-GVIR]
Religous Zionist Party [Belzalel SMOTRICH, chairperson]
United Torah Judaism, or UTJ [Yaakov LITZMAN] (alliance includes Agudat Israel and Degel HaTorah)
Yamina [Ayelet SHAKED]
Yesh Atid [Yair LAPID]
Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
Zehut [Moshe FEIGLIN]

International organization participationABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)BIS, BSEC (observer), CE (observer), CERN, CICA, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Wael HACHEM (since 15 March 2021)

chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-6300

FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, Los Angeles
chief of mission: Ambassador Gilad Menashe ERDAN (since 17 February 2021)

chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500

FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Dorothy SHEA (since 11 March 2020)

embassy: Awkar-Facing the Municipality, Main Street, Beirut

mailing address: 6070 Beirut Place, Washington DC  20521-6070

telephone: [961] (04) 543-600

FAX: [961] (4) 544-019

email address and website:

chief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael RATNEY (since 1 June 2021)

embassy: 14 David Flusser Street, Jerusalem, 9378322

mailing address: 6350 Jerusalem Place, Washington DC  20521-6350

telephone: [972] (2) 630-4000

FAX: [972] (2) 630-4070

email address and website:


branch office(s): Tel Aviv

note: on 14 May 2018, the US Embassy relocated to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv; on 4 March 2019, Consulate General Jerusalem merged into US Embassy Jerusalem to form a single diplomatic mission
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands consisting of red (top), white (middle, double width), and red (bottom) with a green cedar tree centered in the white band; the red bands symbolize blood shed for liberation, the white band denotes peace, the snow of the mountains, and purity; the green cedar tree is the symbol of Lebanon and represents eternity, steadiness, happiness, and prosperitywhite with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Star of David or Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag; the basic design resembles a traditional Jewish prayer shawl (tallit), which is white with blue stripes; the hexagram as a Jewish symbol dates back to medieval times

note: the Israeli flag proclamation states that the flag colors are sky blue and white, but the exact shade of blue has never been set and can vary from a light to a dark blue
National anthemname: "Kulluna lil-watan" (All Of Us, For Our Country!)

lyrics/music: Rachid NAKHLE/Wadih SABRA

note: adopted 1927; chosen following a nationwide competition
name: "Hatikvah" (The Hope)

lyrics/music: Naftali Herz IMBER/traditional, arranged by Samuel COHEN

note: adopted 2004, unofficial since 1948; used as the anthem of the Zionist movement since 1897; the 1888 arrangement by Samuel COHEN is thought to be based on the Romanian folk song "Carul cu boi" (The Ox Driven Cart)
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCthas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002
National symbol(s)cedar tree; national colors: red, white, greenStar of David (Magen David), menorah (seven-branched lampstand); national colors: blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Lebanon

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Israel

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but naturalized citizens are not allowed to maintain dual citizenship

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 out of the 5 years preceding the application for naturalization

note: Israeli law (Law of Return, 5 July 1950) provides for the granting of citizenship to any Jew - defined as a person being born to a Jewish mother or having converted to Judaism while renouncing any other religion - who immigrates to and expresses a desire to settle in Israel on the basis of the Right of aliyah; the 1970 amendment of this act extended the right to family members including the spouse of a Jew, any child or grandchild, and the spouses of children and grandchildren


Economy - overview

Lebanon has a free-market economy and a strong laissez-faire commercial tradition. The government does not restrict foreign investment; however, the investment climate suffers from red tape, corruption, arbitrary licensing decisions, complex customs procedures, high taxes, tariffs, and fees, archaic legislation, and inadequate intellectual property rights protection. The Lebanese economy is service-oriented; main growth sectors include banking and tourism.

The 1975-90 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and derailed Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern banking hub. Following the civil war, Lebanon rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure by borrowing heavily, mostly from domestic banks, which saddled the government with a huge debt burden. Pledges of economic and financial reforms made at separate international donor conferences during the 2000s have mostly gone unfulfilled, including those made during the Paris III Donor Conference in 2007, following the July 2006 war. The "CEDRE" investment event hosted by France in April 2018 again rallied the international community to assist Lebanon with concessional financing and some grants for capital infrastructure improvements, conditioned upon long-delayed structural economic reforms in fiscal management, electricity tariffs, and transparent public procurement, among many others.

The Syria conflict cut off one of Lebanon's major markets and a transport corridor through the Levant. The influx of nearly one million registered and an estimated 300,000 unregistered Syrian refugees has increased social tensions and heightened competition for low-skill jobs and public services. Lebanon continues to face several long-term structural weaknesses that predate the Syria crisis, notably, weak infrastructure, poor service delivery, institutionalized corruption, and bureaucratic over-regulation. Chronic fiscal deficits have increased Lebanon's debt-to-GDP ratio, the third highest in the world; most of the debt is held internally by Lebanese banks. These factors combined to slow economic growth to the 1-2% range in 2011-17, after four years of averaging 8% growth. Weak economic growth limits tax revenues, while the largest government expenditures remain debt servicing, salaries for government workers, and transfers to the electricity sector. These limitations constrain other government spending, limiting its ability to invest in necessary infrastructure improvements, such as water, electricity, and transportation. In early 2018, the Lebanese government signed long-awaited contract agreements with an international consortium for petroleum exploration and production as part of the country's first offshore licensing round. Exploration is expected to begin in 2019.

Israel has a technologically advanced free market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among its leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are offset by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows.


Since March 2020, economic growth has slowed compared to recent historical averages, but Israel's slump has been less severe than in other Middle Eastern countries because of its swift vaccine roll-out and diversified economic base. Between 2016 and 2019, growth averaged 3.6% per year, led by exports. Israel's new government is hoping to pass the country's first budget in two years, which, combined with prudent fiscal policy and strong global trade ties would probably enable Israel to recover from economic challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Natural gas fields discovered off Israel's coast since 2009 have brightened Israel's energy security outlook. The Tamar and Leviathan fields were some of the world's largest offshore natural gas finds in the last decade. In 2020, Israel began exporting gas to Egypt and Jordan.


Income inequality and high housing and commodity prices continue to be a concern for many Israelis. Israel's income inequality and poverty rates are among the highest of OECD countries, and there is a broad perception among the public that a small number of "tycoons" have a cartel-like grip over the major parts of the economy. Government officials have called for reforms to boost the housing supply and to increase competition in the banking sector to address these public grievances. Despite calls for reforms, the restricted housing supply continues to impact younger Israelis seeking to purchase homes. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers, coupled with guaranteed prices and customs tariffs for farmers kept food prices high. Private consumption is expected to drive growth through 2021, with consumers benefitting from low inflation and a strong currency.


In the long term, Israel faces structural issues including low labor participation rates for its fastest growing social segments - the ultraorthodox and Arab-Israeli communities. Also, Israel's progressive, globally competitive, knowledge-based technology sector employs only about 8% of the workforce, with the rest mostly employed in manufacturing and services - sectors which face downward wage pressures from global competition. Expenditures on educational institutions remain low compared to most other OECD countries with similar GDP per capita.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$99.761 billion (2019 est.)

$106.925 billion (2018 est.)

$109.025 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
$394.7 billion (2019 est.)

$351.254 billion (2018 est.)

$339.528 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.5% (2017 est.)

1.7% (2016 est.)

0.2% (2015 est.)
-2.6% (2020 est.)

3.28% (2019 est.)

3.69% (2018 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,552 (2019 est.)

$15,612 (2018 est.)

$16,005 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
$41,953 (2020 est.)

$40,145 (2019 est.)

$39,543 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 13.1% (2017 est.)

services: 83% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 2.4% (2017 est.)

industry: 26.5% (2017 est.)

services: 69.5% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line27.4% (2011 est.)22% (2014 est.)

note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 31.3% (2010)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.8% (2019 est.)

6% (2018 est.)

4.4% (2017 est.)
1.8% (2020 est.)

0.8% (2019 est.)

0.8% (2018 est.)
Labor force2.166 million (2016 est.)

note: excludes as many as 1 million foreign workers and refugees
3.893 million (2020 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 39% NA (2009 est.)

industry: NA

services: NA
agriculture: 1.1%

industry: 17.3%

services: 81.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate9.7% (2007)4.4% (2020 est.)

3.81% (2019 est.)

4% (2018 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index31.8 (2011 est.)37 (2018 est.)

39 (2016 est.)

39.2 (2008)
Budgetrevenues: 11.62 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 15.38 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 93.11 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 100.2 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesbanking, tourism, real estate and construction, food processing, wine, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricatinghigh-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear
Industrial production growth rate-21.1% (2017 est.)3.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productspotatoes, milk, tomatoes, apples, oranges, olives, wheat, cucumbers, poultry, lemonsmilk, potatoes, poultry, tomatoes, carrots, turnips, tangerines/mandarins, green chillies/peppers, eggs, vegetables
Exports$3.524 billion (2017 est.)

$3.689 billion (2016 est.)
$104.992 billion (2019 est.)

$101.389 billion (2018 est.)

$95.196 billion (2017 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold, jewelry, shotguns, diamonds, scrap copper (2019)diamonds, packaged medicines, medical instruments, integrated circuits, refined petroleum (2019)
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 27%, United Arab Emirates 15%, South Korea 11%, Saudi Arabia 7%, Kuwait 6% (2019)United States 26%, China 9%, United Kingdom 7% (2020)
Imports$18.34 billion (2017 est.)

$17.71 billion (2016 est.)
$116.23 billion (2019 est.)

$111.652 billion (2018 est.)

$104.252 billion (2017 est.)
Imports - commoditiesrefined petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, jewelry, gold (2019)diamonds, cars, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment (2019)
Imports - partnersUnited Arab Emirates 11%, China 10%, Italy 8%, Greece 8%, Turkey 7%, United States 6% (2019)United States 12%, China 11%, Germany 7.5%, Switzerland 7%, Turkey 6% (2020)
Debt - external$33.077 billion (2019 est.)

$33.655 billion (2018 est.)
$132.5 billion (31 December 2020 est.)

$99.886 billion (2019 est.)

$94.247 billion (2018 est.)
Exchange ratesLebanese pounds (LBP) per US dollar -

1,517.5 (2020 est.)

1,513 (2019 est.)

1,506.5 (2018 est.)

1,507.5 (2014 est.)

1,507.5 (2013 est.)
new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -

3.44 (2020 est.)

3.4684 (2019 est.)

3.7332 (2018 est.)

3.8869 (2014 est.)

3.5779 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt146.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

145.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment
72.6% of GDP (2020 est.)

59.6% of GDP (2019 est.)

60.4% of GDP (2018 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$55.42 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$54.04 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$173.292 billion (2020 est.)

$113 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$95.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$12.37 billion (2017 est.)

-$11.18 billion (2016 est.)
$20.642 billion (2020 est.)

$13.411 billion (2019 est.)

$7.888 billion (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$53.253 billion (2019 est.)$394.93 billion (2019 est.)
Credit ratingsFitch rating: RD (2020)

Moody's rating: C (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: D (2020)
Fitch rating: A+ (2016)

Moody's rating: A1 (2008)

Standard & Poors rating: AA- (2018)

Note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.
Ease of Doing Business Index scoresOverall score: 54.3 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 78.2 (2020)

Trading score: 57.9 (2020)

Enforcement score: 50.8 (2020)
Overall score: 76.7 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 94.1 (2020)

Trading score: 83.4 (2020)

Enforcement score: 58.9 (2020)
Taxes and other revenues21.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)26.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-6.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)-2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 23.4%

male: 24.5%

female: 21.4% (2019)
total: 6.7%

male: 6.1%

female: 7.2% (2019 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 87.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 13.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 23.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -46.4% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 55.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 22.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 28.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -27.5% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving-3.1% of GDP (2019 est.)

-4% of GDP (2018 est.)

-1.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2019 est.)

24.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

24.4% of GDP (2017 est.)


Electricity - production17.59 billion kWh (2016 est.)63.09 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption15.71 billion kWh (2016 est.)55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)5.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports69 million kWh (2016 est.)0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2018 est.)390 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2015 est.)231,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2015 est.)0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)12.73 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)176 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2017 est.)9.826 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2017 est.)9.995 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2017 est.)509.7 million cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.346 million kW (2016 est.)17.59 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels88% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)95% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)294,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption154,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)242,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2015 est.)111,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports151,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)98,860 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2020)electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 882,175

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15.1 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 3.14 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36.8 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 4,237,962

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 72.55 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 11.7 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 137.11 (2019 est.)
Internet country code.lb.il
Internet userstotal: 4,769,039

percent of population: 78.18% (July 2018 est.)
total: 6,873,037

percent of population: 81.58% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

struggling with effects of economic malaise during pandemic and following explosion in Beirut port; Lebanon's telecom infrastructure is relatively weak, and services are expensive; rural areas are less connected and have power cuts; state retains a monopoly over the Internet backbone and dominant ownership of the telecom industry; government backed improvements to fixed infrastructure; new landlines and fiber-optic networks provide faster DSL; limited 5G services; three international gateways through submarine cables; importer of broadcasting equipment from UAE; UAE investment in tech solutions (2021)


domestic: fixed-line 13 per 100 and 62 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2019)

international: country code - 961; landing points for the IMEWE, BERYTAR AND CADMOS submarine cable links to Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment:

Israel has a highly developed economy with focus on technology products; investment in cyber-security industry and hub for start-ups; near universal broadband delivery to households and mobile penetration; LTE coverage, expanded fiber network with plans for 5G; emergency law allows mobile tracking; importer of broadcast equipment, integrated circuits, and computers from China; submarine cable connectivity to Europe (2021)


domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; competition among both fixed-line and mobile cellular providers results in good coverage countrywide; fixed-line 36 per 100 and 127 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2019)

international: country code - 972; landing points for the MedNautilus Submarine System, Tameres North, Jonah and Lev Submarine System, submarine cables that provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 420,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7.19 (2019 est.)
total: 2.481 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29.08 (2019 est.)
Broadcast media7 TV stations, 1 of which is state owned; more than 30 radio stations, 1 of which is state owned; satellite and cable TV services available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible through partner stations (2019)the Israel Broadcasting Corporation (est 2015) broadcasts on 3 channels, two in Hebrew and the other in Arabic; multi-channel satellite and cable TV packages provide access to foreign channels; the Israeli Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts on 8 radio networks with multiple repeaters and Israel Defense Forces Radio broadcasts over multiple stations; about 15 privately owned radio stations; overall more than 100 stations and repeater stations (2019)


Railwaystotal: 401 km (2017)

standard gauge: 319 km 1.435-m gauge (2017)

narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050-m gauge (2017)

note: rail system is still unusable due to damage sustained from fighting in the 1980s and in 2006
total: 1,384 km (2014)

standard gauge: 1,384 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 21,705 km (2017)total: 19,555 km (2017)

paved: 19,555 km (includes 449 km of expressways) (2017)
Pipelines88 km gas (2013)763 km gas, 442 km oil, 261 km refined products (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Beirut, Tripoli

container port(s) (TEUs): Beirut (1,229,100) (2019)
major seaport(s): Ashdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa

container port(s) (TEUs): Ashdod (1,584,000) (2019)
Merchant marinetotal: 52

by type: bulk carrier 2, general cargo 37, oil tanker 1, other 12 (2020)
total: 41

by type: container ship 6, general cargo 3, oil tanker 3, other 29 (2020)
Airportstotal: 8 (2013)total: 42 (2020)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 5 (2019)

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1
total: 33 (2019)

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 8
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 9 (2020)

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 6
Heliports1 (2013)3 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,981,937 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 56.57 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 64

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,404,373 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 994.54 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixOD4X


Military branchesLebanese Armed Forces (LAF): Army Command (includes Presidential Guard Brigade, Land Border Regiments), Naval Forces, Air Forces; Lebanese Internal Security Forces Directorate (includes Mobile Gendarmerie); Directorate for General Security (DGS); Directorate General for State Security (2021)

note(s) - the commander of the LAF is also the commander of the Army; the LAF patrols external borders, while official checkpoints are under the authority of Customs and Internal Security Forces
Israel Defense Forces (IDF): Ground Forces, Israel Naval Force (IN, includes commandos), Israel Air Force (IAF, includes air defense); Ministry of Public Security: Border Police (2021)

note: the Border Police is a unit within the Israel Police with its own organizational and command structure; it works both independently as well as in cooperation with or in support of the Israel Police and Israel Defense Force
Military service age and obligation17-25 years of age for voluntary military service (including women); no conscription (2019)18 years of age for compulsory (Jews, Druze) military service; 17 years of age for voluntary (Christians, Muslims, Circassians) military service; both sexes are obligated to military service; conscript service obligation - 32 months for enlisted men and about 24 months for enlisted women (varies based on military occupation), 48 months for officers; pilots commit to 9-year service; reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), age 24 (women) (2020)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3% of GDP (2020 est.)

4.2% of GDP (2019)

4.9% of GDP (2018)

4.5% of GDP (2017)

5.1% of GDP (2016)
5% of GDP (2019)

5% of GDP (2018)

5.5% of GDP (2017)

5.5% of GDP (2016)

5.5% of GDP (2015)
Military - notethe United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL) has operated in the country since 1978, originally under UNSCRs 425 and 426 to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security and assist the Lebanese Government in restoring its effective authority in the area; following the July-August 2006 war, the UN Security Council adopted resolution 1701 enhancing UNIFIL and deciding that in addition to the original mandate, it would, among other things, monitor the cessation of hostilities; accompany and support the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) as they deploy throughout the south of Lebanon; and extend its assistance to help ensure humanitarian access to civilian populations and the voluntary and safe return of displaced persons; UNIFIL had about 10,000 military personnel deployed in the country as of December 2020the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) has operated in the Golan between Israel and Syria since 1974 to monitor the ceasefire following the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and supervise the areas of separation between the two countries; as of July 2021, UNDOF consisted of about 1,250 personnel
Military and security service personnel strengthsthe Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have approximately 80,000 active troops (77,000 Army; 1,500 Navy; 1,500 AF) (2021)the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) have approximately 173,000 active personnel (130,000 Ground Forces; 9,000 Naval; 34,000 Air Force) (2021)
Military equipment inventories and acquisitionsthe LAF inventory includes a wide mix of mostly older equipment, largely from the US and European countries, particularly France and Germany; since 2010, the US is the leading supplier of armaments (mostly second hand equipment) to Lebanon (2019 est.)the majority of the IDF's inventory is comprised of weapons that are domestically-produced or imported from Europe and the US; since 2010, the US is by far the leading supplier of arms to Israel, followed by Germany; Israel has a broad defense industrial base that can develop, produce, support, and sustain a wide variety of weapons systems for both domestic use and export, particularly armored vehicles, unmanned aerial systems, air defense, and guided missiles (2021)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms area in the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force in Lebanon has been in place since 1978

West Bank is Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; in 2002, Israel began construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; as of mid-2020, plans were to continue barrier construction; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-controlled (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); in March 2019, the US Government recognized Israel's sovereignty over the Golan Heights; since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region

Illicit drugsLebanon is a transit country for hashish, cocaine, heroin, and fenethylene; fenethylene, cannabis, hashish, and some opium are produced in the Bekaa Valley; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and for Middle Eastern consumption; money laundering of drug proceeds fuels concern that extremists are benefiting from drug traffickingincreasingly concerned about ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and, increasingly, from Jordan; money-laundering center
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 476,033 (Palestinian refugees) (2020); 855,172 (Syria) (2021)

IDPs: 7,000 (2020)

stateless persons: undetermined (2016); note - tens of thousands of persons are stateless in Lebanon, including many Palestinian refugees and their descendants, Syrian Kurds denaturalized in Syria in 1962, children born to Lebanese women married to foreign or stateless men; most babies born to Syrian refugees, and Lebanese children whose births are unregistered
refugees (country of origin): 12,181 (Eritrea), 5,061 (Ukraine) (2019)

stateless persons: 42 (2020)


Terrorist Group(s)Abdallah Azzam Brigades; al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade; Asbat al-Ansar; Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps/Qods Force; Hizballah; al-Nusrah Front (Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham); Palestine Liberation Front; PFLP-General Command; Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T
Kahane Chai; Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine; Palestinian Islamic Jihad

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T


Air pollutantsparticulate matter emissions: 30.67 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 24.8 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 3.37 megatons (2020 est.)
particulate matter emissions: 19.46 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 65.17 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 13.02 megatons (2020 est.)
Total water withdrawalmunicipal: 240 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 900 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 700 million cubic meters (2017 est.)
municipal: 983 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 72 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1.249 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Revenue from forest resourcesforest revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)forest revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)
Revenue from coalcoal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)
Waste and recyclingmunicipal solid waste generated annually: 2.04 million tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 163,200 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 8% (2014 est.)
municipal solid waste generated annually: 5.4 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1.35 million tons (2017 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 25% (2017 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook