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Indonesia vs. East Timor

Introduction

IndonesiaEast Timor
Background"The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted ""Guided Democracy."" After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his ""New Order"" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.
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The Portuguese began to trade with the island of Timor in the early 16th century and colonized it in mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty in which Portugal ceded the western portion of the island. Imperial Japan occupied Portuguese Timor from 1942 to 1945, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese defeat in World War II. East Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of Timor Timur (East Timor). An unsuccessful campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 people died. In an August 1999 UN-supervised popular referendum, an overwhelming majority of the people of Timor-Leste voted for independence from Indonesia. However, in the next three weeks, anti-independence Timorese militias - organized and supported by the Indonesian military - commenced a large-scale, scorched-earth campaign of retribution. The militias killed approximately 1,400 Timorese and forced 300,000 people into western Timor as refugees. Most of the country's infrastructure, including homes, irrigation systems, water supply systems, and schools, and nearly all of the country's electrical grid were destroyed. On 20 September 1999, Australian-led peacekeeping troops deployed to the country and brought the violence to an end. On 20 May 2002, Timor-Leste was internationally recognized as an independent state.
In 2006, internal tensions threatened the new nation's security when a military strike led to violence and a breakdown of law and order. At Dili's request, an Australian-led International Stabilization Force (ISF) deployed to Timor-Leste, and the UN Security Council established the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), which included an authorized police presence of over 1,600 personnel. The ISF and UNMIT restored stability, allowing for presidential and parliamentary elections in 2007 in a largely peaceful atmosphere. In February 2008, a rebel group staged an unsuccessful attack against the president and prime minister. The ringleader was killed in the attack, and most of the rebels surrendered in April 2008. Since the attack, the government has enjoyed one of its longest periods of post-independence stability, including successful 2012 elections for both the parliament and president and a successful transition of power in February 2015. In late 2012, the UN Security Council ended its peacekeeping mission in Timor-Leste and both the ISF and UNMIT departed the country.

Geography

IndonesiaEast Timor
LocationSoutheastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - Timor-Leste includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco
Geographic coordinates5 00 S, 120 00 E
8 50 S, 125 55 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Southeast Asia
Areatotal: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
total: 14,874 sq km
land: 14,874 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than three times the size of Texas
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundariestotal: 2,958 km
border countries (3): Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km, Timor-Leste 253 km
total: 253 km
border countries (1): Indonesia 253 km
Coastline54,716 km
706 km
Maritime claimsmeasured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
Terrainmostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
mountainous
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 367 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea 0 m
highest point: Foho Tatamailau 2,963 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble
Land useagricultural land: 31.2%
arable land 13%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 6.1%
forest: 51.7%
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 25.1%
arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 4.9%; permanent pasture 10.1%
forest: 49.1%
other: 25.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land67,220 sq km (2012)
350 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsoccasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
floods and landslides are common; earthquakes; tsunamis; tropical cyclones
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteaccording to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean; despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon
"Timor comes from the Malay word for ""east""; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands
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Population distributionmajor concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated
most of the population concentrated in the western third of the country, particularly around Dili

Demographics

IndonesiaEast Timor
Population260,580,739 (July 2017 est.)
1,291,358 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.02% (male 33,205,805/female 31,994,844)
15-24 years: 16.99% (male 22,537,842/female 21,738,210)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 56,493,414/female 53,980,979)
55-64 years: 8.58% (male 10,192,430/female 12,177,931)
65 years and over: 7.01% (male 7,954,795/female 10,304,489) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 40.91% (male 271,623/female 256,733)
15-24 years: 20.32% (male 133,254/female 129,166)
25-54 years: 29.95% (male 185,911/female 200,903)
55-64 years: 4.94% (male 32,168/female 31,680)
65 years and over: 3.87% (male 23,924/female 25,996) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 30.2 years
male: 29.6 years
female: 30.8 years (2017 est.)
total: 18.9 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 19.6 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.86% (2017 est.)
2.36% (2017 est.)
Birth rate16.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
33.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 35.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73 years
male: 70.4 years
female: 75.7 years (2017 est.)
total population: 68.4 years
male: 66.8 years
female: 70.1 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.11 children born/woman (2017 est.)
4.79 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.4% (2016 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
noun: Timorese
adjective: Timorese
Ethnic groupsJavanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) (includes Tetun, Mambai, Tokodede, Galoli, Kemak, Baikeno), Melanesian-Papuan (includes Bunak, Fataluku, Bakasai), small Chinese minority
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS620,000 (2016 est.)
NA
ReligionsMuslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 97.6%, Protestant/Evangelical 2%, Muslim 0.2%, other 0.2% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths38,000 (2016 est.)
NA
LanguagesBahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia
Tetun Prasa 30.6%, Mambai 16.6%, Makasai 10.5%, Tetun Terik 6.1%, Baikenu 5.9%, Kemak 5.8%, Bunak 5.5%, Tokodede 4%, Fataluku 3.5%, Waima'a 1.8%, Galoli 1.4%, Naueti 1.4%, Idate 1.2%, Midiki 1.2%, other 4.5%
note: data represent population by mother tongue; Tetun and Portuguese are official languages; Indonesian and English are working languages; there are about 32 indigenous languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 97.2%
female: 93.6% (2016 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.5%
male: 71.5%
female: 63.4% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
total: 13 years
male: 14 years
female: 13 years (2010)
Education expenditures3.3% of GDP (2014)
7.9% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 55.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 34% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 94.2% of population
rural: 79.5% of population
total: 87.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.8% of population
rural: 20.5% of population
total: 12.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 95.2% of population
rural: 60.5% of population
total: 71.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.8% of population
rural: 39.5% of population
total: 28.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 72.3% of population
rural: 47.5% of population
total: 60.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 27.7% of population
rural: 52.5% of population
total: 39.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 69% of population
rural: 26.8% of population
total: 40.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 31% of population
rural: 73.2% of population
total: 59.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationJAKARTA (capital) 10.323 million; Surabaya 2.853 million; Bandung 2.544 million; Medan 2.204 million; Semarang 1.63 million; Makassar 1.489 million (2015)
DILI (capital) 228,000 (2014)
Maternal mortality rate126 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
215 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight19.9% (2013)
37.7% (2013)
Health expenditures2.8% of GDP (2014)
1.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
5.9 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.9% (2016)
3.8% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 4,026,285
percentage: 7%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2009 est.)
total number: 10,510
percentage: 4% (2002 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
22.1 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009/10 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate61.1% (2015)
22.3% (2009/10)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49.2
youth dependency ratio: 41.6
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6
potential support ratio: 13.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 90.3
youth dependency ratio: 83.7
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6
potential support ratio: 15.2 (2015 est.)

Government

IndonesiaEast Timor
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, ""Indos"" (India) and ""nesoi"" (islands), meaning ""Indian islands""
"
"conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
conventional short form: Timor-Leste
note: pronounced TEE-mor LESS-tay
local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
former: East Timor, Portuguese Timor
etymology: ""timor"" derives from the Indonesian and Malay word ""timur"" meaning ""east""; ""leste"" is the Portuguese word for ""east"", so ""Timor-Leste"" literally means ""Eastern-East""; the local [Tetum] name ""Timor Lorosa'e"" translates as ""East Rising Sun""
"
Government typepresidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia has three time zones
name: Dili
geographic coordinates: 8 35 S, 125 36 E
time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
13 administrative districts; Aileu, Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro (Maliana), Cova-Lima (Suai), Dili, Ermera (Gleno), Lautem (Los Palos), Liquica, Manatuto, Manufahi (Same), Oecussi (Ambeno), Viqueque
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)
20 May 2002 (from Indonesia); note - 28 November 1975 was the date independence was proclaimed from Portugal; 20 May 2002 was the date of international recognition of Timor-Leste's independence from Indonesia
National holidayIndependence Day, 17 August (1945)
Restoration of Independence Day, 20 May (2002); Proclamation of Independence Day, 28 November (1975)
Constitution"drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002; note - an amendment on ""national character building and national consciousness awareness"" was pending parliamentary review in early 2016 (2016)
"
drafted 2001, approved 22 March 2002, entered into force 20 May 2002 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
civil law system based on the Portuguese model; note - penal and civil law codes to replace the Indonesian codes were passed by Parliament and promulgated in 2009 and 2011, respectively
Suffrage17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
17 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 July 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 53.2%, PRABOWO Subianto (GERINDRA) 46.8%
chief of state: President Francisco GUTERRES (since 20 May 2017); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is the commander in chief of the military and is able to veto legislation, dissolve parliament, and call national elections
head of government: Prime Minister Mari ALKATIRI (since 15 September 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 March 2017 (next to be held in 2022); following parliamentary elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the prime minister
election results: Francisco GUTERRES elected president; percent of vote - Francisco GUTERRES (FRETILIN) 57.1%, Antonio DA CONCEICAO (PD) 32.5%, Jose Luis GUTERRES (Frenti-Mudanca) 2.6%, Jose NEVES (independent) 2.3%, Luis Alves TILMAN (independent) 2.2%, other 3.4%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of the Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (132 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 33 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (560 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Council has no legislative authority
elections: last held on 9 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Regional Representative Council - all seats elected on a non-partisan basis; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19.0%, Golkar 14.8%, Gerindra 11.8%, PD 10.2%, PKB 9.0%, PAN 2.6%, PKS 6.8%, NasDem 6.7%, PPP 6.5%, Hanura 5.3%, other 7.9%; seats by party - PDI-P 109, Golkar 91, Gerindra 73, PD 61, PAN 48, PKB 47, PKS 40, PPP 39, NasDem 36, Hanura 16
description: unicameral National Parliament (65 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: elections were held on 22 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRETILIN 29.7%, CNRT 29.5%, PLP 10.6%, PD 9.8%, KHUNTO 6.4%, other 14%; seats by party - FRETILIN 23, CNRT 22, PLP 8, PD 7, KHUNTO 5
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the court president and NA judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic from among the other court judges to serve a 4-year term; other Supreme Court judges appointed - 1 by the Parliament and the others by the Supreme Council for the Judiciary, a body presided by the Supreme Court president and includes mostly presidential and parliamentary appointees; other Supreme Court judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Administrative, Tax, and Audit Court; district courts; magistrates' courts; military courts
note: the UN Justice System Programme, launched in 2003 in 4 phases through 2018, is helping strengthen the country's justice system; the Programme is aligned with the country's long-range Justice Sector Strategic Plan, which includes legal reform
Political parties and leadersDemocrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Setya NOVANTO]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Democratic Party or Nasdem [Surya PALOH]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Muhammad Sohibul IMAN]
United Development Party or PPP [Muhammad ROMAHURMUZIY]
Democratic Party or PD
Frenti-Mudanca [Jose Luis GUTERRES]
Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nasional Timor Oan or KHUNTO
National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction or CNRT [Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO]
People's Liberation Party or PLP [Taur Matan RUAK]
Revolutionary Front of Independent Timor-Leste or FRETILIN [Mari ALKATIRI]
Political pressure groups and leaders"Commission for the ""Disappeared"" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
"
NA
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IORA, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, MSG (associate member), NAM, OECD (enhanced engagement), OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, ADB, AOSIS, ARF, ASEAN (observer), CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Budi BOWOLEKSONO (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Domingos Sarmento ALVES (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 4201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 504, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-3202
FAX: [1] (202) 966-3205
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Joseph R. DONOVAN, Jr. (since 12 January 2017)
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate general: Surabaya
consulate: Medan
chief of mission: Ambassador Karen STANTON (since 16 January 2015)
embassy: Avenida de Portugal, Praia dos Coqueiros, Dili
mailing address: US Department of State, 8250 Dili Place, Washington, DC 20521-8250
telephone: (670) 332-4684
FAX: (670) 331-3206
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
red with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; a white star - pointing to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag - is in the center of the black triangle; yellow denotes the colonialism in Timor-Leste's past; black represents the obscurantism that needs to be overcome; red stands for the national liberation struggle; the white star symbolizes peace and serves as a guiding light
National anthem"name: ""Indonesia Raya"" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note: adopted 1945
"
"name: ""Patria"" (Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Fransisco Borja DA COSTA/Afonso DE ARAUJO
note: adopted 2002; the song was first used as an anthem when Timor-Leste declared its independence from Portugal in 1975; the lyricist, Fransisco Borja DA COSTA, was killed in the Indonesian invasion just days after independence was declared
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white
Mount Ramelau; national colors: red, yellow, black, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Timor-Leste
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

IndonesiaEast Timor
Economy - overviewIndonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to 33% today. While Fitch and Moody's Investors upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011, Standard & Poor’s has yet to raise Indonesia’s rating to this status amid several constraints to foreign direct investment in the country, such as a high level of protectionism.

Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.
Since independence in 1999, Timor-Leste has faced great challenges in rebuilding its infrastructure, strengthening the civil administration, and generating jobs for young people entering the work force. The development of offshore oil and gas resources has greatly supplemented government revenues. This technology-intensive industry, however, has done little to create jobs in part because there are no production facilities in Timor-Leste. Gas is currently piped to Australia for processing, but Timor-Leste has expressed interest in developing a domestic processing capacity.

In June 2005, the National Parliament unanimously approved the creation of the Timor-Leste Petroleum Fund to serve as a repository for all petroleum revenues and to preserve the value of Timor-Leste's petroleum wealth for future generations. The Fund held assets of $16 billion, as of mid-2016. Oil accounts for over 90% of government revenues, and the drop in the price of oil in 2014-16 has led to concerns about the long-term sustainability of government spending. Timor-Leste compensated for the decline in price by exporting more oil. The Ministry of Finance maintains that the Petroleum Fund is sufficient to sustain government operations for the foreseeable future.

Annual government budget expenditures increased markedly between 2009 and 2012 but dropped significantly through 2016. Historically, the government failed to spend as much as its budget allowed. The government has focused significant resources on basic infrastructure, including electricity and roads, but limited experience in procurement and infrastructure building has hampered these projects. The underlying economic policy challenge the country faces remains how best to use oil-and-gas wealth to lift the non-oil economy onto a higher growth path and to reduce poverty.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$3.243 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.084 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.937 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$6.211 billion (2017 est.)
$5.972 billion (2016 est.)
$5.688 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5.2% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
4% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$12,400 (2017 est.)
$11,900 (2016 est.)
$11,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$5,000 (2017 est.)
$4,900 (2016 est.)
$4,800 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 13.9%
industry: 40.3%
services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 9.4%
industry: 57.8%
services: 31.3% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line10.9% (2016 est.)
41.8% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 27% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)4% (2017 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
1% (2017 est.)
-1.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force126.1 million (2017 est.)
286,700 (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 32%
industry: 21%
services: 47% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 64%
industry: 10%
services: 26% (2010)
Unemployment rate5.4% (2017 est.)
5.6% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2014 est.)
3.9% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.8 (2009)
39.4 (2005)
31.9 (2007 est.)
38 (2002 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $130.6 billion
expenditures: $154.8 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $300 million
expenditures: $2.2 billion (2017 est.)
Industriespetroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth
Industrial production growth rate3.8% (2017 est.)
2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsrubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
coffee, rice, corn, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla
Exports$157.8 billion (2017 est.)
$144.4 billion (2016 est.)
$20 million (2016 est.)
$18 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts
oil, coffee, sandalwood, marble
note: potential for vanilla exports
Imports$142.3 billion (2017 est.)
$129 billion (2016 est.)
$558.6 million (2016 est.)
$652.9 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs
food, gasoline, kerosene, machinery
Debt - external$322.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$316.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$311.5 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$687 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange ratesIndonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
13,360.1 (2017 est.)
13,308.3 (2016 est.)
13,308.3 (2015 est.)
13,389.4 (2014 est.)
11,865.2 (2013 est.)
the US dollar is used
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt33.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
31.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
0% of GDP (2016)
0% of GDP (2015)
Current Account Balance-$17.03 billion (2017 est.)
-$16.77 billion (2016 est.)
-$153 million (2017 est.)
-$523 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1.011 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.716 billion (2016 est.)
note: non-oil GDP
Market value of publicly traded shares$428.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$353.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$422.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate11.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
11.89% (31 December 2016 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
14.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.22% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$436.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$397.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$-300 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$-200 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$107.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$92.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$559.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$464.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$407.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$372.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$788.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$733.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues12.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
11% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-70% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 22.6%
male: 22.3%
female: 23.1% (2015 est.)
total: 11.1%
male: 11.1%
female: 20% (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 57.5%
government consumption: 8.9%
investment in fixed capital: 32.1%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 19.2%
imports of goods and services: -18.4% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 19.7%
government consumption: 30.7%
investment in fixed capital: 21.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 79.6%
imports of goods and services: -51.2% (2017 est.)

Energy

IndonesiaEast Timor
Electricity - production221.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption199.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports13 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production831,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
49,240 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports507,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports289,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
74,230 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves3.23 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves2.775 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
200 billion cu m (1 January 2006 es)
Natural gas - production72.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
7.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption53.15 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports30.29 billion cu m (2015 est.)
7.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports1.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity57.35 million kW (2015 est.)
NA kW (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production990,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption1.708 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
3,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports98,780 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports668,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3,055 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy442 million Mt (2013 est.)
500,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 48,700,000
electrification - total population: 81%
electrification - urban areas: 94%
electrification - rural areas: 66% (2013)
population without electricity: 744,032
electrification - total population: 42%
electrification - urban areas: 78%
electrification - rural areas: 27% (2012)

Telecommunications

IndonesiaEast Timor
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 10,372,912
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,720
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 385,573,398
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 149 (July 2016 est.)
total: 1,492,124
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 118 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: rudimentary service in urban and some rural areas, which is expanding with the entrance of new competitors
domestic: system suffered significant damage during the violence associated with independence; limited fixed-line services; mobile-cellular services have been expanding and are now available in urban and most rural areas
international: country code - 670; international service is available (2016)
Internet country code.id
.tl
Internet userstotal: 65,525,226
percent of population: 25.4% (July 2016 est.)
total: 318,373
percent of population: 25.2% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediamixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)
7 TV stations (2 nationwide satellite coverage; 3 terrestrial coverage, mostly in Dili; 2 cable) and 21 radio stations (3 nationwide coverage) (2017)

Transportation

IndonesiaEast Timor
Roadwaystotal: 496,607 km
paved: 283,102 km
unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
total: 6,040 km
paved: 2,600 km
unpaved: 3,440 km (2005)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
container port(s) (TEUs): Belawan (1,197,000), Tanjung Priok (5,154,000) (2015)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh
LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java
major seaport(s): Dili
Airports673 (2013)
6 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 186
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 37 (2017)
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 487
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 460 (2013)
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports76 (2013)
8 (2013)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixPK (2016)
4W (2016)

Military

IndonesiaEast Timor
Military branchesIndonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)
Timor-Leste Defense Force (Falintil-Forcas de Defesa de Timor-L'este, Falintil (F-FDTL)): Army, Navy (Armada) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; 18-month service obligation; no conscription but, as of May 2013, introduction of conscription was under discussion (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.88% of GDP (2016)
0.89% of GDP (2015)
0.78% of GDP (2014)
0.92% of GDP (2013)
0.71% of GDP (2012)
2.56% of GDP (2015)
2.12% of GDP (2014)
2.42% of GDP (2013)
2.58% of GDP (2012)
1.79% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

IndonesiaEast Timor
Disputes - internationalIndonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Economic Exclusion Zone boundaries have been established between the countries; maritime boundaries with Indonesia remain unresolved; in 2007, Australia and Timor-Leste signed a 50-year development zone and revenue sharing agreement in lieu of a maritime boundary
Illicit drugsillicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers
NA

Source: CIA Factbook