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India vs. Nepal

Demographics

IndiaNepal
Population1,281,935,911 (July 2017 est.)
29,384,297 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.34% (male 186,087,665/female 164,398,204)
15-24 years: 17.9% (male 121,879,786/female 107,583,437)
25-54 years: 41.08% (male 271,744,709/female 254,834,569)
55-64 years: 7.45% (male 47,846,122/female 47,632,532)
65 years and over: 6.24% (male 37,837,801/female 42,091,086) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 30.2% (male 4,610,861/female 4,264,580)
15-24 years: 21.73% (male 3,220,431/female 3,164,292)
25-54 years: 36.58% (male 4,847,427/female 5,900,442)
55-64 years: 6.32% (male 897,999/female 959,405)
65 years and over: 5.17% (male 753,771/female 765,089) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.9 years
male: 27.2 years
female: 28.6 years (2017 est.)
total: 24.1 years
male: 22.8 years
female: 25.3 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.17% (2017 est.)
1.16% (2017 est.)
Birth rate19 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
19.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
5.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 27.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 29.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 68.8 years
male: 67.6 years
female: 70.1 years (2017 est.)
total population: 71 years
male: 70.4 years
female: 71.6 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.43 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.12 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.3% (2016 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
noun: Nepali (singular and plural)
adjective: Nepali
Ethnic groupsIndo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19%
note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2.1 million (2016 est.)
32,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsHindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths62,000 (2016 est.)
1,700 (2016 est.)
LanguagesHindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 est.)
Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4%, unspecified 0.2%
note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.9%
male: 76.4%
female: 53.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2014)
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.8% of GDP (2013)
3.7% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 33.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 19.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.08% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 90.9% of population
rural: 91.8% of population
total: 91.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 9.1% of population
rural: 8.2% of population
total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 62.6% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 39.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 37.4% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 56% of population
rural: 43.5% of population
total: 45.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44% of population
rural: 56.5% of population
total: 54.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationNEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
KATHMANDU (capital) 1.183 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
258 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight35.7% (2015)
30.1% (2014)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
5.8% of GDP (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.9% (2016)
4.1% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate53.5% (2015/16)
49.6% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.2
youth dependency ratio: 43.6
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6
potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 61.4
youth dependency ratio: 52.5
elderly dependency ratio: 8.8
potential support ratio: 11.3 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook