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Iraq vs. Syria

Demographics

IraqSyria
Population
38,872,655 (July 2020 est.)
19,398,448 (July 2020 est.)

note: approximately 22,000 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2016)

Age structure
0-14 years: 37.02% (male 7,349,868/female 7,041,405)
15-24 years: 19.83% (male 3,918,433/female 3,788,157)
25-54 years: 35.59% (male 6,919,569/female 6,914,856)
55-64 years: 4.23% (male 805,397/female 839,137)
65 years and over: 3.33% (male 576,593/female 719,240) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 33.47% (male 3,323,072/female 3,170,444)
15-24 years: 19.34% (male 1,872,903/female 1,879,564)
25-54 years: 37.31% (male 3,558,241/female 3,679,596)
55-64 years: 5.41% (male 516,209/female 534,189)
65 years and over: 4.46% (male 404,813/female 459,417) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 21.2 years
male: 20.8 years
female: 21.6 years (2020 est.)
total: 23.5 years
male: 23 years
female: 24 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.16% (2020 est.)
4.25% NA (2020 est.)
Birth rate
25.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
23.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
3.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
4.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
27.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population NA (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 101.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 99.5 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 19.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 16.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 72.6 years
male: 70.7 years
female: 74.6 years (2020 est.)
total population: 73.7 years
male: 72.3 years
female: 75.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
3.39 children born/woman (2020 est.)
2.9 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
NA
<.1% (2019)
Nationality
noun: Iraqi(s)
adjective: Iraqi
noun: Syrian(s)
adjective: Syrian
Ethnic groups
Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, other 5% (includes Turkmen, Yezidi, Shabak, Kaka'i, Bedouin, Romani, Assyrian, Circassian, Sabaean-Mandaean, Persian)

note: data is a 1987 government estimate; no more recent reliable numbers are available

Arab ~50%, Alawite ~15%, Kurd ~10%, Levantine ~10%, other ~15% (includes Druze, Ismaili, Imami, Nusairi, Assyrian, Turkoman, Armenian)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
NA
<1000 (2019)
Religions
Muslim (official) 95-98% (Shia 64-69%, Sunni 29-34%), Christian 1% (includes Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Assyrian Church of the East), other 1-4% (2015 est.)

note: while there has been voluntary relocation of many Christian families to northern Iraq, the overall Christian population has decreased at least 50% and perhaps as high as 90% since the fall of the SADDAM Husayn regime in 2003, according to US Embassy estimates, with many fleeing to Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon

Muslim 87% (official; includes Sunni 74% and Alawi, Ismaili, and Shia 13%), Christian 10% (includes Orthodox, Uniate, and Nestorian), Druze 3%, Jewish (few remaining in Damascus and Aleppo)
note:  the Christian population may be considerably smaller as a result of Christians fleeing the country during the ongoing civil war
HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
<100 (2019)
Languages
Arabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turkmen (a Turkish dialect), Syriac (Neo-Aramaic), and Armenian are official in areas where native speakers of these languages constitute a majority of the population
Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, French, English
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 50.1%
male: 56.2%
female: 44% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.4%
male: 91.7%
female: 81% (2015)
Education expenditures
NA
5.1% of GDP (2009)
Urbanization
urban population: 70.9% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.06% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 55.5% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 98.8% of population
rural: 95% of population
total: 97.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.2% of population
rural: 5% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 99% of population
rural: 99.3% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 1% of population
rural: 0.7% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 89.7% of population
total: 95.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 10.3% of population
total: 4.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 98.6% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 1.4% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
7.144 million BAGHDAD (capital), 1.630 million Mosul, 1.352 million Basra, 1.013 million Kirkuk, 874,000 Najaf, 846,000 Erbil (2020)
2.392 million DAMASCUS (capital), 1.917 million Aleppo, 1.336 million Hims (Homs), 922,000 Hamah (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
79 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
31 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
3.9% (2018)
5.8% (2009/10)
Physicians density
0.84 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
1.29 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
1.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
30.4% (2016)
27.8% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
52.8% (2018)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 69.9
youth dependency ratio: 64.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.4
youth dependency ratio: 47.8
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6
potential support ratio: 13.2 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook