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Kyrgyzstan vs. Tajikistan

Introduction

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Background
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of the present-day Kyrgyz Republic was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. The Kyrgyz Republic became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in 2005 and 2010 resulted in the ouster of the country’s first two presidents, Askar AKAEV and Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Interim President Roza OTUNBAEVA led a transitional government and following a nation-wide election, President Almazbek ATAMBAEV was sworn in as president in 2011. In 2017, ATAMBAEV became the first Kyrgyzstani president to step down after serving one full six-year term as required in the country’s constitution. Former prime minister and ruling Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan member Sooronbay JEENBEKOV replaced him after winning an October 2017 presidential election that was the most competitive in the country’s history, although international and local election observers noted cases of vote buying and abuse of public resources. The president holds substantial powers as head of state even though the prime minister oversees the Kyrgyzstani Government and selects most cabinet members. The president represents the country internationally and can sign or veto laws, call for new elections, and nominate Supreme Court judges, cabinet members for posts related to security or defense, and numerous other high-level positions. Continuing concerns for the Kyrgyz Republic include the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, a history of tense, and at times violent, interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.

The Tajik people came under Russian imperial rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. At that time, bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but in 1929 the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between political, regional, and religious factions from 1992 to 1997.

Though the country holds general elections for both the presidency (once every seven years) and parliament (once every five years), observers note an electoral system rife with irregularities and abuse, with results that are neither free nor fair. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power in 1994 during the civil war, used an attack planned by a disaffected deputy defense minister in 2015 to ban the last major opposition political party in Tajikistan. In December 2015, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself declared "Founder of Peace and National Unity, Leader of the Nation," with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The referendum also lowered the minimum age required to run for president from 35 to 30, which would make RAHMON's son Rustam EMOMALI, the current mayor of the capital city of Dushanbe, eligible to run for president in 2020.

The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the WTO in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajikistani migrant laborers working in Russia and Kazakhstan, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade and other destabilizing violence emanating from neighboring Afghanistan. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. Tajikistan suffered its first ISIS-claimed attack in 2018, when assailants attacked a group of Western bicyclists with vehicles and knives, killing four.

Geography

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Location
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Geographic coordinates
41 00 N, 75 00 E
39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map references
Asia
Asia
Area
total: 199,951 sq km
land: 191,801 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
total: 144,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than South Dakota
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries
total: 4,573 km
border countries (4): China 1063 km, Kazakhstan 1212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1314 km
total: 4,130 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 1357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1312 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climate
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain
peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country
mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 2,988 m
lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
mean elevation: 3,186 m
lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resources
abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use
agricultural land: 55.4% (2011 est.)
arable land: 6.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 48.3% (2011 est.)
forest: 5.1% (2011 est.)
other: 39.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 34.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 6.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 27.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 2.9% (2011 est.)
other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
10,233 sq km (2012)
7,420 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
major flooding during snow melt; prone to earthquakes
earthquakes; floods
Environment - current issues
water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices; air pollution due to rapid increase of traffic
areas of high air pollution from motor vehicles and industry; water pollution from agricultural runoff and disposal of untreated industrial waste and sewage; poor management of water resources; soil erosion; increasing levels of soil salinity
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Population distribution
the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains
the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west

Demographics

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Population
5,964,897 (July 2020 est.)
8,873,669 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 30.39% (male 930,455/female 882,137)
15-24 years: 15.7% (male 475,915/female 460,604)
25-54 years: 40.02% (male 1,172,719/female 1,214,624)
55-64 years: 8.09% (male 210,994/female 271,480)
65 years and over: 5.8% (male 132,134/female 213,835) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 31.43% (male 1,420,271/female 1,368,445)
15-24 years: 18.13% (male 816,658/female 792,231)
25-54 years: 40.58% (male 1,789,271/female 1,811,566)
55-64 years: 6.23% (male 253,862/female 299,378)
65 years and over: 3.63% (male 132,831/female 189,156) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 27.3 years
male: 26.1 years
female: 28.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 25.3 years
male: 24.6 years
female: 26 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
0.96% (2020 est.)
1.52% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
20.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
21.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 98.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 28.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 71.8 years
male: 67.7 years
female: 76.2 years (2020 est.)
total population: 69 years
male: 65.9 years
female: 72.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.54 children born/woman (2020 est.)
2.51 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.2% (2019 est.)
0.2% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups
Kyrgyz 73.5%, Uzbek 14.7%, Russian 5.5%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.2% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2019 est.)
Tajik 84.3% (includes Pamiri and Yagnobi), Uzbek 13.8%, other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
10,000 (2019 est.)
14,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 90% (majority Sunni), Christian 7% (Russian Orthodox 3%), other 3% (includes Jewish, Buddhist, Baha'i) (2017 est.)
Muslim 98% (Sunni 95%, Shia 3%) other 2% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<500 (2019 est.)
<500 (2019 est.)
Languages
Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)
Tajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz .8%, Russian .5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.)

note: Russian widely used in government and business

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.5% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2019)
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
Education expenditures
7.2% of GDP (2017)
5.2% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 36.9% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.03% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 27.5% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 84.4% of population
total: 89.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 15.6% of population
total: 10.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 96.2% of population
rural: 78.6% of population
total: 83.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.8% of population
rural: 21.4% of population
total: 16.5% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 99.3% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0.7% of population
total: 2% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
1.038 million BISHKEK (capital) (2020)
916,000 DUSHANBE (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
1.8% (2018)
7.6% (2017)
Health expenditures
6.2% (2017)
7.2% (2017)
Physicians density
2.21 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.1 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density
4.4 beds/1,000 population (2014)
4.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
16.6% (2016)
14.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
22.9 years (2017 est.)
23.2 years (2017 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate
39.4% (2018)
29.3% (2017)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 59.7
youth dependency ratio: 52.1
elderly dependency ratio: 7.5
potential support ratio: 13.2 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 67.9
youth dependency ratio: 62.6
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3
potential support ratio: 18.7 (2020 est.)

Government

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Country name
conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: Kyrgyzstan
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "kyrg" (forty) and "-yz" (tribes) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) creating the meaning "Land of the Forty Tribes"; the name refers to the 40 clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Tajikistan literally means "Land of the Tajik [people]"
Government type
parliamentary republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Bishkek
geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: founded in 1868 as a Russian settlement on the site of a previously destroyed fortress named "Pishpek"; the name was retained and overtime became "Bishkek"
name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: today's city was originally at the crossroads where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe, which in Persian means Monday, i.e., the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe)
Administrative divisions
7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Bokhtar), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence
31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday
Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution
history: previous 1993; latest adopted by referendum 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010; note - constitutional amendments that bolstered some presidential powers and transferred others from the president to the prime minister passed in a referendum in December 2016, effective December 2017
amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president; amended 2017
history: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval of the president or approval by at least two-thirds majority of the Assembly of Representatives; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; constitutional articles, including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature, cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: Acting President Talant MAMYTOV (since 14 November 2020); President Sooronbay JEENBEKOV resigned on 16 October 2020 following massive protests brought on by disputed legislative election results of 4 October 2020
head of government: Acting Prime Minister Artem NOVIKOV (since 14 November 2020); note - Prime Minister Kubatbek BORONOV resigned on 9 October 2020 following massive protests brought on by disputed legislative election results of 4 October 2020
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 15 October 2017 (next to be held 10 January 2021); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council
election results: Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (SDPK) 54.2%, Omurbek BABANOV (Respublika) 33.5%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (Butun Kyrgyzstan) 6.6%, Temir SARIYEV (Akshumar) 2.5%, other 3.2%; note - JEENBEKOV resigned as president on 16 October 2020; BORONOV resigned as prime minister on 9 October 2020
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term for a maximum of two terms; however, as the "Leader of the Nation" President RAHMON can run an unlimited number of times; election last held on 11 October 2020 (next to be held in 2027); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 92.1%, Rustam LATIFZODA (APT) 3.1%, Rustam RAHAMATZODA (PERT) 2.2%, Abduhalim GHAFFOROV (SPT) 1.5%, Miroj ABDULLOEV (CPT) 1.2%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; parties directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members selected from party lists to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 October 2020 (next to be held NA); note - the results of the 2020 election were annulled on 6 October 2020 following mass protests
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of:
National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for each living former president; members serve 5-year terms)
Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections:
National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2020 (next to be held in 2025)
Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2020 (next to be held in 2025)
election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 28, women 6, percent of women 17.6%
Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 50.4%, PERT 16.6%, APT 16.5%, SPT 5.2%, DPT 5.1%, CPT 3.1%, other 3.1%; seats by party - PDPT 47, APT 7, PERT 5, CPT 2, SPT 1, DPT 1; composition - men 50, women 13, percent of women 20.6%; note - total Supreme Assembly percent of women 19.6%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, family, criminal, administrative offense, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, deputy chairman, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists of 16 judicial positions)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no term limits, but the last appointment must occur before the age of 65
subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Political parties and leaders
Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Almambet SHYKMAMATOV]
Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAYMANOV]
Kyrgyzstan Party [Almazbek BAATYRBEKOV]
Onuguu-Progress (Development-Progress) [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
Respublika-Ata-Jurt (Republic-Homeland) [Jyrgalbek TURUSKULOV] (parliamentary faction)
Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Almazbek ATAMBAEV, Isa OMURKULOV]
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOEV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar USMONZODA]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Rustam OUDRATOV]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV]
International organization participation
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Bolot I. OTUNBAEV (since 8 April 2018)
chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822
FAX: [1] (202) 449-8275
honorary consulate(s): Maple Valley (WA)
Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald LU (since 18 September 2018)
telephone: [996] (312) 597-000
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
mailing address: use embassy street address
FAX: [996] (312) 597-744
chief of mission: Ambassador John Mark POMMERSHEIM (since 15 March 2019)
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00, 992-37-229-2300 (consular direct line); EMER: 992-98-580-1032
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
Flag description
red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
National anthem
name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV

note: adopted 1992

name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV

note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
white falcon; national colors: red, yellow
crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; snow leopard; national colors: red, white, green
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application

Economy

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Economy - overview

Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to more than one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.

Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis and declining oil prices have dampened economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 3 to 5% of GDP.

Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. Large-scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow to develop. Many Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians complain that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states are hurting certain sectors of the Kyrgyz economy, such as meat and dairy production, in which they have comparative advantage. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to meet EAEU standards, though many local entrepreneurs believe this process as disjointed and incomplete. Kyrgyzstan’s economic development continues to be hampered by corruption, lack of administrative transparency, lack of diversity in domestic industries, and difficulty attracting foreign aid and investment.

Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, tungsten, and coal. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan is the poorest among the former Soviet republics. Because less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the predominant crop, Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food.

Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but its poor business climate remains a hindrance to attracting foreign investment. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30%-50% of GDP.

Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2017 were equivalent to nearly 35% of GDP. Tajikistan’s large remittances from migrant workers in Russia exposes it to monetary shocks. Tajikistan often delays devaluation of its currency for fear of inflationary pressures on food and other consumables. Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations have hampered economic growth. The dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by almost 65% in 2015, and the government spent almost $500 million in 2016 to bail out the country’s still troubled banking sector.

Tajikistan’s growing public debt – currently about 50% of GDP – could result in financial difficulties. Remittances from Russia increased in 2017, however, bolstering the economy somewhat. China owns about 50% of Tajikistan’s outstanding debt. Tajikistan has borrowed heavily to finance investment in the country’s vast hydropower potential. In 2016, Tajikistan contracted with the Italian firm Salini Impregilo to build the Roghun dam over a 13-year period for $3.9 billion. A 2017 Eurobond has largely funded Roghun’s first phase, after which sales from Roghun’s output are expected to fund the rest of its construction. The government has not ruled out issuing another Eurobond to generate auxiliary funding for its second phase.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$23.15 billion (2017 est.)
$22.14 billion (2016 est.)
$21.22 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$28.43 billion (2017 est.)
$26.55 billion (2016 est.)
$24.83 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
4.6% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
7.1% (2017 est.)
6.9% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$3,700 (2017 est.)
$3,600 (2016 est.)
$3,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$3,200 (2017 est.)
$3,000 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 14.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 31.2% (2017 est.)
services: 54.2% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 28.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 25.5% (2017 est.)
services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
32.1% (2015 est.)
31.5% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: NA (2009 est.)
highest 10%: NA (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
3.2% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
7.3% (2017 est.)
5.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force
2.841 million (2017 est.)
2.295 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 48%
industry: 12.5%
services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
agriculture: 43%
industry: 10.6%
services: 46.4% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate
3.18% (2019 est.)
2.59% (2018 est.)
2.4% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)

note: official rate; actual unemployment is much higher

Distribution of family income - Gini index
33.4 (2007)
29 (2001)
32.6 (2006)
34.7 (1998)
Budget
revenues: 2.169 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.409 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 2.269 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.374 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, lumber, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
aluminum, cement, coal, gold, silver, antimony, textile, vegetable oil
Industrial production growth rate
10.9% (2017 est.)
1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports
$1.84 billion (2017 est.)
$1.544 billion (2016 est.)
$873.1 million (2017 est.)
$691.1 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners
Switzerland 59.1%, Uzbekistan 9.4%, Kazakhstan 5.1%, Russia 4.9%, UK 4% (2017)
Turkey 27.5%, China 17.7%, Russia 13.4%, Switzerland 12.5%, Algeria 8.2%, Iran 7.1% (2017)
Imports
$4.187 billion (2017 est.)
$3.709 billion (2016 est.)
$2.39 billion (2017 est.)
$2.554 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners
China 32.6%, Russia 24.8%, Kazakhstan 16.4%, Turkey 4.8%, US 4.2% (2017)
Russia 38%, Kazakhstan 19%, China 8.7%, Iran 4.4% (2017)
Debt - external
$8.164 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.182 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.75 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
soms (KGS) per US dollar -
68.35 (2017 est.)
69.914 (2016 est.)
69.914 (2015 est.)
64.462 (2014 est.)
53.654 (2013 est.)
Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
8.764 (2017 est.)
7.8358 (2016 est.)
7.8358 (2015 est.)
6.1631 (2014 est.)
4.9348 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
56% of GDP (2017 est.)
55.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
50.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
42% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$2.177 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.292 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$652.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$306 million (2017 est.)
-$792 million (2016 est.)
-$35 million (2017 est.)
-$362 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$7.565 billion (2017 est.)
$7.144 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$6.003 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$709.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$655.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.3 billion (31 December 2009)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$165 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$165 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$79 million (31 December 2010 est.)

NA

Central bank discount rate
5% (31 December 2016)
8% (31 December 2015)
16% (20 March 2017)
6.5% (31 December 2012)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
18.49% (31 December 2017 est.)
22.23% (31 December 2016 est.)
30% (31 December 2017 est.)
24.24% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$1.856 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.444 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.06 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.711 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$1.698 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.411 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.389 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.108 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$1.698 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.411 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.389 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.108 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
28.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
31.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 14.2%
male: 10.1%
female: 22.3% (2018 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 85.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 18.9% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 33.2% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1.8% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 39.7% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -79% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 98.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 13.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 11.7% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 2.5% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 10.7% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -36.6% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
27.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
15.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Electricity - production
13.04 billion kWh (2016 est.)
17.03 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
10.52 billion kWh (2016 est.)
12.96 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
184 million kWh (2015 est.)
1.4 billion kWh NA (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports
331 million kWh (2016 est.)
103 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
1,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
180 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
4,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
40 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
12 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
28.32 million cu m (2017 est.)
19.82 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
186.9 million cu m (2017 est.)
19.82 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
169.9 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
4.046 million kW (2016 est.)
5.508 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
24% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
6% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
76% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
94% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
6,996 bbl/day (2015 est.)
172 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
37,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
24,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
2,290 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
34,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
22,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
10.02 million Mt (2017 est.)
6.329 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 275,311
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4.66 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 471,090
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5.39 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 7,940,306
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134.4 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 9,747,803
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111.53 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.kg
.tj
Internet users
total: 2,222,732
percent of population: 38% (July 2018 est.)
total: 1,889,632
percent of population: 21.96% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: fixed-line phones declining quickly by roll-out of 4G LTE mobile networks; digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links; low fixed-line and fixed-broadband penetration and moderate mobile broadband penetration; international connectivity continues to grow; 4 mobile networks in operation; 4G networks cover over 50% of the nation, eventually 5G networks will be available (2020 )
domestic: fixed-line penetration 5 per 100 persons remains low and concentrated in urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership up to over 134 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States, 9 members post-Soviet Republics in EU) countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; an increase in mobile broadband penetration, but still in the early stages and remains low compared to those in the region; the country has endeavored to launch 4G/LTE services with mixed results; 7 major cities have 4G coverage; 5 major operators in the market (2020)
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns; fixed-line 5 per 100 and mobile-cellular 112 per 100 (2019)
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); 3 satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 355,640
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2018 est.)
total: 6,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
Broadcast media
state-funded public TV broadcaster KTRK has nationwide coverage; also operates Ala-Too 24 news channel which broadcasts 24/7 and 4 other educational, cultural, and sports channels; ELTR and Channel 5 are state-owned stations with national reach; the switchover to digital TV in 2017 resulted in private TV station growth; approximately 20 stations are struggling to increase their own content up to 50% of airtime, as required by law, instead of rebroadcasting primarily programs from Russian channels or airing unlicensed movies and music; 3 Russian TV stations also broadcast; state-funded radio stations and about 10 significant private radio stations also exist (2019)
state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)

Transportation

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Railways
total: 424 km (2018)
broad gauge: 424 km 1.520-m gauge (2018)
total: 680 km (2014)
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
Roadways
total: 34,000 km (2018)
total: 30,000 km (2018)
Waterways
600 km (2010)
200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
Pipelines
3566 km gas (2018), 16 km oil (2013)
549 km gas, 38 km oil (2013)
Airports
total: 28 (2013)
total: 24 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 18 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2017)
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
total: 17 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 10 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 7 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 5 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 17
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 709,198 (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 492,320 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.34 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
EX (2016)
EY (2016)

Military

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Military branches
Kyrgyz Armed Forces: Land Forces, Air Defense Forces, National Guard; State Border Service; Internal Troops (2019)
Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan: Land Forces, Mobile Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces; National Guard; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Troops (reserves for Armed Forces in wartime); State Committee on National Security: Border Guard Forces (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation (9 months for university graduates), with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2016)
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 12-18 month conscript service obligation (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.5% of GDP (2019)
1.6% of GDP (2018)
1.6% of GDP (2017)
1.7% of GDP (2016)
1.8% of GDP (2015)
1.2% of GDP (2015)
1.1% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2012)
1.1% of GDP (2011)
note: no public data available for 2013, 2016-2018

Transnational Issues

KyrgyzstanTajikistan
Disputes - international

disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of approximately 15% or 200 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas

in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan

Illicit drugs
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates
Tajikistan sits on one of the world's highest volume illicit drug trafficking routes, between Afghan opiate production to the south and the illicit drug markets of Russia and Eastern Europe to the north; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; significant consumer of opiates
Refugees and internally displaced persons
stateless persons: 58 (2019)
stateless persons: 7,151 (2019)

Source: CIA Factbook