Home

India vs. Pakistan

Introduction

IndiaPakistan
Background

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.

By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent and India was seen as the "Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring countries have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. India's economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991, a massive youthful population, and a strategic geographic location have contributed to India's emergence as a regional and global power. However, India still faces pressing problems such as environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, and its restrictive business climate is dampening economic growth expectations.

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars and a limited conflict - in 1947-48, 1965, and 1999 respectively - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India assisted an indigenous movement reacting to the marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.

In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in mid-1998. India-Pakistan relations improved in the mid-2000s but have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks and have been further strained by attacks in India by militants believed to be based in Pakistan. Imran KHAN took office as prime minister in 2018 after the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf (PTI) party won a plurality of seats in the July 2018 general elections. Pakistan has been engaged in a decades-long armed conflict with militant groups that target government institutions and civilians, including the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other militant networks.

Geography

IndiaPakistan
Location
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates
20 00 N, 77 00 E
30 00 N, 70 00 E
Map references
Asia
Asia
Area
total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
total: 796,095 sq km
land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries
total: 13,888 km
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1468 km, China 2659 km, Nepal 1770 km, Pakistan 3190 km
total: 7,257 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 2670 km, China 438 km, India 3190 km, Iran 959 km
Coastline
7,000 km
1,046 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the center and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 160 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,586 m
mean elevation: 900 m
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resources
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), antimony, iron ore, lead, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
arable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use
agricultural land: 60.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 52.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 4.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 3.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 23.1% (2011 est.)
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 35.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 27.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 6.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 2.1% (2011 est.)
other: 62.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
667,000 sq km (2012)
202,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes

volcanism: Barren Island (354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years

frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Environment - current issues
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources; preservation and quality of forests; biodiversity loss
water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution and noise pollution in urban areas
Environment - international agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Population distribution
with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations
the Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated

Demographics

IndiaPakistan
Population
1,326,093,247 (July 2020 est.)
233,500,636 (July 2020 est.)

note: provisional results of Pakistan's 2017 national census estimate the country's total population to be 207,774,000

Age structure
0-14 years: 26.31% (male 185,017,089/female 163,844,572)
15-24 years: 17.51% (male 123,423,531/female 108,739,780)
25-54 years: 41.56% (male 285,275,667/female 265,842,319)
55-64 years: 7.91% (male 52,444,817/female 52,447,038)
65 years and over: 6.72% (male 42,054,459/female 47,003,975) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 36.01% (male 42,923,925/female 41,149,694)
15-24 years: 19.3% (male 23,119,205/female 21,952,976)
25-54 years: 34.7% (male 41,589,381/female 39,442,046)
55-64 years: 5.55% (male 6,526,656/female 6,423,993)
65 years and over: 4.44% (male 4,802,165/female 5,570,595) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 28.7 years
male: 28 years
female: 29.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 22 years
male: 21.9 years
female: 22.1 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
1.1% (2020 est.)
2.07% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
18.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
27.4 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 107.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 103.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 35.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 34.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 36.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 52.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 69.7 years
male: 68.4 years
female: 71.2 years (2020 est.)
total population: 69.2 years
male: 67.2 years
female: 71.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.35 children born/woman (2020 est.)
3.6 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.2% (2017 est.)
0.1% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Punjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Saraiki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
2.1 million (2017 est.)
190,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
69,000 (2017 est.)
6,800 (2019 est.)
Languages
Hindi 43.6%, Bengali 8%, Marathi 6.9%, Telugu 6.7%, Tamil 5.7%, Gujarati 4.6%, Urdu 4.2%, Kannada 3.6%, Odia 3.1%, Malayalam 2.9%, Punjabi 2.7%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.1%, other 5.6% (2011 est.)

note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; there are 22 other officially recognized languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language

Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.4%
male: 82.4%
female: 65.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.1%
male: 71.1%
female: 46.5% (2015)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact diseases: leptospirosis
animal contact diseases: rabies
note: clusters of cases of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are being reported across 27 States and Union Territories in India; as of 10 November 2020, India has reported a total of 8,507,754 cases of COVID-19 or 6,165 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 91 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; on 16 March 2020, the government proposed extensive social distancing measures, including closure of all schools, museums, and cultural and social centers; prohibited gatherings of more than 50 people; and called on the public to avoid all non-essential travel; international commercial passenger flights remain suspended
degree of risk: high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact diseases: rabies
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Pakistan; as of 10 November 2020, Pakistan has reported a total of 341,753 cases of COVID-19 or 1,547 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 31 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; the Government of Pakistan will permit commercial outbound passenger flights from all international airports except Gwadar and Turbat effective 30 May 2020, but inbound passenger flights remain suspended; limited domestic flight operations from five major airports – Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, and Quetta are available; on 7 May 2020, the Government of Pakistan announced an ease in some of the nationwide lockdown restrictions; additionally, the Islamabad Capital Territory and Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces have varying degrees of lockdowns
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2019)
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2018)
Education expenditures
3.8% of GDP (2013)
2.9% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 34.9% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 37.2% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.53% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 96% of population
rural: 91% of population
total: 92.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 4% of population
rural: 9% of population
total: 7.2% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 94.2% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 91.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 5.8% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 8.5% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 93.7% of population
rural: 61.1% of population
total: 72% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.3% of population
rural: 38.9% of population
total: 28% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 62.9% of population
total: 70.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 37.1% of population
total: 29.9% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
30.291 million NEW DELHI (capital), 20.411 million Mumbai, 14.850 million Kolkata, 1.237 million Bangalore, 10.971 million Chennai, 10.004 million Hyderabad (2020)
16.094 million Karachi, 12.642 million Lahore, 3.462 million Faisalabad, 2.237 million Rawalpindi, 2.229 million Gujranwala, 1.129 million ISLAMABAD (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
145 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
140 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
33.4% (2016/18)
23.1% (2018)
Health expenditures
3.5% (2017)
2.9% (2017)
Physicians density
0.78 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
1 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
3.9% (2016)
8.6% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
53.5% (2015/16)
34.2% (2017/18)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 48.7
youth dependency ratio: 38.9
elderly dependency ratio: 9.8
potential support ratio: 10.2 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 64.4
youth dependency ratio: 57.2
elderly dependency ratio: 7.1
potential support ratio: 14 (2020 est.)

Government

IndiaPakistan
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name "Bharat" may derive from the "Bharatas" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
etymology: the word "pak" means "pure" in Persian or Pashto, while the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Pakistan literally means "Land of the Pure"
Government type
federal parliamentary republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capital
name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the city's name is associated with various myths and legends; the original name for the city may have been Dhilli or Dhillika; alternatively, the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words "dehleez" or "dehali" - both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway" - and indicative of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain; after the British decided to move the capital of their Indian Empire from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911, they created a new governmental district south of the latter designated as New Delhi; the new capital was not formally inaugurated until 1931
name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: derived from two words: "Islam," an Urdu word referring to the religion of Islam, and "-abad," a Persian suffix indicating an "inhabited place" or "city," to render the meaning "City of Islam"
Administrative divisions
28 states and 8 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir*, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Ladakh*, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal

note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi

4 provinces, 2 Pakistan-administered areas*, and 1 capital territory**; Azad Kashmir*, Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Sindh
Independence
15 August 1947 (from the UK)
14 August 1947 (from British India)
National holiday
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Pakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940); note - commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Constitution
history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950
amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2019
history: several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times)
amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses; amended many times, last in 2018
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch
chief of state: President Ram Nath KOVIND (since 25 July 2017); Vice President M. Venkaiah NAIDU (since 11 August 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by Lok Sabha members of the majority party
election results: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.7% Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.3%; M. Venkaiah NAIDU elected vice president; electoral college vote - M. Venkaiah NAIDU (BJP) 516, Gopalkrishna GANDHI (independent) 244
chief of state: President Arif ALVI (since 9 September 2018)
head of government: Prime Minister Imran KHAN (since 18 August 2018)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 4 September 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on 17 August 2018
election results: Arif ALVI elected president; Electoral College vote - Arif ALVI (PTI) 352, Fazl-ur-REHMAN (MMA) 184, Aitzaz AHSAN (PPP) 124; Imran KHAN elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - Imran KHAN (PTI) 176, Shehbaz SHARIF (PML-N) 96
Legislative branch
description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of:
Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms)
House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Council of States - last held by state and territorial assemblies at various dates in 2019 (next originally scheduled for March, June, and November 2020 but were postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic)

House of the People - last held April-May 2019 in 7 phases (next to be held in 2024)
election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - BJP 83, INC 46, AITC 13, DMK 11, SP, other 77, independent 6; composition - men 220, women 25, percent of women 10.2%

House of the People - percent of vote by party - BJP 55.8%, INC 9.6%, AITC 4.4%, YSRC 4.4%, DMK 4.2%, SS 3.3%, JDU 2.9%, BJD 2.2%, BSP 1.8%, TRS 1.7%, LJP 1.1%, NCP 0.9%, SP 0.9%, other 6.4%, independent 0.7%; seats by party - BJP 303, INC 52, DMK 24, AITC 22, YSRC 22, SS 18, JDU 16, BJD 12, BSP 10, TRS 9, LJP 6, NCP 5, SP 5, other 35, independent 4, vacant 2; composition - men 465, women 78, percent of women 14.3%; note - total Parliament percent of women 11.3%
description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of:
Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years); note - the byelection scheduled for 15 April 2020 has been postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic
National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members - 60 women and 10 non-Muslims - directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 3 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2021)
National Assembly - last held on 25 July 2018 (next to be held on 25 July 2023)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party as of December 2019  - PPP 19, PML-N 16,  PTI 14, MQM-P 5, JUI-F 4, BAP 2, JI 2, PkMAP 2, ANP 1, BNP 1, PML-F 1, other 7, independent 30

National Assembly - percent of votes by party NA; seats by party as of December 2019 - PTI 156, PML-N 84, PPP 55, MMA 16, MQM-P 7, BAP 5, PML-Q 5, BNP 4, GDA 3, AML 1, ANP 1, JWP 1, independent 4
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges, including the chief justice)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court

note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the "National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases

highest courts: Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member parliamentary committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission, a 9-member body of judges and other judicial professionals, and appointed by the president; justices can serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues, such as taxation, banking, and customs
Political parties and leaders
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [Edappadi PALANISWAMY, Occhaathevar PANNEERSELVAM]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Sitaram YECHURY]
Indian National Congress or INC
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Akhilesh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Sukhbir Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
YSR Congress or YSRC [Jagan Mohan REDDY]

note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties

Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]
Awami Muslim League or AML [Sheikh Rashid AHMED]
Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI]
Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]
Grand Democratic Alliance or GDA (alliance of several parties)
Jamhoori Wattan Party or JWP [Shahzain BUGTI]
Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ]
Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]
Muttahida Quami Movement-London or MQM-L [Altaf HUSSAIN] (MQM split into two factions in 2016)
Muttahida Quami Movement-Pakistan or MQM-P [Dr. Khalid Maqbool SIDDIQUI] (MQM split into two factions in 2016)
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Fazl-ur- REHMAN] (alliance of several parties)
National Party or NP [Mir Hasil Khan BIZENJO]
Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party or PMAP or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]
Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II]
Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Shehbaz SHARIF]
Pakistan Muslim League – Quaid-e-Azam Group or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]
Pakistan Peoples Party or PPP [Bilawal BHUTTO ZARDARI, Asif Ali ZARDARI]
Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI (Pakistan Movement for Justice) [Imran KHAN]Pak Sarzameen Party or PSP [Mustafa KAMAL]
Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]

note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently

International organization participation
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Taranjit Singh SANDHU (since 6 February 2020)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Ambassador Asad Majeed KHAN (since 11 January 2019)
chancery: 3517 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Louisville (KY), San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth I. JUSTER (since 23 November 2017)
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ambassador Paul W. JONES (since 24 September 2018)
telephone: [92] 51-201-4000
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: 8100 Islamabad Place, Washington, DC 20521-8100
FAX: [92] 51-227-6427
consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation

note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
National anthem
name: "Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem

name: "Qaumi Tarana" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA

note: adopted 1954; also known as "Pak sarzamin shad bad" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)
the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
five-pointed star between the horns of a waxing crescent moon, jasmine; national colors: green, white
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application

Economy

IndiaPakistan
Economy - overview

India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the workforce is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. Nevertheless, per capita income remains below the world average. India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2017.

India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee through 2016.

The economy slowed again in 2017, due to shocks of "demonetizaton" in 2016 and introduction of GST in 2017. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors, but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes, largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills.

India has a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and is increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.

Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to underdevelopment in Pakistan. Pakistan has a large English-speaking population, with English-language skills less prevalent outside urban centers. Despite some progress in recent years in both security and energy, a challenging security environment, electricity shortages, and a burdensome investment climate have traditionally deterred investors. Agriculture accounts for one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles and apparel account for more than half of Pakistan's export earnings; Pakistan's failure to diversify its exports has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Pakistan’s GDP growth has gradually increased since 2012, and was 5.3% in 2017. Official unemployment was 6% in 2017, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Human development continues to lag behind most of the region.

In 2013, Pakistan embarked on a $6.3 billion IMF Extended Fund Facility, which focused on reducing energy shortages, stabilizing public finances, increasing revenue collection, and improving its balance of payments position. The program concluded in September 2016. Although Pakistan missed several structural reform criteria, it restored macroeconomic stability, improved its credit rating, and boosted growth. The Pakistani rupee has remained relatively stable against the US dollar since 2015, though it declined about 10% between November 2017 and March 2018. Balance of payments concerns have reemerged, however, as a result of a significant increase in imports and weak export and remittance growth.

Pakistan must continue to address several longstanding issues, including expanding investment in education, healthcare, and sanitation; adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters; improving the country’s business environment; and widening the country’s tax base. Given demographic challenges, Pakistan’s leadership will be pressed to implement economic reforms, promote further development of the energy sector, and attract foreign investment to support sufficient economic growth necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, much of which is under the age of 25.

In an effort to boost development, Pakistan and China are implementing the "China-Pakistan Economic Corridor" (CPEC) with $60 billion in investments targeted towards energy and other infrastructure projects. Pakistan believes CPEC investments will enable growth rates of over 6% of GDP by laying the groundwork for increased exports. CPEC-related obligations, however, have raised IMF concern about Pakistan’s capital outflows and external financing needs over the medium term.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$9.474 trillion (2017 est.)
$8.88 trillion (2016 est.)
$8.291 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$1.061 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.007 trillion (2016 est.)
$962.8 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
data are for fiscal years
GDP - real growth rate
4.86% (2019 est.)
6.78% (2018 est.)
6.55% (2017 est.)
5.4% (2017 est.)
4.6% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)

note: data are for fiscal years

GDP - per capita (PPP)
$7,200 (2017 est.)
$6,800 (2016 est.)
$6,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$5,400 (2017 est.)
$5,200 (2016 est.)
$5,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
data are for fiscal years
GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 15.4% (2016 est.)
industry: 23% (2016 est.)
services: 61.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 24.4% (2016 est.)
industry: 19.1% (2016 est.)
services: 56.5% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
21.9% (2011 est.)
29.5% (FY2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.1% (FY2013)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
3.6% (2017 est.)
4.5% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2017 est.)
2.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force
521.9 million (2017 est.)
61.71 million (2017 est.)

note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor

Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 47%
industry: 22%
services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
agriculture: 42.3%
industry: 22.6%
services: 35.1% (FY2015 est.)
Unemployment rate
8.5% (2017 est.)
8.5% (2016 est.)
6% (2017 est.)
6% (2016 est.)

note: Pakistan has substantial underemployment

Distribution of family income - Gini index
35.2 (2011)
37.8 (1997)
30.7 (FY2013)
30.9 (FY2011)
Budget
revenues: 238.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 329 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 46.81 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 64.49 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are for fiscal years

Industries
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, surgical instruments, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate
5.5% (2017 est.)
5.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Exports
$304.1 billion (2017 est.)
$268.6 billion (2016 est.)
$32.88 billion (2017 est.)
$21.97 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sporting goods, chemicals, manufactures, surgical instruments, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners
US 15.6%, UAE 10.2%, Hong Kong 4.9%, China 4.3% (2017)
US 17.7%, UK 7.7%, China 6%, Germany 5.8%, Afghanistan 5.2%, UAE 4.5%, Spain 4.1% (2017)
Imports
$452.2 billion (2017 est.)
$376.1 billion (2016 est.)
$53.11 billion (2017 est.)
$42.69 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners
China 16.3%, US 5.5%, UAE 5.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2017)
China 27.4%, UAE 13.7%, US 4.9%, Indonesia 4.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.2% (2017)
Debt - external
$501.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$456.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$82.19 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$70.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
65.17 (2017 est.)
67.195 (2016 est.)
67.195 (2015 est.)
64.152 (2014 est.)
61.03 (2013 est.)
Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -
105.1 (2017 est.)
104.769 (2016 est.)
104.769 (2015 est.)
102.769 (2014 est.)
101.1 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
1 April - 31 March
1 July - 30 June
Public debt
71.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

67% of GDP (2017 est.)
67.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$409.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$359.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.46 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$29.748 billion (2019 est.)
-$65.939 billion (2018 est.)
-$7.143 billion (2019 est.)
-$19.482 billion (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$2.602 trillion (2017 est.)
$305 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$377.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$318.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$43.21 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$39.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$155.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$144.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.983 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.094 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$43.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$32.76 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$38.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate
6% (31 December 2017)
6.25% (31 December 2016)

note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate

5.75% (15 November 2016)
6% (15 November 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
9.51% (31 December 2017 est.)
9.67% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.98% (31 December 2017 est.)
6.94% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$1.927 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.684 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$155.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$145.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$451.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$293.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$109.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$103.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$451.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$293.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$109.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$103.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
9.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
15.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-5.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 22.5%
male: 22.2%
female: 24.2% (2018 est.)
total: 7.8%
male: 8.2%
female: 6.8% (2018 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 28.5% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3.9% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 19.1% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 82% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 11.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 14.5% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 8.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -17.6% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
12% of GDP (2017 est.)
13.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data are for fiscal years

Energy

IndiaPakistan
Electricity - production
1.386 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
109.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
1.137 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
92.33 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
5.15 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
5.617 billion kWh (2016 est.)
490 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
709,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
90,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
4.057 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
168,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
13,150 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
4.495 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
332.2 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
1.29 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
588.8 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
31.54 billion cu m (2017 est.)
39.05 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
55.43 billion cu m (2017 est.)
45.05 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
76.45 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
6.003 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
367.8 million kW (2016 est.)
26.9 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
71% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
62% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
27% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
4.897 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
291,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
4.521 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
557,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
1.305 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
25,510 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
653,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
264,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
2.383 billion Mt (2017 est.)
179.5 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 6 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 99% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 99% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 99% (2019)
population without electricity: 45 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 79% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 91% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2019)

Telecommunications

IndiaPakistan
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 20,198,012
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.54 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,607,495
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.14 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 1,105,250,941
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 84.27 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 174,702,132
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76.38 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.in
.pk
Internet users
total: 446,759,327
percent of population: 34.45% (July 2018 est.)
total: 34,734,689
percent of population: 15.51% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: supported by deregulation and liberalization of telecommunication laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; implementation of 4G/LTE services shift to data services across the country; highly competitive mobile market with price wars and value-added-services of mobile data; potential to become one of the largest five data center markets globally; steps taken towards 5G services; fixed broadband penetration is expected to grow at a moderate rate over the next five years to 2023 (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions stands at 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular at 84 per 100; mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 (very small aperture terminals) VSAT (2019)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 & 4, AAE-1, BBG, EIG, FALCON, FEA, GBICS, MENA, IMEWE, SEACOM/ Tata TGN-Eurasia, SAFE, WARF, Bharat Lanka Cable System, IOX, Chennai-Andaman & Nicobar Island Cable, SAEx2, Tata TGN-Tata Indicom and i2icn that provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, South East Asia, numerous Indian Ocean islands including Australia ; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving, with investments in mobile-cellular networks increasing, fixed-line subscriptions declining; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks; 4G mobile services broadly available; 5G not before 2030; mobile platform and mobile broadband doing well and dominate over fixed broadband sector (2020)
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed; more than 90% of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage; fiber-optic networks are being constructed throughout the country to increase broadband access, though broadband penetration in Pakistan is still relatively low; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 76 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 92; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3, -4, -5, AAE-1, IMEWE, Orient Express, PEACE Cable, and TW1 submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 18.17 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)
total: 1,811,365
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
Doordarshan, India's public TV network, has a monopoly on terrestrial broadcasting and operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly
media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 8 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 30 stations; nearly 200 commercially licensed, privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2019)

Transportation

IndiaPakistan
Railways
total: 68,525 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified) (2014)
622 0.762-m gauge
total: 11,881 km (2019)
narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (2019)
broad gauge: 11,492 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified) (2019)
Roadways
total: 4,699,024 km (2015)

note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads

total: 263,775 km (2019)
paved: 185,063 km (includes 708 km of expressways) (2019)
unpaved: 78,712 km (2019)
Pipelines
9 km condensate/gas, 13581 km gas, 2054 km liquid petroleum gas, 8943 km oil, 20 km oil/gas/water, 11069 km refined products (2013)
12,984 km gas, 3,470 km oil, 1,170 km refined products (2019)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam
container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,549,457), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,833,397), Mundra (4,240,260) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira
major seaport(s): Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
container port(s) (TEUs): Karachi (2,224,000) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Port Qasim
Merchant marine
total: 1,731
by type: bulk carrier 67, container ship 25, general cargo 579, oil tanker 128, other 932 (2019)
total: 54
by type: bulk carrier 5, oil tanker 5, other 44 (2019)
Airports
total: 346 (2013)
total: 151 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 253 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 22 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 59 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 82 (2017)
under 914 m: 14 (2017)
total: 108 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 15 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 20 (2017)
under 914 m: 10 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 93 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 38 (2013)
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
total: 43 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Heliports
45 (2013)
23 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 14 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 164,035,637 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,703,960,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 5 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 52
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 6,880,637 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 217.53 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
VT (2016)
AP (2016)

Military

IndiaPakistan
Military branches
Indian Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes marines), Air Force, Coast Guard; Defense Security Corps (paramilitary forces); Ministry of Home Affairs paramilitary forces: Central Armed Police Force (includes Assam Rifles, Border Security Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, National Security Guards, Sashastra Seema Bal) (2019)
Pakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes marines, Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fizaia); Ministry of Interior paramilitary forces: Frontier Corps, Pakistan Rangers (2019)
note:  the National Guard is a paramilitary force and one of the Army's reserve forces, along with the Pakistan Army Reserve, the Frontier Corps, and the Pakistan Rangers
Military service age and obligation
16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and under consideration for Army combat roles (2019)
16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; women serve in all three armed forces; reserve obligation to age 45 for enlisted men, age 50 for officers (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2.4% of GDP (2019)
2.4% of GDP (2018)
2.5% of GDP (2017)
2.5% of GDP (2016)
2.4% of GDP (2015)
4% of GDP (2019)
4.1% of GDP (2018)
3.8% of GDP (2017)
3.6% of GDP (2016)
3.6% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

IndiaPakistan
Disputes - international

since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal

various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated 3.8 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.6 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps

Illicit drugs
world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production
significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 930 hectares in 2015; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 108,008 (Tibet/China), 59,428 (Sri Lanka), 18,813 (Burma), 7,470 (Afghanistan) (2019)
IDPs: 470,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2019)
stateless persons: 17,730 (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 2.58-2.68 million (1.4 million registered, 1.18-1.28 million undocumented) (Afghanistan) (2017)
IDPs: 106,000 (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2019)

Terrorism

IndiaPakistan
Terrorist groups - foreign based
al-Qa'ida (AQ):
aim(s): overthrow the Indian Government and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
area(s) of operation: maintains an operational presence as al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (2018)
al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS): aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
area(s) of operation: targets primarily military and security personnel, especially in the states of Assam, Gujarat, and Jammu and Kashmir; present in large cities, including Delhi (2018)
Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM): aim(s): enhance its networks and paramilitary training in India and, ultimately, annex Kashmir into Pakistan and establish an Islamic state in Kashmir
area(s) of operation: conducts attacks against Indian troops and civilians in Kashmir (2018)
Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI): aim(s): enhance its networks and operational capabilities in India
area(s) of operation: maintains an operational presence, especially in the south, including in Bangalore and Hubli (2018)
Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B): aim(s): enhance its networks in India and, ultimately, install an Islamic state in Bangladesh
area(s) of operation: maintains a low-profile presence (2018)
Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Khorasan (ISIS-K): aim(s):  spread the ISIS caliphate by eliminating the Indian Government and, ultimately, unite Kashmir with Pakistan
area(s) of operation:  maintains a recruitment presence in major cities (2018)
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM): aim(s): annex Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan
area(s) of operation: operates primarily in Jammu and Kashmir State (2018)
Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT): aim(s): annex Jammu and Kashmir State to Pakistan and, ultimately, install Islamic rule throughout South Asia
area(s) of operation: operational throughout India, especially in the north in Jammu and Kashmir State, since at least 1993
note: continues to be one of the largest and most deadly of the anti-India-focused armed groups (2018)
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE): aim(s): enhance its networks in India and, ultimately, revive the movement to establish a Tamil homeland
area(s) of operation: maintains safe havens, transit routes, human trafficking, and an operational presence in an effort to revive the movement and conduct attacks (2018)
Indian Mujahedeen (IM): aim(s): stated goal is to carry out terrorist attacks against Indians for perceived atrocities against Indian Muslims following the 2002 Gujarat riots
area(s) of operation: Punjab and Sindh Provinces and Pakistan-controlled Kashmir (2018)
Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Khorasan (ISIS-K): aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate in the Afghanistan-Pakistan region; oppose Pakistan Government and Westerners; oppose Shia Muslim population
area(s) of operation: maintains an operational and recruitment presence throughout the country, primarily along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border to stage attacks inside Afghanistan and Pakistan
note: recruits from among the local population and other militant groups such as Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan, the Afghan Taliban, and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (2018)
Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP): aim(s): remove Pakistani forces from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) region; overthrow the Pakistan Government to implement TTP's strict interpretation of sharia
area(s) of operation: maintains a large presence in Karachi, the capital of Sindh Province; trains and deploys fighters in the tribal belt in the Pashtun areas along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, especially in Kunar and Paktika provinces where TTP has established sanctuaries; operationally active in the North Waziristan, South Waziristan, and Balochistan regions; targets Pakistan Government officials and military, security, and police personnel, as well as Westerners, pro-government tribal elders, Shia Muslims, and education figures and advocates (2018)
Terrorist groups - home based
Hizbul Mujahideen (HM): aim(s): annex the state of Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan
area(s) of operation: HM is an indigenous Kashmiri militant group that operates in Jammu and Kashmir (2018)
Indian Mujahedeen (IM): aim(s): establish Islamic rule in India and, ultimately, convert all non-Muslims to Islam; stated goal is to carry out terrorist attacks against Indians for perceived atrocities against Indian Muslims
area(s) of operation: formerly based in the western state of Maharashtra, India's third-largest and second-most populous state, and now probably operates mostly outside India, particularly Nepal (2018)
al-Qa'ida (AQ): aim(s): eject Western influence from the Islamic world, unite the worldwide Muslim community, overthrow governments perceived as un-Islamic and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
area(s) of operation:
presence in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border (2018)
al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS): aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
area(s) of operation:
operational throughout the country, targeting military and security personnel; responsible for numerous attacks in Karachi; stages attacks in Afghanistan, India, and Bangladesh, where the group is the most active (2018)
Haqqani Network (HQN): aim(s): enhance its operational networks and capabilities for staging cross-border attacks in Afghanistan; replace the Afghan Government with an Islamic state operating according to a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
area(s) of operation:
headquartered in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) region located across from Afghanistan's southeastern border; fighters have staged numerous cross-border operations from Kurram and North Waziristan Agency in the FATA into Afghanistan, targeting Afghan, US, and NATO forces and other Afghan Government personnel and Westerners for attack or kidnappings for ransom (2018)
Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI): aim(s): overthrow the Pakistan Government and implement sharia throughout the country
area(s) of operation:
headquartered in Pakistan, where the group operates several camps; remains heavily active in the southern area of Azad Kashmir (2018)
Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM): aim(s): annex Kashmir to Pakistan and establish an Islamic state in Kashmir
area(s) of operation:
headquartered in Islamabad, with an operational presence in Muzaffarabad in Azad Kashmir, where operatives stage attacks against India; maintains training and paramilitary camps in the country's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) region (2018)
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM): aim(s): unite Kashmir with Pakistan, install sharia in Pakistan, and drive foreign forces from Afghanistan
area(s) of operation:
headquartered in Punjab Province; stages attacks against Indian forces, primarily in Jammu and Kashmir State (2018)
Jaysh al Adl: aim(s): seeks greater autonomy for Balochis in Pakistan and Iran
area(s) of operation:
headquartered in Balochistan Province, where operatives stage attacks inside Iran against Shia Muslims, primarily targets Iranian soldiers and security personnel
note: formerly known as Jundallah (2018)
Lashkar i Jhangvi (LJ): aim(s): exterminate Shia Muslims, rid the region of Western influence and, ultimately, establish an Islamic state in Pakistan under sharia
area(s) of operation: has a growing presence in Karachi, the capital of Sindh Province; loosely coordinated cells are spread across the country, primarily in Punjab and Balochistan provinces, Karachi, and in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) region; majority of attacks are against local and foreign Shia Muslims and government personnel and facilities (2018)
Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT):
aim(s): return the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan and foment Islamic insurgency in India; enhance its recruitment networks and paramilitary training in South Asia; and, ultimately, implement Islamic rule throughout South Asia
area(s) of operation: headquartered in Lahore, Punjab Province, with an operational presence throughout the country; active in both the Pakistan-administered and India-administered Kashmir regions
note: does not conduct attacks within Pakistan; often operates under the guise of its charitable affiliates, including Jamaat-ud-Dawa (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook