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Kenya vs. Nigeria

Introduction

KenyaNigeria
BackgroundFounding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when Vice President Daniel MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982, after which time the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) changed the constitution to make itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which approximately 1,100 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister following the first presidential election under the new constitution, which occurred in March 2013. Uhuru KENYATTA won the election and was sworn into office in April 2013; he began a second term in November 2017.
British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election is considered the most well run in Nigeria since the return to civilian rule, with the umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeating the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999.

Geography

KenyaNigeria
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates1 00 N, 38 00 E
10 00 N, 8 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 580,367 sq km
land: 569,140 sq km
water: 11,227 sq km
total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparativefive times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundariestotal: 3,457 km
border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km
total: 4,477 km
border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1,608 km
Coastline536 km
853 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatevaries from tropical along coast to arid in interior
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrainlow plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 762 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
mean elevation: 380 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resourceslimestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 48.1%
arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 37.4%
forest: 6.1%
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 78%
arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%
forest: 9.5%
other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,030 sq km (2012)
2,930 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
periodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issueswater pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
Population distributionpopulation heavily concentrated in the west along the shore of Lake Victoria; other areas of high density include the capital of Nairobi, and in the southeast along the Indian Ocean coast
largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest

Demographics

KenyaNigeria
Population47,615,739
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
190,632,261
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 40.02% (male 9,557,274/female 9,497,870)
15-24 years: 19.15% (male 4,552,448/female 4,567,894)
25-54 years: 33.91% (male 8,170,264/female 7,976,751)
55-64 years: 3.92% (male 856,092/female 1,009,075)
65 years and over: 3% (male 614,751/female 813,320) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 42.54% (male 41,506,288/female 39,595,720)
15-24 years: 19.61% (male 19,094,899/female 18,289,513)
25-54 years: 30.74% (male 30,066,196/female 28,537,846)
55-64 years: 3.97% (male 3,699,947/female 3,870,080)
65 years and over: 3.13% (male 2,825,134/female 3,146,638) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.7 years
male: 19.6 years
female: 19.9 years (2017 est.)
total: 18.4 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 18.5 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.69% (2017 est.)
2.43% (2017 est.)
Birth rate23.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
36.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 37.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 41.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 69.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 74.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 64.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64.3 years
male: 62.8 years
female: 65.8 years (2017 est.)
total population: 53.8 years
male: 52.8 years
female: 55 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.98 children born/woman (2017 est.)
5.07 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate5.4% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groupsKikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1.6 million (2016 est.)
3.2 million (2016 est.)
ReligionsChristian 83% (Protestant 47.7%, Catholic 23.4%, other Christian 11.9%), Muslim 11.2%, Traditionalists 1.7%, other 1.6%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2009 est.)
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
HIV/AIDS - deaths36,000 (2016 est.)
160,000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78%
male: 81.1%
female: 74.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2009)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Education expenditures5.3% of GDP (2015)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 26.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.15% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 49.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 81.6% of population
rural: 56.8% of population
total: 63.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.4% of population
rural: 43.2% of population
total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 80.8% of population
rural: 57.3% of population
total: 68.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.2% of population
rural: 42.7% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 31.2% of population
rural: 29.7% of population
total: 30.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.8% of population
rural: 70.3% of population
total: 69.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 25.4% of population
total: 29% of population
unimproved:
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 74.6% of population
total: 71% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationNAIROBI (capital) 3.915 million; Mombassa 1.104 million (2015)
Lagos 13.123 million; Kano 3.587 million; Ibadan 3.16 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.44 million; Port Harcourt 2.343 million; Benin City 1.496 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate510 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
814 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight11% (2014)
19.4% (2015)
Health expenditures5.7% of GDP (2014)
3.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate7.1% (2016)
8.9% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
Demographic profileKenya has experienced dramatic population growth since the mid-20th century as a result of its high birth rate and its declining mortality rate. More than 40% of Kenyans are under the age of 15 because of sustained high fertility, early marriage and childbearing, and an unmet need for family planning. Kenya’s persistent rapid population growth strains the labor market, social services, arable land, and natural resources. Although Kenya in 1967 was the first sub-Saharan country to launch a nationwide family planning program, progress in reducing the birth rate has largely stalled since the late 1990s, when the government decreased its support for family planning to focus on the HIV epidemic. Government commitment and international technical support spurred Kenyan contraceptive use, decreasing the fertility rate (children per woman) from about 8 in the late 1970s to less than 5 children twenty years later, but it has plateaued at just over 3 children today.
Kenya is a source of emigrants and a host country for refugees. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenyans pursued higher education in the UK because of colonial ties, but as British immigration rules tightened, the US, the then Soviet Union, and Canada became attractive study destinations. Kenya’s stagnant economy and political problems during the 1980s and 1990s led to an outpouring of Kenyan students and professionals seeking permanent opportunities in the West and southern Africa. Nevertheless, Kenya’s relative stability since its independence in 1963 has attracted hundreds of thousands of refugees escaping violent conflicts in neighboring countries; Kenya shelters more than 300,000 Somali refugees as of April 2017.
Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.
Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.
Contraceptive prevalence rate66.3% (2015)
20.4% (2016)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 78.3
youth dependency ratio: 73.7
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 88.2
youth dependency ratio: 83
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)

Government

KenyaNigeria
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
etymology: named for Mount Kenya; the meaning of the name is unclear but may derive from the Kikuyu, Embu, and Kamba words ""kirinyaga,"" ""kirenyaa,"" and ""kiinyaa"" - all of which mean ""God's resting place""
"
"conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term ""Ni Gir"" meaning ""River Gir""
"
Government typepresidential republic
federal presidential republic
Capitalname: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Independence12 December 1963 (from the UK)
1 October 1960 (from the UK)
National holidayJamhuri Day (Independence Day), 12 December (1963); note - Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963) marks the day Kenya attained internal self-rule
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010
amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by petition of at least one million eligible voters; passage of amendments by Parliament requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses in each of two readings, approval in a referendum by majority of votes cast by at least 20% participation of eligible voters in at least one-half of Kenya’s counties, and approval by the president; passage of amendments introduced by petition requires approval by a majority of county assemblies, approval by majority vote of both houses, and approval by the president (2017)
history: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two-thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures requires at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two-thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state require at least two-thirds majority by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two-thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2012 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - position of the prime minister abolished after the March 2013 elections
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in at least 24 of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 26 October 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: Uhuru KENYATTA reelected president in vote held 26 October 2017; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (Jubilee Party) 98.3%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 1%, other 0.7%; note - Kenya held a previous presidential electin on 8 August 2017, but Kenya's Supreme Court on 1 September 2017 nullified the results, citing irregularities; the political opposition boycotted the October vote
"chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi ""Yemi"" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi ""Yemi"" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by 'qualified' majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held on 19 February 2019)
election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 54%, Goodluck JONATHAN (PDP) 45%, other 1%
"
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral parliament consists of the Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2021)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Party 24; National Super Alliance 28, other 14, independent 1
National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Party 140, National Super Alliance 62, other 118
description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 60, PDP 49; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 225, PDP 125, other 10
note: Senate - seats by party as of April 2017 - APC 66, PDP 43 (with continuing defections to the APC)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves a nonrenewable 10-year term or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates' courts; religious courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
Political parties and leadersAlliance Party of Kenya or APK [Kiraitu MURUNGI]
Amani National Congress [Musalia MUDAVADI]
Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA]
Jubilee Party [Uhuru KENYATTA]
Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU]
National Super Alliance (includes ODM, ANC, WDM-K, FORD-K) [Raila ODINGA]
Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
All Progressives Congress or APC [John Odigie OYEGUN]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Ali Modu SHERIFF]
Political pressure groups and leadersAfrican Center for Open Governance or AfriCOG [Gladwell OTIENO]
Anglican Church of Kenya [Archbishop Jackson Nasoore Ole SAPIT]
Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed KHALIFA]
Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya
Kenya Association of Manufacturers
Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [George KEGORO]
Kenya Private Sector Alliance
Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal John NJUE]
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Adan WACHU]
other: labor unions, other Christian churches
Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
other: media
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robinson Njeru GITHAE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvanus Adiewere NSOFOR (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC (since 16 January 2013)
embassy: United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P.O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
chief of mission: Ambassador W. Stuart SYMINGTON (since 1 December 2016)
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036
consulate(s): Lagos
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
National anthem"name: ""Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"" (Oh God of All Creation)
lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song
"
"name: ""Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey""
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: black, red, green, white
eagle; national colors: green, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Economy

KenyaNigeria
Economy - overviewKenya is the economic, financial, and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged over 5% for the last eight years. Since 2014, Kenya has been ranked as a lower middle income country because its per capita GDP crossed a World Bank threshold. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class and steady growth, its economic and development trajectory could be impaired by weak governance and corruption. Although reliable numbers are hard to find, unemployment and under-employment are extremely high, and could be near 40% of the population.

Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing one-third of GDP. About 75% of Kenya’s population of roughly 44.2 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production.

Inadequate infrastructure continues to hamper Kenya’s efforts to improve its annual growth to the 8%-10% range so that it can meaningfully address poverty and unemployment. The KENYATTA administration has been successful in courting external investment for infrastructure development. International financial institutions and donors remain important to Kenya's economic growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market. Kenya issued its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014. Nairobi has contracted with a Chinese company to construct a new standard gauge railway connecting Mombasa and Nairobi, with completion expected in June 2017. In 2013, the country adopted a devolved system of government with the creation of 47 counties, and is in the process of devolving state revenues and responsibilities to the counties. Inflationary pressures and sharp currency depreciation peaked in early 2012 but have since abated following low global food and fuel prices and monetary interventions by the Central Bank. Drought-like conditions in parts of the country have pushed 2017 inflation above 8%. Chronic budget deficits, including a shortage of funds in mid-2015, hampered the government’s ability to implement proposed development programs, but the economy is back in balance with many indicators, including foreign exchange reserves, interest rates, and FDI moving in the right direction. Underlying weaknesses were exposed in the banking sector in 2016 when the government was forced to take over three small and undercapitalized banks. In 2016, the government enacted legislation that limits interest rates banks can charge on loans and set a rate that banks must pay their depositors. This measure led to a sharp shrinkage of credit in the economy.

Tourism holds a significant place in Kenya’s economy. A spate of terrorist attacks by the Somalia-based group al-Shabaab reduced international tourism earning after their deadly 2013 attack on Nairobi’s Westgate mall, which killed 67 people, but the sector is now recovering. In 2016, tourist arrivals grew by 17% while revenues from tourism increased by 37%.
Nigeria is one of Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economies and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-09 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels; however, over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people still live in extreme poverty.

Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production had been contracting every year since 2012 until a slight rebound in 2017.

President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management, but his reliance on the Central Bank governor has led to overwhelmingly protectionist policies aimed at defending the naira from further devaluation. President BUHARI ran on an anti-corruption platform, and has made some headway in alleviating corruption, such as an implementation of a Treasury Single Account that allows the government to better manage its resources. The government also is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.

Partly because of lower oil prices, Nigeria entered a recession in 2016. However, GDP growth turned positive, with oil prices recovering and output stabilizing in 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$163.4 billion (2017 est.)
$155.6 billion (2016 est.)
$147 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$1.118 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.109 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.127 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5% (2017 est.)
5.8% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)
0.8% (2017 est.)
-1.6% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,500 (2017 est.)
$3,400 (2016 est.)
$3,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$5,900 (2017 est.)
$6,000 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 35%
industry: 17.6%
services: 47.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 21.6%
industry: 18.3%
services: 60.1% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line43.4% (2012 est.)
70% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8% (2017 est.)
6.3% (2016 est.)
16.3% (2017 est.)
15.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force19.82 million (2017 est.)
60.08 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 61.1%
industry: 6.7%
services: 32.2% (2005 est.)
agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate40% (2013 est.)
40% (2001 est.)
13.4% (2017 est.)
13.4% (2017 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index42.5 (2008 est.)
44.9 (1997)
48.8 (2013)
50.6 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: $15.37 billion
expenditures: $20.18 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $13.97 billion
expenditures: $22.15 billion (2017 est.)
Industriessmall-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Industrial production growth rate7% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productstea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Exports$6.397 billion (2017 est.)
$5.747 billion (2016 est.)
$40.81 billion (2017 est.)
$34.7 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiestea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
Exports - partnersUganda 10.1%, Tanzania 8.6%, US 7.7%, Netherlands 7.4%, UK 7.3%, UAE 4.6%, Pakistan 4.5% (2016)
India 34%, US 9%, Spain 5.9%, France 5.8%, South Africa 5.5%, Canada 5.1% (2016)
Imports$14.52 billion (2017 est.)
$13.64 billion (2016 est.)
$35.24 billion (2017 est.)
$35.24 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partnersChina 24.1%, India 11.2%, UAE 7.7%, Japan 5.4% (2016)
China 20.3%, US 8.3%, Belgium 7.6%, UK 4.4%, Netherlands 4.1% (2016)
Debt - external$24.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$35.23 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$31.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesKenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
104 (2017 est.)
101.504 (2016 est.)
101.504 (2015 est.)
98.179 (2014 est.)
87.921 (2013 est.)
nairas (NGN) per US dollar -
323.5 (2017 est.)
253 (2016 est.)
253 (2015 est.)
192.73 (2014 est.)
158.55 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
calendar year
Public debt52.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
53.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
14.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$7.592 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.601 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$31.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.75 billion (2017 est.)
-$3.653 billion (2016 est.)
$7.667 billion (2017 est.)
$2.722 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$78.4 billion (2016 est.)
$394.8 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$6.196 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.317 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$118 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$113.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA (31 December 2017 est.)
$NA (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.04 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$15.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$26.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$22.09 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$14.79 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate11.5% (20 January 2016)
7% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2010)
6% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate14.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.58% (31 December 2016 est.)
17.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.87% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$36.59 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$29.88 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$79.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$89.18 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$13.03 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.77 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$37.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$29.29 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.86 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.97 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$77.91 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues19.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
3.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-6.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
-2.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 77%
government consumption: 13.7%
investment in fixed capital: 17.1%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 13.9%
imports of goods and services: -21.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 79%
government consumption: 6.8%
investment in fixed capital: 14.4%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 12.5%
imports of goods and services: -13.5% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving15.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
14.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
13.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

KenyaNigeria
Electricity - production9.548 billion kWh (2015 est.)
29.83 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption7.666 billion kWh (2015 est.)
24.57 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports45 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports67 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
1.871 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports11,870 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
2.279 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
37.06 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
5.284 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
45.15 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
26.86 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
26.33 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.301 million kW (2015 est.)
10.48 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels31.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
80.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants35.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
19.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources53.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production14,320 bbl/day (2014 est.)
70,140 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption93,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
316,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports345.2 bbl/day (2014 est.)
11,010 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports76,090 bbl/day (2014 est.)
180,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy13 million Mt (2013 est.)
97 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 35,400,000
electrification - total population: 20%
electrification - urban areas: 60%
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)
population without electricity: 95,500,000
electrification - total population: 45%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 37% (2013)

Telecommunications

KenyaNigeria
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 72,801
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 154,513
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 38,982,188
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2016 est.)
total: 154,342,168
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the mobile-cellular system is generally good, especially is urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, privatized in 2013 and is now 60% owned by Helios Investment Partners, a London-based equity fund, and 40% owned by the Kenyan Government; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 83 per 100 persons in 2016
international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2016)
general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.ke
.ng
Internet userstotal: 12,165,597
percent of population: 26.0% (July 2016 est.)
total: 47,759,904
percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediaabout a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2014)
nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

KenyaNigeria
Railwaystotal: 3,806 km
narrow gauge: 3,334 km 1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 472 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 3,798 km
standard gauge: 293 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 161,452 km
paved: 14,420 km (8,500 km highways, 1,872 urban roads, and 4,048 rural roads)
unpaved: 147,032 km (2017)
total: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
Waterwaysnone specifically; the only significant inland waterway is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)
8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
Pipelinesoil 4 km; refined products 928 km (2013)
condensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa
LNG terminal(s) (import): Mombasa
major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island
Merchant marinetotal: 20
by type: oil tanker 2, other 18 (2017)
total: 583
by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 83, other 486 (2017)
Airports197 (2013)
54 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 16
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 181
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 107
under 914 m: 60 (2013)
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 16
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 106
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,874,590
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 286,414,683 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 16
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 73
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,223,459
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 22,400,657 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix5Y (2016)
5N (2016)

Military

KenyaNigeria
Military branchesKenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2012)
Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.4% of GDP (2017)
1.32% of GDP (2016)
1.32% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.56% of GDP (2013)
0.43% of GDP (2016)
0.42% of GDP (2015)
0.41% of GDP (2014)
0.47% of GDP (2013)
0.5% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

KenyaNigeria
Disputes - international"Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to an estimated 580,000 refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle,"" which Kenya has administered since colonial times
"
Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
Illicit drugswidespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities
a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 285,705 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 111,361 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 35,490 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 27,979 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 12,759 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers); 9,962 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 138,000 (represents people displaced since the 1990s by ethnic and political violence and land disputes and who sought refuge mostly in camps; persons who took refuge in host communities or were evicted in urban areas are not included in the data; data is not available on pastoralists displaced by cattle rustling, violence, natural disasters, and development projects; the largest displacement resulted from 2007-08 post-election violence (2016)
stateless persons: 20,000 (2016); note - the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards
IDPs: 1,702,680 (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook