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India vs. Nepal

Introduction

IndiaNepal
Background

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.

By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent and India was seen as the "Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring countries have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. India's economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991, a massive youthful population, and a strategic geographic location have contributed to India's emergence as a regional and global power. However, India still faces pressing problems such as environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, and its restrictive business climate is dampening economic growth expectations.

During the late 18th-early 19th centuries, the principality of Gorkha united many of the other principalities and states of the sub-Himalayan region into a Nepali Kingdom. Nepal retained its independence following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 and the subsequent peace treaty laid the foundations for two centuries of amicable relations between Britain and Nepal. (The Brigade of Gurkhas continues to serve in the British Army to the present day.) In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system that brought political parties into the government. That arrangement lasted until 1960, when political parties were again banned, but was reinstated in 1990 with the establishment of a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.

An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996. During the ensuing 10-year civil war between Maoist and government forces, the monarchy dissolved the cabinet and parliament and re-assumed absolute power in 2002, after the crown prince massacred the royal family in 2001. A peace accord in 2006 led to the promulgation of an interim constitution in 2007. Following a nationwide Constituent Assembly (CA) election in 2008, the newly formed CA declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, abolished the monarchy, and elected the country's first president. After the CA failed to draft a constitution by a 2012 deadline set by the Supreme Court, then-Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the CA. Months of negotiations ensued until 2013 when the major political parties agreed to create an interim government headed by then-Chief Justice Khil Raj REGMI with a mandate to hold elections for a new CA. Elections were held in 2013, in which the Nepali Congress (NC) won the largest share of seats in the CA and in 2014 formed a coalition government with the second-place Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) with NC President Sushil KOIRALA serving as prime minister. Nepal's new constitution came into effect in 2015, at which point the CA became the Parliament. Khagda Prasad Sharma OLI served as the first post-constitution prime minister from 2015 to 2016. OLI resigned ahead of a no-confidence motion against him, and Parliament elected Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (CPN-M) leader Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (aka "Prachanda") prime minister. The constitution provided for a transitional period during which three sets of elections – local, provincial, and national – needed to take place. The first local elections in 20 years occurred in three phases between May and September 2017, and state and federal elections proceeded in two phases in November and December 2017. The parties headed by OLI and DAHAL ran in coalition and swept the parliamentary elections, and OLI, who led the larger of the two parties, was sworn in as prime minister in February 2018. In May 2018, OLI and DAHAL announced the merger of their parties - the UML and CPN-M - to establish the Nepal Communist Party (NCP), which is now the ruling party in Parliament.

 

Geography

IndiaNepal
Location
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Southern Asia, between China and India
Geographic coordinates
20 00 N, 77 00 E
28 00 N, 84 00 E
Map references
Asia
Asia
Area
total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
total: 147,181 sq km
land: 143,351 sq km
water: 3,830 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
slightly larger than New York state
Land boundaries
total: 13,888 km
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1468 km, China 2659 km, Nepal 1770 km, Pakistan 3190 km
total: 3,159 km
border countries (2): China 1389 km, India 1770 km
Coastline
7,000 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
none (landlocked)
Climate
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
Terrain
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south; central hill region with rugged Himalayas in north
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 160 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,586 m
mean elevation: 2,565 m
lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
highest point: Mount Everest (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level) 8,848 m
Natural resources
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), antimony, iron ore, lead, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Land use
agricultural land: 60.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 52.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 4.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 3.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 23.1% (2011 est.)
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 28.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 15.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 12.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 25.4% (2011 est.)
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
667,000 sq km (2012)
13,320 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes

volcanism: Barren Island (354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years

severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
Environment - current issues
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources; preservation and quality of forests; biodiversity loss
deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); forest degradation; soil erosion; contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); unmanaged solid-waste; wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
Environment - international agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest mountains - on the borders with China and India respectively
Population distribution
with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations
most of the population is divided nearly equally between a concentration in the southern-most plains of the Tarai region and the central hilly region; overall density is quite low

Demographics

IndiaNepal
Population
1,326,093,247 (July 2020 est.)
30,327,877 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 26.31% (male 185,017,089/female 163,844,572)
15-24 years: 17.51% (male 123,423,531/female 108,739,780)
25-54 years: 41.56% (male 285,275,667/female 265,842,319)
55-64 years: 7.91% (male 52,444,817/female 52,447,038)
65 years and over: 6.72% (male 42,054,459/female 47,003,975) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 28.36% (male 4,526,786/female 4,073,642)
15-24 years: 20.93% (male 3,276,431/female 3,070,843)
25-54 years: 38.38% (male 5,251,553/female 6,387,365)
55-64 years: 6.64% (male 954,836/female 1,059,360)
65 years and over: 5.69% (male 852,969/female 874,092) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 28.7 years
male: 28 years
female: 29.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 25.3 years
male: 23.9 years
female: 26.9 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
1.1% (2020 est.)
0.98% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
18.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
18.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 107.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 96.1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 35.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 34.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 36.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 25.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 69.7 years
male: 68.4 years
female: 71.2 years (2020 est.)
total population: 71.8 years
male: 71.1 years
female: 72.6 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.35 children born/woman (2020 est.)
1.96 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.2% (2017 est.)
0.1% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
noun: Nepali (singular and plural)
adjective: Nepali
Ethnic groups
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19% (2011 est.)

note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
2.1 million (2017 est.)
30,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
69,000 (2017 est.)
<1000 (2019 est.)
Languages
Hindi 43.6%, Bengali 8%, Marathi 6.9%, Telugu 6.7%, Tamil 5.7%, Gujarati 4.6%, Urdu 4.2%, Kannada 3.6%, Odia 3.1%, Malayalam 2.9%, Punjabi 2.7%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.1%, other 5.6% (2011 est.)

note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; there are 22 other officially recognized languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language

Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Bajjika 3%, Magar 3%, Doteli 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, Baitadeli 1%, other 6.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.4%
male: 82.4%
female: 65.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.9%
male: 78.6%
female: 59.7% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact diseases: leptospirosis
animal contact diseases: rabies
note: clusters of cases of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are being reported across 27 States and Union Territories in India; as of 10 November 2020, India has reported a total of 8,507,754 cases of COVID-19 or 6,165 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 91 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; on 16 March 2020, the government proposed extensive social distancing measures, including closure of all schools, museums, and cultural and social centers; prohibited gatherings of more than 50 people; and called on the public to avoid all non-essential travel; international commercial passenger flights remain suspended
degree of risk: high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2019)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2019)
Education expenditures
3.8% of GDP (2013)
5.2% of GDP (2018)
Urbanization
urban population: 34.9% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 20.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.15% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 96% of population
rural: 91% of population
total: 92.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 4% of population
rural: 9% of population
total: 7.2% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 91.7% of population
rural: 91.4% of population
total: 91.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.3% of population
rural: 8.6% of population
total: 8.5% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 93.7% of population
rural: 61.1% of population
total: 72% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.3% of population
rural: 38.9% of population
total: 28% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 91.7% of population
rural: 71.9% of population
total: 75.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.3% of population
rural: 28.1% of population
total: 24.3% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
30.291 million NEW DELHI (capital), 20.411 million Mumbai, 14.850 million Kolkata, 1.237 million Bangalore, 10.971 million Chennai, 10.004 million Hyderabad (2020)
1.424 million KATHMANDU (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
145 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
186 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
33.4% (2016/18)
27.2% (2016)
Health expenditures
3.5% (2017)
5.6% (2017)
Physicians density
0.78 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.91 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
3.9% (2016)
4.1% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
53.5% (2015/16)
52.6% (2016/17)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 48.7
youth dependency ratio: 38.9
elderly dependency ratio: 9.8
potential support ratio: 10.2 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 53
youth dependency ratio: 44.1
elderly dependency ratio: 8.9
potential support ratio: 11.2 (2020 est.)

Government

IndiaNepal
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name "Bharat" may derive from the "Bharatas" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal
local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
local short form: Nepal
etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms "Nepal," "Newar," "Nepar," and "Newal" are phonetically different forms of the same word
Government type
federal parliamentary republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capital
name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the city's name is associated with various myths and legends; the original name for the city may have been Dhilli or Dhillika; alternatively, the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words "dehleez" or "dehali" - both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway" - and indicative of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain; after the British decided to move the capital of their Indian Empire from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911, they created a new governmental district south of the latter designated as New Delhi; the new capital was not formally inaugurated until 1931
name: Kathmandu
geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: name derives from the Kasthamandap temple that stood in Durbar Square; in Sanskrit, "kastha" means "wood" and "mandapa" means "pavilion"; the three-story structure was made entirely of wood, without iron nails or supports, and dated to the late 16th century; it collapsed during a 2015 earthquake
Administrative divisions
28 states and 8 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir*, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Ladakh*, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal

note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi

7 provinces; Gandaki Pradesh, Karnali Pradesh, Province No. One, Province No. Two, Province No. Three, Province No. Five, Sudurpashchim Pradesh
Independence
15 August 1947 (from the UK)
1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
National holiday
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitution Day, 20 September (2015); note - marks the promulgation of Nepal’s constitution in 2015 and replaces the previous 28 May Republic Day as the official national day in Nepal; the Gregorian day fluctuates based on Nepal’s Hindu calendar
Constitution
history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950
amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2019
history: several previous; latest approved by the Second Constituent Assembly 16 September 2015, signed by the president and effective 20 September 2015
amendments: proposed as a bill by either house of the Federal Parliament; bills affecting a state border or powers delegated to a state must be submitted to the affected state assembly; passage of such bills requires a majority vote of that state assembly membership; bills not requiring state assembly consent require at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of the Federal Parliament; parts of the constitution on the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and sovereignty vested in the people cannot be amended; last amended 2016
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Ram Nath KOVIND (since 25 July 2017); Vice President M. Venkaiah NAIDU (since 11 August 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by Lok Sabha members of the majority party
election results: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.7% Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.3%; M. Venkaiah NAIDU elected vice president; electoral college vote - M. Venkaiah NAIDU (BJP) 516, Gopalkrishna GANDHI (independent) 244
chief of state: President Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (since October 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Khadga Prasad (KP) Sharma OLI (since 15 February 2018); deputy prime ministers Ishwar POKHREL, Upendra YADAV (since 1 June 2018) (an)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet dominated by the Nepal Communist Party
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 March 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament
election results: Bidhya Devi BHANDARI reelected president; electoral vote - Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (CPN-UML) 39,275, Kumari Laxmi RAI (NC) 11,730
head of state: President Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)
Legislative branch
description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of:
Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms)
House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Council of States - last held by state and territorial assemblies at various dates in 2019 (next originally scheduled for March, June, and November 2020 but were postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic)

House of the People - last held April-May 2019 in 7 phases (next to be held in 2024)
election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - BJP 83, INC 46, AITC 13, DMK 11, SP, other 77, independent 6; composition - men 220, women 25, percent of women 10.2%

House of the People - percent of vote by party - BJP 55.8%, INC 9.6%, AITC 4.4%, YSRC 4.4%, DMK 4.2%, SS 3.3%, JDU 2.9%, BJD 2.2%, BSP 1.8%, TRS 1.7%, LJP 1.1%, NCP 0.9%, SP 0.9%, other 6.4%, independent 0.7%; seats by party - BJP 303, INC 52, DMK 24, AITC 22, YSRC 22, SS 18, JDU 16, BJD 12, BSP 10, TRS 9, LJP 6, NCP 5, SP 5, other 35, independent 4, vacant 2; composition - men 465, women 78, percent of women 14.3%; note - total Parliament percent of women 11.3%
description: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of:
National Assembly (59 seats; 56 members, including at least 3 women, 1 Dalit, 1 member with disabilities, or 1 minority indirectly elected by an electoral college of state and municipal government leaders, and 3 members, including 1 woman, nominated by the president of Nepal on the recommendation of the government; members serve 6-year terms with renewal of one-third of the membership every 2 years)
House of Representatives (275 seats; 165 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections:
first election for the National Assembly held on 7 February 2018 (next to be held in 2024)
first election for House of Representatives held on 26 November and 7 December 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 42, NC 13, FSFN 2, RJPN 2; composition - men 37, women 22, percent of women 37.3%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 174, NC 63, RJPN 17, FSFN 16, other 4, independent 1; composition - men 185, women 90, percent of women 32.7%; note - total Federal Parliament percent of women 33.5%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges, including the chief justice)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court

note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the "National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 20 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, a 5-member, high-level advisory body headed by the prime minister; other judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Judicial Council, a 5-member advisory body headed by the chief justice; the chief justice serves a 6-year term; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Court; district courts
Political parties and leaders
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [Edappadi PALANISWAMY, Occhaathevar PANNEERSELVAM]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Sitaram YECHURY]
Indian National Congress or INC
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Akhilesh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Sukhbir Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
YSR Congress or YSRC [Jagan Mohan REDDY]

note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties

the Election Commission of Nepal granted ballot access under the proportional system to 88 political parties for the November-December 2017 House of Representatives election to the Federal Parliament; of these, the following 8 parties won seats:
Federal Socialist Forum, Nepal or FSFN [Upendra YADAV]
Naya Shakti Party, Nepal [Baburam BHATTARAI]
Nepal Communist Party or NCP [Khadga Prasad OLI, Pushpa Kamal DAHAL]
Nepali Congress or NC [Sher Bahadur DEUBA]
Nepal Mazdoor Kisan Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
Rastriya Janamorcha [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]
Rastriya Janata Party or RJPN [Mahanta THAKUR]
Rastriya Prajatantra party or RPP [Kamal THAPA]

International organization participation
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Taranjit Singh SANDHU (since 6 February 2020)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Ambassador Arjun Kumar KARKI (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2730 34th Place NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
consulate(s) general: Chicago (IL), New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth I. JUSTER (since 23 November 2017)
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
chief of mission: Ambassador Randy BERRY (since 25 October 2018)
telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000
embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
mailing address: US Embassy, Maharajgunj Chakrapath, Kathmandu, Nepal 44600
FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation

note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

crimson red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies

note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square

National anthem
name: "Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem

name: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG

note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)
the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
rhododendron blossom; national color: red
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Economy

IndiaNepal
Economy - overview

India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the workforce is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. Nevertheless, per capita income remains below the world average. India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2017.

India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee through 2016.

The economy slowed again in 2017, due to shocks of "demonetizaton" in 2016 and introduction of GST in 2017. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors, but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes, largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills.

India has a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and is increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.

Nepal is among the least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 30% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for almost two-thirds of the population but accounting for less than a third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain.

Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of commercially feasible capacity. Nepal has signed trade and investment agreements with India, China, and other countries, but political uncertainty and a difficult business climate have hampered foreign investment. The United States and Nepal signed a $500 million Millennium Challenge Corporation Compact in September 2017 which will expand Nepal’s electricity infrastructure and help maintain transportation infrastructure.

Massive earthquakes struck Nepal in early 2015, which damaged or destroyed infrastructure and homes and set back economic development. Although political gridlock and lack of capacity have hindered post-earthquake recovery, government-led reconstruction efforts have progressively picked up speed, although many hard hit areas still have seen little assistance. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, inconsistent electricity supply, and underdeveloped transportation infrastructure.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$9.474 trillion (2017 est.)
$8.88 trillion (2016 est.)
$8.291 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$79.19 billion (2017 est.)
$73.39 billion (2016 est.)
$72.96 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
4.86% (2019 est.)
6.78% (2018 est.)
6.55% (2017 est.)
7.9% (2017 est.)
0.6% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$7,200 (2017 est.)
$6,800 (2016 est.)
$6,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$2,700 (2017 est.)
$2,500 (2016 est.)
$2,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 15.4% (2016 est.)
industry: 23% (2016 est.)
services: 61.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 27% (2017 est.)
industry: 13.5% (2017 est.)
services: 59.5% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
21.9% (2011 est.)
25.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
3.6% (2017 est.)
4.5% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2017 est.)
9.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force
521.9 million (2017 est.)
16.81 million (2017 est.)

note: severe lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 47%
industry: 22%
services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
agriculture: 69%
industry: 12%
services: 19% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate
8.5% (2017 est.)
8.5% (2016 est.)
3% (2017 est.)
3.2% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
35.2 (2011)
37.8 (1997)
32.8 (2010)
47.2 (2008 est.)
Budget
revenues: 238.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 329 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 5.925 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 5.945 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production
Industrial production growth rate
5.5% (2017 est.)
12.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
Exports
$304.1 billion (2017 est.)
$268.6 billion (2016 est.)
$818.7 million (2017 est.)
$761.6 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, jute goods
Exports - partners
US 15.6%, UAE 10.2%, Hong Kong 4.9%, China 4.3% (2017)
India 53.1%, US 11.8%, Turkey 7.2% (2017)
Imports
$452.2 billion (2017 est.)
$376.1 billion (2016 est.)
$10 billion (2017 est.)
$8.764 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine
Imports - partners
China 16.3%, US 5.5%, UAE 5.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2017)
India 70.2%, China 7.5% (2017)
Debt - external
$501.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$456.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.849 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.321 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
65.17 (2017 est.)
67.195 (2016 est.)
67.195 (2015 est.)
64.152 (2014 est.)
61.03 (2013 est.)
Nepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -
104 (2017 est.)
107.38 (2016 est.)
107.38 (2015 est.)
102.41 (2014 est.)
99.53 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
1 April - 31 March
16 July - 15 July
Public debt
71.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

26.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$409.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$359.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.091 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.506 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$29.748 billion (2019 est.)
-$65.939 billion (2018 est.)
-$93 million (2017 est.)
$1.339 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$2.602 trillion (2017 est.)
$24.88 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$377.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$318.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$103 million (31 July 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$155.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$144.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

NA

Market value of publicly traded shares
$1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$17.57 billion (31 October 2017 est.)
$19.4 billion (31 October 2016 est.)
$11.37 billion (31 October 2015 est.)
Central bank discount rate
6% (31 December 2017)
6.25% (31 December 2016)

note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate

7% (30 July 2017)
7% (30 July 2016)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
9.51% (31 December 2017 est.)
9.67% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
8.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$1.927 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.684 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$17.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$451.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$293.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.505 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.857 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$451.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$293.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.505 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.857 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
9.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
23.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-0.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 22.5%
male: 22.2%
female: 24.2% (2018 est.)
total: 21.4%
male: 19.7%
female: 23.9% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 28.5% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3.9% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 19.1% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 78% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 33.8% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 8.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 9.8% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -42% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
45.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
40.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
44% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

IndiaNepal
Electricity - production
1.386 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
4.244 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
1.137 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
4.983 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
5.15 billion kWh (2015 est.)
2.69 million kWh (FY 2017 est.)
Electricity - imports
5.617 billion kWh (2016 est.)
2.175 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
709,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
4.057 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
4.495 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
1.29 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
31.54 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
55.43 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
76.45 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
367.8 million kW (2016 est.)
943,100 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
71% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
92% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
4.897 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
4.521 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
27,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
1.305 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
653,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
26,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
2.383 billion Mt (2017 est.)
8.396 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 6 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 99% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 99% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 99% (2019)
population without electricity: 2 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 93% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 94% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 93% (2019)

Telecommunications

IndiaNepal
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 20,198,012
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.54 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 855,926
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2.85 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 1,105,250,941
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 84.27 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 41,880,311
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 139.45 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.in
.np
Internet users
total: 446,759,327
percent of population: 34.45% (July 2018 est.)
total: 10,103,980
percent of population: 34% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: supported by deregulation and liberalization of telecommunication laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; implementation of 4G/LTE services shift to data services across the country; highly competitive mobile market with price wars and value-added-services of mobile data; potential to become one of the largest five data center markets globally; steps taken towards 5G services; fixed broadband penetration is expected to grow at a moderate rate over the next five years to 2023 (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions stands at 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular at 84 per 100; mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 (very small aperture terminals) VSAT (2019)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 & 4, AAE-1, BBG, EIG, FALCON, FEA, GBICS, MENA, IMEWE, SEACOM/ Tata TGN-Eurasia, SAFE, WARF, Bharat Lanka Cable System, IOX, Chennai-Andaman & Nicobar Island Cable, SAEx2, Tata TGN-Tata Indicom and i2icn that provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, South East Asia, numerous Indian Ocean islands including Australia ; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: mountainous topography hinders development of telecom infrastructure; mobile service has been extended to all 75 districts covering 90% of Nepal’s land area; fixed broadband is low due to limited number of fixed lines and preeminence of the mobile platform, with overall penetration 2.8%; 3G and 4G subscribers, early stages for mobile broadband market; first launch of a Nepalese satellite (2020)
domestic: 3G coverage is available in 20 major cities (2019); disparity between high coverage in cities and coverage available in underdeveloped rural regions; fixed-line 3 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 139 per 100 persons; fair radiotelephone communication service; 20% of the market share is fixed (wired) broadband, 2% is fixed (wireless) broadband, and 78% is mobile broadband (2019)
international: country code - 977; Nepal, China and Tibet connected across borders with underground and all-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) fiber-optic cables; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 18.17 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)
total: 791,961
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
Doordarshan, India's public TV network, has a monopoly on terrestrial broadcasting and operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly
state operates 3 TV stations, as well as national and regional radio stations; 117 television channels are licensed, among those 71 are cable television channels, three are distributed through Direct-To-Home (DTH) system, and four are digital terrestrial; 736 FM radio stations are licensed and at least 314 of those radio stations are community radio stations (2019)

Transportation

IndiaNepal
Railways
total: 68,525 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified) (2014)
622 0.762-m gauge
total: 59 km (2018)
narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2018)
Roadways
total: 4,699,024 km (2015)

note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads

total: 27,990 km (2016)
paved: 11,890 km (2016)
unpaved: 16,100 km (2016)
Airports
total: 346 (2013)
total: 47 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 253 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 22 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 59 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 82 (2017)
under 914 m: 14 (2017)
total: 11 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 93 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 38 (2013)
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
total: 36 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
under 914 m: 29 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 14 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 164,035,637 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,703,960,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 39
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,296,953 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4.66 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
VT (2016)
9N (2016)

Military

IndiaNepal
Military branches
Indian Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes marines), Air Force, Coast Guard; Defense Security Corps (paramilitary forces); Ministry of Home Affairs paramilitary forces: Central Armed Police Force (includes Assam Rifles, Border Security Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, National Security Guards, Sashastra Seema Bal) (2019)
Nepal Army (includes Air Wing); Nepal Armed Police Force (under the Ministry of Home Affairs; paramilitary force responsible for border and internal security, including counter-insurgency, and assisting the Army in the event of an external invasion) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and under consideration for Army combat roles (2019)
18 years of age for voluntary military service (including women); no conscription (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2.4% of GDP (2019)
2.4% of GDP (2018)
2.5% of GDP (2017)
2.5% of GDP (2016)
2.4% of GDP (2015)
1.6% of GDP (2019)
1.6% of GDP (2018)
1.7% of GDP (2017)
1.7% of GDP (2016)
1.6% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

IndiaNepal
Disputes - international

since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal

joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of illegal cross-border activities

Illicit drugs
world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production
illicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 108,008 (Tibet/China), 59,428 (Sri Lanka), 18,813 (Burma), 7,470 (Afghanistan) (2019)
IDPs: 470,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2019)
stateless persons: 17,730 (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 12,540 (Tibet/China), 6,396 (Bhutan) (2019)
stateless persons: undetermined (2016); note - the UNHCR is working with the Nepali Government to address the large number of individuals lacking citizenship certificates in Nepal; smaller numbers of Bhutanese Hindu refugees of Nepali origin (the Lhotshampa) who were stripped of Bhutanese nationality and forced to flee their country in the late 1980s and early 1990s - and undocumented Tibetan refugees who arrived in Nepal prior to the 1990s - are considered stateless

Terrorism

IndiaNepal
Terrorist groups - foreign based
al-Qa'ida (AQ):
aim(s): overthrow the Indian Government and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
area(s) of operation: maintains an operational presence as al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (2018)
al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS): aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
area(s) of operation: targets primarily military and security personnel, especially in the states of Assam, Gujarat, and Jammu and Kashmir; present in large cities, including Delhi (2018)
Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM): aim(s): enhance its networks and paramilitary training in India and, ultimately, annex Kashmir into Pakistan and establish an Islamic state in Kashmir
area(s) of operation: conducts attacks against Indian troops and civilians in Kashmir (2018)
Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI): aim(s): enhance its networks and operational capabilities in India
area(s) of operation: maintains an operational presence, especially in the south, including in Bangalore and Hubli (2018)
Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B): aim(s): enhance its networks in India and, ultimately, install an Islamic state in Bangladesh
area(s) of operation: maintains a low-profile presence (2018)
Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Khorasan (ISIS-K): aim(s):  spread the ISIS caliphate by eliminating the Indian Government and, ultimately, unite Kashmir with Pakistan
area(s) of operation:  maintains a recruitment presence in major cities (2018)
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM): aim(s): annex Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan
area(s) of operation: operates primarily in Jammu and Kashmir State (2018)
Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT): aim(s): annex Jammu and Kashmir State to Pakistan and, ultimately, install Islamic rule throughout South Asia
area(s) of operation: operational throughout India, especially in the north in Jammu and Kashmir State, since at least 1993
note: continues to be one of the largest and most deadly of the anti-India-focused armed groups (2018)
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE): aim(s): enhance its networks in India and, ultimately, revive the movement to establish a Tamil homeland
area(s) of operation: maintains safe havens, transit routes, human trafficking, and an operational presence in an effort to revive the movement and conduct attacks (2018)
Indian Mujahedeen (IM): aim(s): enhance networks in Nepal to carry out attacks against Indians in Nepal and India
area(s) of operation:
maintains active hubs of small, loosely connected networks (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook