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Israel vs. West Bank

Introduction

IsraelWest Bank
Background
The State of Israel was declared in 1948, after Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine. The UN proposed partitioning the area into Arab and Jewish states, and Arab armies that rejected the UN plan were defeated. Israel was admitted as a member of the UN in 1949 and saw rapid population growth, primarily due to migration from Europe and the Middle East, over the following years. Israel fought wars against its Arab neighbors in 1967 and 1973, followed by peace treaties with Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994. Israel took control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the 1967 war, and subsequently administered those territories through military authorities. Israel and Palestinian officials signed a number of interim agreements in the 1990s that created an interim period of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza. Israel withdrew from Gaza in 2005. While the most recent formal efforts to negotiate final status issues occurred in 2013-2014, the US continues its efforts to advance peace. Immigration to Israel continues, with 28,600 new immigrants, mostly Jewish, in 2016. The Israeli economy has undergone a dramatic transformation in the last 25 years, led by cutting-edge, high-tech sectors. Offshore gas discoveries in the Mediterranean, most notably in the Tamar and Leviathan gas fields, place Israel at the center of a potential regional natural gas market. However, longer-term structural issues such as low labor force participation among minority populations, low workforce productivity, high costs for housing and consumer staples, and a lack of competition, remain a concern for many Israelis and an important consideration for Israeli politicians. Prime Minister Benjamin NETANYAHU has led the Israeli Government since 2009; he formed a center-right coalition following the 2015 elections. Three Knesset elections held in April and September 2019 and March 2020 all failed to form a new government. The political stalemate was finally resolved in April 2020 when NETANYAHU and Blue and White party leader Benny GANTZ signed an agreement to form a coalition government. Under the terms of the agreement, NETANYAHU would remain as prime minister until October 2021 when GANTZ would succeed him. On 15 September 2020, Israel signed a peace agreement, the Abraham Accords – brokered by the US – with Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates in Washington DC. Israel signed similar peace agreements with Egypt (1979) and Jordan (1994).

Inhabited since at least the 15th century B.C., the West Bank has been dominated by many different peoples throughout its history; it was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in the early 16th century. The West Bank fell to British forces during World War I, becoming part of the British Mandate of Palestine. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the West Bank was captured by Transjordan (later renamed Jordan), which annexed the West Bank in 1950; it was captured by Israel in the Six-Day War in 1967. Under a series of agreements known as the Oslo accords signed between 1993 and 1999, Israel transferred to the newly created Palestinian Authority (PA) security and civilian responsibility for many Palestinian-populated areas of the West Bank as well as the Gaza Strip. In 2000, a violent intifada or uprising began, and in 2001 negotiations to determine the permanent status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip stalled. Subsequent attempts to re-start direct negotiations have not resulted in progress toward determining final status of the area.

Roughly 60% of the West Bank, remains under Israeli civil and military control. In early 2006, the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) won a majority in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) election. Attempts to form a unity government between Fatah, the dominant Palestinian political faction in the West Bank, and HAMAS failed, leading to violent clashed between their respective supporters and HAMAS's violent siezure of all military and governmental institutions in the Gaza Strip in June 2007. Since 2007, the PA has administered parts of the West Bank under its control, mainly the major Palestinian population centers and areas immediately surrounding them. Fatah and HAMAS have made several attempts at reconciliation, but the factions have been unable to implement agreements including the latest agreement signed in October 2017. In December 2018, the Palestinian Constitutional Court dissolved the PLC. In 2019, PA President ABBAS renewed his calls for PLC elections.

Geography

IsraelWest Bank
Location
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Middle East, west of Jordan, east of Israel
Geographic coordinates
31 30 N, 34 45 E
32 00 N, 35 15 E
Map references
Middle East
Middle East
Area
total: 21,937 sq km
land: 21,497 sq km
water: 440 sq km
total: 5,860 sq km
land: 5,640 sq km
water: 220 sq km

note: includes West Bank, Latrun Salient, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus; East Jerusalem and Jerusalem No Man's Land are also included only as a means of depicting the entire area occupied by Israel in 1967

Area - comparative
slightly larger than New Jersey
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries
total: 1,065 km
border countries (6): Egypt 206 km, Gaza Strip 59 km, Jordan 336 km (20 km are within the Dead Sea), Lebanon 107 km, Syria 79 km, West Bank 278 km
total: 478 km
border countries (2): Israel 330 km, Jordan 148 km
Coastline
273 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climate
temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
temperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters
Terrain
Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
mostly rugged, dissected upland in west, flat plains descending to Jordan River Valley to the east
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 508 m note - does not include elevation data from the Golan Heights
lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m
highest point: Mitspe Shlagim 2,224 m; note - this is the highest named point, the actual highest point is an unnamed dome slightly to the west of Mitspe Shlagim at 2,236 m; both points are on the northeastern border of Israel, along the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range
lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m
highest point: Khallat al Batrakh 1,020 m
Natural resources
timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
arable land
Land use
agricultural land: 23.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 13.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 3.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 6.3% (2011 est.)
forest: 7.1% (2011 est.)
other: 69.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 43.3% (2011 est.)
arable land: 7.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 11% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 24.9% (2011 est.)
forest: 1.5% (2011 est.)
other: 55.2% (2011 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip

Irrigated land
2,250 sq km (2012)
240 sq km; note - includes Gaza Strip (2012)
Natural hazards
sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
droughts
Environment - current issues
limited arable land and restricted natural freshwater resources; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
adequacy of freshwater supply; sewage treatment
Geography - note
note 1: Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source; the Dead Sea is the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lake Assal in Djibouti)

note 2: the Malham Cave in Mount Sodom is the world's longest salt cave at 10 km (6 mi); its survey is not complete and its length will undoubtedly increase; Mount Sodom is actually a hill some 220 m (722 ft) high that is 80% salt (multiple salt layers covered by a veneer of rock)

note 3: in March 2019, there were 380 Israeli settlements,to include 213 settlements and 132 outposts in the West Bank, and 35 settlements in East Jerusalem; there are no Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, as all were evacuated in 2005 (2019)
landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers; there are about 380 Israeli civilian sites, including about 213 settlements and 132 small outpost communities in the West Bank and 35 sites in East Jerusalem (2017)
Population distribution
population concentrated in and around Tel-Aviv, as well as around the Sea of Galilee; the south remains sparsely populated with the exception of the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba
Palestinian settlements are primarily located in the central to western half of the territory; Jewish settlements are found in pockets throughout, particularly in the northeast, north-central, and around Jerusalem

Demographics

IsraelWest Bank
Population
8,675,475 (includes populations of the Golan Heights or Golan Sub-District and also East Jerusalem, which was annexed by Israel after 1967) (July 2020 est.)

note: approximately 22,900 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2018); approximately 215,900 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2017)

2,900,034 (July 2020 est.)

note: approximately 418,600 Israeli settlers live in the West Bank (2018); approximately 215,900 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2014)

Age structure
0-14 years: 26.76% (male 1,187,819/female 1,133,365)
15-24 years: 15.67% (male 694,142/female 665,721)
25-54 years: 37.2% (male 1,648,262/female 1,579,399)
55-64 years: 8.4% (male 363,262/female 365,709)
65 years and over: 11.96% (male 467,980/female 569,816) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 35.31% (male 525,645/female 498,458)
15-24 years: 20.75% (male 307,420/female 294,469)
25-54 years: 35.19% (male 516,758/female 503,626)
55-64 years: 5.12% (male 76,615/female 72,006)
65 years and over: 3.62% (male 48,387/female 56,650) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 30.4 years
male: 29.8 years
female: 31 years (2020 est.)
total: 21.9 years
male: 21.7 years
female: 22.2 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
1.46% (2020 est.)
1.77% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
17.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
25.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
3.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 101.1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 103.5 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 83 years
male: 81.1 years
female: 85 years (2020 est.)
total population: 75.9 years
male: 73.8 years
female: 78.1 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.59 children born/woman (2020 est.)
3.07 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.2% (2018)
NA
Nationality
noun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli
noun: NA
adjective: NA
Ethnic groups
Jewish 74.4% (of which Israel-born 76.9%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 15.9%, Africa-born 4.6%, Asia-born 2.6%), Arab 20.9%, other 4.7% (2018 est.)
Palestinian Arab, Jewish, other
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
9,000 (2018)
NA
Religions
Jewish 74.3%, Muslim 17.8%, Christian 1.9%, Druze 1.6%, other 4.4% (2018 est.)
Muslim 80-85% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 12-14%, Christian 1-2.5% (mainly Greek Orthodox), other, unaffiliated, unspecified <1% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<100 (2018)
NA
Languages
Hebrew (official), Arabic (special status under Israeli law), English (most commonly used foreign language)
Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many Palestinians), English (widely understood)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98.7%
female: 96.8% (2011)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.2%
male: 98.7%
female: 95.7% (2018)

note: estimates are for Gaza and the West Bank

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2018)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2019)

note: data represent Gaza Strip and the West Bank

Education expenditures
5.8% of GDP (2016)
5.3% of GDP (2017)

note: includes Gaza Strip and the West Bank

Urbanization
urban population: 92.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.64% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 76.7% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

note: data represent Gaza Strip and the West Bank

Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 97.1% of population
total: 96.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 2.9% of population
total: 3.2% of population (2017 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip and the West Bank

Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 99.3% of population
total: 99.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0.7% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2017 est.)

note: note includes Gaza Strip and the West Bank

Maternal mortality rate
3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
27 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

note: data represent Gaza Strip and the West Bank

Physicians density
3.48 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
1.45 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2018)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 67.3
youth dependency ratio: 46.6
elderly dependency ratio: 20.8
potential support ratio: 4.8 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 71.2
youth dependency ratio: 65.7
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
potential support ratio: 18.2 (2020 est.)

note: data represent Gaza Strip and the West Bank

Government

IsraelWest Bank
Country name
conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
etymology: named after the ancient Kingdom of Israel; according to Biblical tradition, the Jewish patriarch Jacob received the name "Israel" ("He who struggles with God") after he wrestled an entire night with an angel of the Lord; Jacob's 12 sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who formed the Kingdom of Israel
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: West Bank
etymology: name refers to the location of the region - occupied and administered by Jordan after 1948 - that fell on the far side (west bank) of the Jordan River in relation to Jordan proper; the designation was retained following the 1967 Six-Day War and the subsequent changes in government

Economy

IsraelWest Bank
Economy - overview

Israel has a technologically advanced free market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among its leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are offset by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows.

Between 2004 and 2013, growth averaged nearly 5% per year, led by exports. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals, following years of prudent fiscal policy and a resilient banking sector. Israel's economy also weathered the 2011 Arab Spring because strong trade ties outside the Middle East insulated the economy from spillover effects.

Slowing domestic and international demand and decreased investment resulting from Israel’s uncertain security situation reduced GDP growth to an average of roughly 2.8% per year during the period 2014-17. Natural gas fields discovered off Israel's coast since 2009 have brightened Israel's energy security outlook. The Tamar and Leviathan fields were some of the world's largest offshore natural gas finds in the last decade. Political and regulatory issues have delayed the development of the massive Leviathan field, but production from Tamar provided a 0.8% boost to Israel's GDP in 2013 and a 0.3% boost in 2014. One of the most carbon intense OECD countries, Israel generates about 57% of its power from coal and only 2.6% from renewable sources.

Income inequality and high housing and commodity prices continue to be a concern for many Israelis. Israel's income inequality and poverty rates are among the highest of OECD countries, and there is a broad perception among the public that a small number of "tycoons" have a cartel-like grip over the major parts of the economy. Government officials have called for reforms to boost the housing supply and to increase competition in the banking sector to address these public grievances. Despite calls for reforms, the restricted housing supply continues to impact younger Israelis seeking to purchase homes. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers, coupled with guaranteed prices and customs tariffs for farmers kept food prices high in 2016. Private consumption is expected to drive growth through 2018, with consumers benefitting from low inflation and a strong currency.

In the long term, Israel faces structural issues including low labor participation rates for its fastest growing social segments - the ultraorthodox and Arab-Israeli communities. Also, Israel's progressive, globally competitive, knowledge-based technology sector employs only about 8% of the workforce, with the rest mostly employed in manufacturing and services - sectors which face downward wage pressures from global competition. Expenditures on educational institutions remain low compared to most other OECD countries with similar GDP per capita.

In 2017, the economic outlook in the West Bank - the larger of the two areas comprising the Palestinian Territories – remained fragile, as security concerns and political friction slowed economic growth. Unemployment in the West Bank remained high at 19.0% in the third quarter of 2017, only slightly better than 19.6% at the same point the previous year, while the labor force participation rate remained flat, year-on-year.

Longstanding Israeli restrictions on imports, exports, and movement of goods and people continue to disrupt labor and trade flows and the territory’s industrial capacity, and constrain private sector development. The PA’s budget benefited from an effort to improve tax collection, coupled with lower spending in 2017, but the PA for the foreseeable future will continue to rely heavily on donor aid for its budgetary needs and infrastructure development.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$317.1 billion (2017 est.)
$307 billion (2016 est.)
$295.3 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$21.22 billion (2014 est.)
$20.15 billion (2013 est.)
$19.95 billion (2012 est.)

note: data are in 2014 US dollars; includes Gaza Strip

GDP - real growth rate
3.28% (2019 est.)
3.69% (2018 est.)
3.63% (2017 est.)
5.3% (2014 est.)
1% (2013 est.)
6% (2012 est.)

note: excludes Gaza Strip

GDP - per capita (PPP)
$36,400 (2017 est.)
$35,900 (2016 est.)
$35,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$4,300 (2014 est.)
$4,400 (2013 est.)
$4,600 (2012 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 2.4% (2017 est.)
industry: 26.5% (2017 est.)
services: 69.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 2.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 19.5% (2017 est.)
services: 77.6% (2017 est.)

note: excludes Gaza Strip

Population below poverty line
22% (2014 est.) (2014 est.)

note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day

18% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2010)
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 28.2% (2009 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip

Inflation rate (consumer prices)
0.2% (2017 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)
0.2% (2017 est.)
-0.2% (2016 est.)

note: excludes Gaza Strip

Labor force
3.893 million (2020 est.)
1.24 million (2017 est.)

note: excludes Gaza Strip

Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 17.3%
services: 81.6% (2015 est.)
agriculture: 11.5%
industry: 34.4%
services: 54.1% (2013 est.)

note: excludes Gaza Strip

Unemployment rate
3.81% (2019 est.)
4% (2018 est.)
27.9% (2017 est.)
27% (2016 est.)

note: excludes Gaza Strip

Distribution of family income - Gini index
42.8 (2013)
39.2 (2008)
34.5 (2009 est.)
38.7 (2007 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip

Budget
revenues: 93.11 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 100.2 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 1.314 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.278 billion (2017 est.)

note: includes Palestinian Authority expenditures in the Gaza Strip

Industries
high-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear
small-scale manufacturing, quarrying, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs
Industrial production growth rate
3.5% (2017 est.)
2.2% (2017 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip

Agriculture - products
citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
olives, citrus fruit, vegetables; beef, dairy products
Exports
$58.67 billion (2017 est.)
$56.17 billion (2016 est.)
$2.126 billion (2017 est.)
$1.827 billion (2016 est.)

note: excludes Gaza Strip

Exports - commodities
machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
stone, olives, fruit, vegetables, limestone
Imports
$68.61 billion (2017 est.)
$63.9 billion (2016 est.)
$6.565 billion (2017 est.)
$6.207 billion (2016 est.)

note: data include the Gaza Strip

Imports - commodities
raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
food, consumer goods, construction materials, petroleum, chemicals
Debt - external
$88.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$87.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.662 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.467 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: data include the Gaza Strip
Exchange rates
new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.606 (2017 est.)
3.8406 (2016 est.)
3.8406 (2015 est.)
3.8869 (2014 est.)
3.5779 (2013 est.)
new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.606 (2017 est.)
3.841 (2016 est.)
3.841 (2015 est.)
3.8869 (2014 est.)
3.5779 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
60.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
62.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
23.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$113 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$95.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$0 (31 December 2017 est.)
$583 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance
$13.411 billion (2019 est.)
$7.888 billion (2018 est.)
-$1.444 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.348 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$350.7 billion (2017 est.)
$9.828 billion (2014 est.)

note: excludes Gaza Strip

Market value of publicly traded shares
$243.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$200.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$203.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.339 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.187 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.247 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
3.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.42% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.8% (31 December 2017 est.)
6.15% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$290.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$257.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.211 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.712 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$100.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$79.58 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$416.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$317.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$100.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$79.58 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$416.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$317.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
26.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
13.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
0.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 7.2%
male: 6.9%
female: 7.4% (2018 est.)
total: 42.2%
male: 37%
female: 69.4% (2018 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip

GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 55.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 22.8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 20.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 28.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -27.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 91.3% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 26.7% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 20% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -61% (2017 est.)

note: excludes Gaza Strip

Gross national saving
23.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
25% of GDP (2015 est.)
7.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
9.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
5% of GDP (2012 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip

Energy

IsraelWest Bank
Electricity - production
63.09 billion kWh (2016 est.)
1.093 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
6.489 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
5.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
5.473 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
390 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
231,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
12.73 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018)
Natural gas - proved reserves
176 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
9.826 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
9.995 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
509.7 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
17.59 million kW (2016 est.)
170,000 kW (2016 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip

Electricity - from fossil fuels
95% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
78% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
22% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
294,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
242,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
24,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
111,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
19 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
98,860 bbl/day (2017 est.)
22,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
73.82 million Mt (2017 est.)
3.113 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

note: data for West Bank and Gaza Strip combined

Telecommunications

IsraelWest Bank
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 3,050,693
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35.68 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 472,293 (includes Gaza Strip) (2017 est.)
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (includes Gaza Strip) (2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 10,839,024
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126.77 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 4,135,363 (includes Gaza Strip) (2017 est.)
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (includes Gaza Strip) (2017 est.)
Internet country code
.il
.psnote - same as Gaza Strip
Internet users
total: 6,873,037
percent of population: 81.58% (July 2018 est.)
total: 2.673 million (includes Gaza Strip)
percent of population: 57.4% (July 2016 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: one of the most highly developed system in the Middle East; mobile broadband 100% population penetration; consumers enjoy inexpensive 3G and 4G cellular service; fixed broadband available to 99% of all households; 6 mobile operators in fierce competition; in 2019 govt. began process of 5G licensing (2020)
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; competition among both fixed-line and mobile cellular providers results in good coverage countrywide; fixed-line 36 per 100 and 127 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2019)
international: country code - 972; landing points for the MedNautilus Submarine System, Tameres North, Jonah and Lev Submarine System, submarine cables that provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: continuing political and economic instability has impeded liberalization of the telecommunications industry (2018)
domestic: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed-line services; two Palestinian cellular providers, JAWWAL and WATANIYA MOBILE, launched 3G mobile networks in the West Bank in January 2018 after Israel lifted its ban; fixed-line 9 per 100 and mobile-cellular 76 per 100 (includes Gaza Strip) (2019)
international: country code 970 or 972; 1 international switch in Ramallah
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 2.41 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2018 est.)
total: 371,299
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2017 est.)

note: includes Gaza Strip

Broadcast media
the Israel Broadcasting Corporation (est 2015) broadcasts on 3 channels, two in Hebrew and the other in Arabic; multi-channel satellite and cable TV packages provide access to foreign channels; the Israeli Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts on 8 radio networks with multiple repeaters and Israel Defense Forces Radio broadcasts over multiple stations; about 15 privately owned radio stations; overall more than 100 stations and repeater stations (2019)
the Palestinian Authority operates 1 TV and 1 radio station; about 20 private TV and 40 radio stations; both Jordanian TV and satellite TV are accessible

Transportation

IsraelWest Bank
Roadways
total: 19,555 km (2017)
paved: 19,555 km (includes 449 km of expressways) (2017)
total: 4,686 km (2010)
paved: 4,686 km (2010)

note: includes Gaza Strip

Airports
total: 42 (2020)
total: 2 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 33 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 8
total: 2 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports
3 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

IsraelWest Bank
Military branches
Israel Defense Forces (IDF): Ground Forces, Israel Naval Force (IN, includes commandos), Israel Air Force (IAF, includes air defense); Ministry of Public Security: Border Police (2019)
note: the Border Police is a unit within the Israel Police with its own organizational and command structure; it works both independently as well as in cooperation with or in support of the Israel Police and Israel Defense Force
per the Oslo Accords, the PA is not permitted a conventional military but maintains security and police forces; PA security personnel have operated almost exclusively in the West Bank since HAMAS seized power in the Gaza Strip in 2007; PA forces include National Security Forces, Presidential Guard, Civil Police, Civil Defense, Preventative Security Organization, the General Intelligence Organization, and the Military Intelligence Organization (2020)

Transnational Issues

IsraelWest Bank
Disputes - international

West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-controlled (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region

the current status of the West Bank is subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew from Gaza and four settlements in the northern West Bank in August 2005; since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), headquartered in Jerusalem, monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 12,181 (Eritrea), 5,061 (Ukraine) (2019)
stateless persons: 42 (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 858,758 (Palestinian refugees) (2020)
IDPs: 243,000 (includes persons displaced within the Gaza strip due to the intensification of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict since June 2014 and other Palestinian IDPs in the Gaza Strip and West Bank who fled as long ago as 1967, although confirmed cumulative data do not go back beyond 2006) (2019)

Terrorism

IsraelWest Bank
Terrorist groups - foreign based
HAMAS: aim(s): grow its political and operational presence in the West Bank
area(s) of operation: mostly political activity; small cells scattered throughout the West Bank for militant and illicit finance purposes (2018)
Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps -- Qods Force (IRGC-QF):

aim(s):  launch attacks against Israel, reduce Israel’s presence and influence in the West Bank, and destroy the state of Israel; works through proxies and allies such as Hamas, Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ), Palestine Liberation Front (PLF), and Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)

area(s) of operations:  West Bank

(2019)
Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ): aim(s): enhance its staging capabilities in the West Bank to launch attacks against Israel
area(s) of operation: mostly political activity; strives to maintain an operational presence (2018)
Palestine Liberation Front (PLF): aim(s): enhance its networks in the West Bank and, ultimately, destroy the state of Israel; establish a secular, Marxist Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital
area(s) of operation: maintains a recruitment and training presence in some of the West Bank's refugee camps (2018)
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP): aim(s): bolster its recruitment networks in the West Bank
area(s) of operation: mostly political activity, maintains a recruitment presence targeting youths (2018)
Terrorist groups - home based
Kahane Chai (Kach): aim(s): expel Arabs from Israel's biblical lands and, ultimately, restore the biblical state of Israel
area(s) of operation: Israel and West Bank settlements
note: considered to be operationally inactive in recent years ( 2018)
Kahane Chai (Kach): aim(s): restore the biblical state of Israel; expel Arabs from Israel's biblical lands
area(s) of operation: present in West Bank Jewish settlements, especially the Qiryat Arba' settlement in Hebron, where operatives have conducted bombings and shootings against Muslim and Christian Palestinians; operationally inactive in recent years (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook