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Israel vs. West Bank

Economy

IsraelWest Bank
Economy - overview"Israel has a technologically advanced free market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among its leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are offset by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows.

Between 2004 and 2013, growth averaged nearly 5% per year, led by exports. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals, following years of prudent fiscal policy and a resilient banking sector. Israel's economy also weathered the 2011 Arab Spring because strong trade ties outside the Middle East insulated the economy from spillover effects.

Slowing domestic and international demand and decreased investment resulting from Israel’s uncertain security situation reduced GDP growth to an average of roughly 2.8% per year during the period 2014-17. Natural gas fields discovered off Israel's coast since 2009 have brightened Israel's energy security outlook. The Tamar and Leviathan fields were some of the world's largest offshore natural gas finds in the last decade. Political and regulatory issues have delayed the development of the massive Leviathan field, but production from Tamar provided a 0.8% boost to Israel's GDP in 2013 and a 0.3% boost in 2014. One of the most carbon intense OECD countries, Israel generates about 57% of its power from coal and only 2.6% from renewable sources.

Income inequality and high housing and commodity prices continue to be a concern for many Israelis. Israel's income inequality and poverty rates are among the highest of OECD countries, and there is a broad perception among the public that a small number of ""tycoons"" have a cartel-like grip over the major parts of the economy. Government officials have called for reforms to boost the housing supply and to increase competition in the banking sector to address these public grievances. Despite calls for reforms, the restricted housing supply continues to impact the well-being of younger Israelis seeking to purchase homes. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers, coupled with guaranteed prices and customs tariffs for farmers kept food prices high in 2016. Private consumption is expected to drive growth through 2018 with consumers benefitting from low inflation and a strong currency.

In the long term, Israel faces structural issues, including low labor participation rates for its fastest growing social segments - the ultraorthodox and Arab-Israeli communities. Also, Israel's progressive, globally competitive, knowledge-based technology sector employs only about 8% of the workforce, with the rest mostly employed in manufacturing and services - sectors which face downward wage pressures from global competition. Expenditures on educational institutions remain low compared to most other OECD countries with similar GDP per capita.
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Israeli-Palestinian violence in 2015 exacerbated challenges to economic growth in the West Bank - the larger of the two areas comprising the Palestinian Territories. Increased security restrictions and political instability slowed economic activity, and Israel’s four-month withholding of taxes and other fees it collects on the Palestinian Authority’s (PA) behalf caused the PA to delay salary payments to its employees, which in turn had broader effects on business activity and consumer demand.

Longstanding Israeli closure policies continue to disrupt labor and trade flows and the territory’s industrial capacity, limit imports and exports, and constrain private sector development. The PA for the foreseeable future will continue to rely heavily on donor aid for its budgetary needs and economic activity.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$315.6 billion (2017 est.)
$306.1 billion (2016 est.)
$294.5 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$21.22 billion (2014 est.)
$20.15 billion (2013 est.)
$19.95 billion (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2014 US dollars; includes Gaza Strip
GDP - real growth rate3.1% (2017 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2015 est.)
5.3% (2014 est.)
1% (2013 est.)
6% (2012 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
GDP - per capita (PPP)$36,200 (2017 est.)
$35,800 (2016 est.)
$35,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$4,300 (2014 est.)
$4,400 (2013 est.)
$4,600 (2012 est.)
note: includes Gaza Strip
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.3%
industry: 26.6%
services: 69.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 3%
industry: 21.1%
services: 62.5%
note: excludes Gaza Strip (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line22%
note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2014 est.)
18% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2010)
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 28.2%
note: includes Gaza Strip (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.2% (2017 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2017 est.)
-0.2% (2016 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
Labor force4.021 million (2017 est.)
1.24 million
note: excludes Gaza Strip (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 1.1%
industry: 17.3%
services: 81.6% (2015)
agriculture: 11.5%
industry: 34.4%
services: 54.1%
note: excludes Gaza Strip (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate4.3% (2017 est.)
4.8% (2016 est.)
26.7% (2017 est.)
26.9% (2016 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
Distribution of family income - Gini index42.8 (2013)
39.2 (2008)
34.5 (2009 est.)
38.7 (2007 est.)
note: includes Gaza Strip
Budgetrevenues: $92.82 billion
expenditures: $102.1 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $1.314 billion
expenditures: $1.278 billion
note: includes Palestinian Authority expenditures in the Gaza Strip (2017 est.)
Industrieshigh-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear
small-scale manufacturing, quarrying, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs
Industrial production growth rate4% (2017 est.)
4%
note: includes Gaza Strip (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscitrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
olives, citrus fruit, vegetables; beef, dairy products
Exports$60.6 billion (2017 est.)
$56.17 billion (2016 est.)
$1.955 billion (2017 est.)
$1.827 billion (2016 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
stone, olives, fruit, vegetables, limestone
Imports$66.76 billion (2017 est.)
$63.54 billion (2016 est.)
$6.476 billion (2017 est.)
$6.11 billion (2016 est.)
note: data include the Gaza Strip
Imports - commoditiesraw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
food, consumer goods, construction materials, petroleum, chemicals
Debt - external$93.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$87.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.662 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.467 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: data include the Gaza Strip
Exchange ratesnew Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.606 (2017 est.)
3.8406 (2016 est.)
3.8406 (2015 est.)
3.8869 (2014 est.)
3.5779 (2013 est.)
new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.606 (2017 est.)
3.841 (2016 est.)
3.841 (2015 est.)
3.8869 (2014 est.)
3.5779 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt59.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
60.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
23.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$113 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$95.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$312.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$583 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$14.28 billion (2017 est.)
$11.57 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.444 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.348 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$348 billion (2016 est.)
$9.828 billion (2014 est.)
note: excludes Gaza Strip
Market value of publicly traded shares$243.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$200.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$203.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.339 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.187 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.247 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate3.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.42% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$280.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$257.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.041 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.712 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$98.28 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$79.58 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$382 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$317 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$223.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$189 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.901 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.538 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues26.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
13.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8.6%
male: 8.2%
female: 9.1% (2016 est.)
total: 40.7%
male: 36.4%
female: 60.8%
note: includes Gaza Strip (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.4%
government consumption: 22%
investment in fixed capital: 20.5%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 29.8%
imports of goods and services: -27.9% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 91.3%
government consumption: 26.7%
investment in fixed capital: 23%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 20%
imports of goods and services: -61%
note: excludes Gaza Strip (2017 est.)
Gross national saving24.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
7.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
9.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
5% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: includes Gaza Strip

Source: CIA Factbook