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Iraq vs. Saudi Arabia

Demographics

IraqSaudi Arabia
Population
38,872,655 (July 2020 est.)
34,173,498 (July 2020 est.)

note: immigrants make up 38.3% of the total population, according to UN data (2019)

Age structure
0-14 years: 37.02% (male 7,349,868/female 7,041,405)
15-24 years: 19.83% (male 3,918,433/female 3,788,157)
25-54 years: 35.59% (male 6,919,569/female 6,914,856)
55-64 years: 4.23% (male 805,397/female 839,137)
65 years and over: 3.33% (male 576,593/female 719,240) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 24.84% (male 4,327,830/female 4,159,242)
15-24 years: 15.38% (male 2,741,371/female 2,515,188)
25-54 years: 50.2% (male 10,350,028/female 6,804,479)
55-64 years: 5.95% (male 1,254,921/female 778,467)
65 years and over: 3.63% (male 657,395/female 584,577) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 21.2 years
male: 20.8 years
female: 21.6 years (2020 est.)
total: 30.8 years
male: 33 years
female: 27.9 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.16% (2020 est.)
1.6% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
25.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
14.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
3.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
3.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
4.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 101.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.52 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.61 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female
total population: 130.2 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 19.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 11.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 72.6 years
male: 70.7 years
female: 74.6 years (2020 est.)
total population: 76.2 years
male: 74.6 years
female: 77.8 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
3.39 children born/woman (2020 est.)
1.95 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
NA
<.1% (2016 est.)
Nationality
noun: Iraqi(s)
adjective: Iraqi
noun: Saudi(s)
adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Ethnic groups
Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, other 5% (includes Turkmen, Yezidi, Shabak, Kaka'i, Bedouin, Romani, Assyrian, Circassian, Sabaean-Mandaean, Persian)

note: data is a 1987 government estimate; no more recent reliable numbers are available

Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
NA
8,200 (2016 est.)
Religions
Muslim (official) 95-98% (Shia 64-69%, Sunni 29-34%), Christian 1% (includes Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Assyrian Church of the East), other 1-4% (2015 est.)

note: while there has been voluntary relocation of many Christian families to northern Iraq, the overall Christian population has decreased at least 50% and perhaps as high as 90% since the fall of the SADDAM Husayn regime in 2003, according to US Embassy estimates, with many fleeing to Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon

Muslim (official; citizens are 85-90% Sunni and 10-15% Shia), other (includes Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Sikh) (2012 est.)

note: despite having a large expatriate community of various faiths (more than 30% of the population), most forms of public religious expression inconsistent with the government-sanctioned interpretation of Sunni Islam are restricted; non-Muslims are not allowed to have Saudi citizenship and non-Muslim places of worship are not permitted (2013)

HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
<500 (2016 est.)
Languages
Arabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turkmen (a Turkish dialect), Syriac (Neo-Aramaic), and Armenian are official in areas where native speakers of these languages constitute a majority of the population
Arabic (official)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 50.1%
male: 56.2%
female: 44% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.3%
male: 97.1%
female: 92.7% (2017)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: intermediate (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Iraq; as of 10 November 2020, Iraq has reported a total of 496,019 cases of COVID-19 or 12,332 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 281 cumulative deaths per 1 million population
note: sporadic cases of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are occurring throughout Saudi Arabia; as of 10 November 2020, Saudi Arabia has reported a total of 350,229 cases of COVID-19 or 10,060 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 159 cumulative deaths per 1 million population
Education expenditures
NA
NA
Urbanization
urban population: 70.9% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.06% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 84.3% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 98.8% of population
rural: 95% of population
total: 97.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.2% of population
rural: 5% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: total: 100% of population
unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 89.7% of population
total: 95.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 10.3% of population
total: 4.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: total: 100% of population
unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
7.144 million BAGHDAD (capital), 1.630 million Mosul, 1.352 million Basra, 1.013 million Kirkuk, 874,000 Najaf, 846,000 Erbil (2020)
7.231 million RIYADH (capital), 4.610 million Jeddah, 2.042 million Mecca, 1.489 million Medina, 1.253 million Ad Dammam (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
79 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
4.2% (2017)
5.2% (2017)
Physicians density
0.84 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
2.54 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
2.2 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
30.4% (2016)
35.4% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
52.8% (2018)
24.6% (2016)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 69.9
youth dependency ratio: 64.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 39.3
youth dependency ratio: 34.4
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.5 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook