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India vs. Bangladesh

Introduction

IndiaBangladesh
Background

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.

By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent and India was seen as the "Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring countries have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. India's economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991, a massive youthful population, and a strategic geographic location have contributed to India's emergence as a regional and global power. However, India still faces pressing problems such as environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, and its restrictive business climate is dampening economic growth expectations.

The huge delta region formed at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems - now referred to as Bangladesh - was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires centered on the Gangetic plain for much of the first millennium A.D. Muslim conversions and settlement in the region began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans established trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. Partition in 1947 resulted in an eastern wing of Pakistan in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won the independence war for Bangladesh in 1971.

The post-independence AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 it was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) in 1978. That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections occurred in 1991. The BNP and AL have alternated in power since 1991, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. In January 2014, the incumbent AL won the national election by an overwhelming majority after the BNP boycotted the election, which extended HASINA's term as prime minister. In December 2018, HASINA secured a third consecutive term (fourth overall) with the AL coalition securing 96% of available seats, amid widespread claims of election irregularities. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has reduced the poverty rate from over half of the population to less than a third, achieved Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health, and made great progress in food security since independence. The economy has grown at an annual average of about 6% for the last two decades and the country reached World Bank lower-middle income status in 2014.

Geography

IndiaBangladesh
Location
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Geographic coordinates
20 00 N, 77 00 E
24 00 N, 90 00 E
Map references
Asia
Asia
Area
total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
total: 148,460 sq km
land: 130,170 sq km
water: 18,290 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
slightly larger than Pennsylvania and New Jersey combined; slightly smaller than Iowa
Land boundaries
total: 13,888 km
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1468 km, China 2659 km, Nepal 1770 km, Pakistan 3190 km
total: 4,413 km
border countries (2): Burma 271 km, India 4142 km
Coastline
7,000 km
580 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: to the outer limits of the continental margin
Climate
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 160 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,586 m
mean elevation: 85 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Natural resources
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), antimony, iron ore, lead, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Land use
agricultural land: 60.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 52.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 4.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 3.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 23.1% (2011 est.)
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 70.1% (2016 est.)
arable land: 59% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 6.5% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 4.6% (2016 est.)
forest: 11.1% (2016 est.)
other: 18.8% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land
667,000 sq km (2012)
53,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes

volcanism: Barren Island (354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years

droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Environment - current issues
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources; preservation and quality of forests; biodiversity loss
many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; destruction of wetlands; severe overpopulation with noise pollution
Environment - international agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal

Demographics

IndiaBangladesh
Population
1,326,093,247 (July 2020 est.)
162,650,853 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 26.31% (male 185,017,089/female 163,844,572)
15-24 years: 17.51% (male 123,423,531/female 108,739,780)
25-54 years: 41.56% (male 285,275,667/female 265,842,319)
55-64 years: 7.91% (male 52,444,817/female 52,447,038)
65 years and over: 6.72% (male 42,054,459/female 47,003,975) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 26.48% (male 21,918,651/female 21,158,574)
15-24 years: 18.56% (male 15,186,470/female 15,001,950)
25-54 years: 40.72% (male 31,694,267/female 34,535,643)
55-64 years: 7.41% (male 5,941,825/female 6,115,856)
65 years and over: 6.82% (male 5,218,206/female 5,879,411) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 28.7 years
male: 28 years
female: 29.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 27.9 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 28.6 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
1.1% (2020 est.)
0.98% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
18.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
18.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
5.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 107.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 96.7 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 35.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 34.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 36.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 28.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 69.7 years
male: 68.4 years
female: 71.2 years (2020 est.)
total population: 74.2 years
male: 72 years
female: 76.5 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.35 children born/woman (2020 est.)
2.11 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.2% (2017 est.)
<.1% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
noun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladeshi
Ethnic groups
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Bengali at least 98%, other indigenous ethnic groups 1.1% (2011 est.)

note: Bangladesh's government recognizes 27 indigenous ethnic groups under the 2010 Cultural Institution for Small Anthropological Groups Act; other sources estimate there are about 75 ethnic groups; critics of the 2011 census claim that it underestimates the size of Bangladesh's ethnic population

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
2.1 million (2017 est.)
14,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
Muslim 89.1%, Hindu 10%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist, Christian) (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
69,000 (2017 est.)
<1000 (2018 est.)
Languages
Hindi 43.6%, Bengali 8%, Marathi 6.9%, Telugu 6.7%, Tamil 5.7%, Gujarati 4.6%, Urdu 4.2%, Kannada 3.6%, Odia 3.1%, Malayalam 2.9%, Punjabi 2.7%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.1%, other 5.6% (2011 est.)

note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; there are 22 other officially recognized languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language

Bangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.4%
male: 82.4%
female: 65.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.9%
male: 76.7%
female: 71.2% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact diseases: leptospirosis
animal contact diseases: rabies
note: clusters of cases of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are being reported across 27 States and Union Territories in India; as of 10 November 2020, India has reported a total of 8,507,754 cases of COVID-19 or 6,165 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 91 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; on 16 March 2020, the government proposed extensive social distancing measures, including closure of all schools, museums, and cultural and social centers; prohibited gatherings of more than 50 people; and called on the public to avoid all non-essential travel; international commercial passenger flights remain suspended
degree of risk: high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
water contact diseases: leptospirosis
animal contact diseases: rabies
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Bangladesh; as of 10 November 2020, Bangladesh has reported a total of 418,764 cases of COVID-19 or 2,543 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 37 cumulative deaths per 1 million population
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2019)
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2018)
Education expenditures
3.8% of GDP (2013)
2% of GDP (2018)
Urbanization
urban population: 34.9% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 38.2% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 96% of population
rural: 91% of population
total: 92.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 4% of population
rural: 9% of population
total: 7.2% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 98.4% of population
total: 98.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 1.6% of population
total: 1.4% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 93.7% of population
rural: 61.1% of population
total: 72% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.3% of population
rural: 38.9% of population
total: 28% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 64.4% of population
total: 70.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 35.6% of population
total: 29.1% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
30.291 million NEW DELHI (capital), 20.411 million Mumbai, 14.850 million Kolkata, 1.237 million Bangalore, 10.971 million Chennai, 10.004 million Hyderabad (2020)
21.006 million DHAKA (capital), 5.020 million Chittagong, 954,000 Khulna, 908,000 Rajshahi, 852,000 Sylhet (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
145 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
173 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
33.4% (2016/18)
21.9% (2017/18)
Health expenditures
3.5% (2017)
2.3% (2017)
Physicians density
0.78 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.54 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)
0.8 beds/1,000 population (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
3.9% (2016)
3.6% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
53.5% (2015/16)
62.3% (2014)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 48.7
youth dependency ratio: 38.9
elderly dependency ratio: 9.8
potential support ratio: 10.2 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 47
youth dependency ratio: 39.3
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13 (2020 est.)

Government

IndiaBangladesh
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name "Bharat" may derive from the "Bharatas" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
local short form: Bangladesh
former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
etymology: the name - a compound of the Bengali words "Bangla" (Bengal) and "desh" (country) - means "Country of Bengal"
Government type
federal parliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capital
name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the city's name is associated with various myths and legends; the original name for the city may have been Dhilli or Dhillika; alternatively, the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words "dehleez" or "dehali" - both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway" - and indicative of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain; after the British decided to move the capital of their Indian Empire from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911, they created a new governmental district south of the latter designated as New Delhi; the new capital was not formally inaugurated until 1931
name: Dhaka
geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the origins of the name are unclear, but some sources state that the city's site was originally called "dhakka," meaning "watchtower," and that the area served as a watch-station for Bengal rulers
Administrative divisions
28 states and 8 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir*, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Ladakh*, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal

note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi

8 divisions; Barishal, Chattogram, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet
Independence
15 August 1947 (from the UK)
16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)
National holiday
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Independence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day, 16 December (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December (Victory Day) memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Constitution
history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950
amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2019
history: previous 1935, 1956, 1962 (preindependence); latest enacted 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended March 1982, restored November 1986
amendments: proposed by the House of the Nation; approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the House membership and assent of the president of the republic; amended many times, last in 2018
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Ram Nath KOVIND (since 25 July 2017); Vice President M. Venkaiah NAIDU (since 11 August 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by Lok Sabha members of the majority party
election results: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.7% Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.3%; M. Venkaiah NAIDU elected vice president; electoral college vote - M. Venkaiah NAIDU (BJP) 516, Gopalkrishna GANDHI (independent) 244
chief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently indirectly elected by the National Parliament and sworn in 24 April 2013
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 6 January 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 February 2018 (next to be held by 2023); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament
election results: President Abdul HAMID (AL) reelected by the National Parliament unopposed for a second term; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister as leader of the majority AL party following parliamentary elections in 2018
Legislative branch
description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of:
Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms)
House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Council of States - last held by state and territorial assemblies at various dates in 2019 (next originally scheduled for March, June, and November 2020 but were postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic)

House of the People - last held April-May 2019 in 7 phases (next to be held in 2024)
election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - BJP 83, INC 46, AITC 13, DMK 11, SP, other 77, independent 6; composition - men 220, women 25, percent of women 10.2%

House of the People - percent of vote by party - BJP 55.8%, INC 9.6%, AITC 4.4%, YSRC 4.4%, DMK 4.2%, SS 3.3%, JDU 2.9%, BJD 2.2%, BSP 1.8%, TRS 1.7%, LJP 1.1%, NCP 0.9%, SP 0.9%, other 6.4%, independent 0.7%; seats by party - BJP 303, INC 52, DMK 24, AITC 22, YSRC 22, SS 18, JDU 16, BJD 12, BSP 10, TRS 9, LJP 6, NCP 5, SP 5, other 35, independent 4, vacant 2; composition - men 465, women 78, percent of women 14.3%; note - total Parliament percent of women 11.3%
description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority popular vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the elected members by proportional representation vote using single transferable vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 30 December 2018 (next to be held in 2023)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party as of January 2020 - AL 299, JP 27, BNP 7, other 10, independent 4, vacant 3; composition - men 274, women 73, percent of women 21%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges, including the chief justice)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court

note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the "National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases

highest courts: Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67
subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court; special courts/tribunals
Political parties and leaders
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [Edappadi PALANISWAMY, Occhaathevar PANNEERSELVAM]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Sitaram YECHURY]
Indian National Congress or INC
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Akhilesh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Sukhbir Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
YSR Congress or YSRC [Jagan Mohan REDDY]

note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties

Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
Bangladesh Nationalist Front or BNF [Abdul Kalam AZADI]
Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]
Bangladesh Tariqat Federation or BTF [Syed Nozibul Bashar MAIZBHANDARI]
Jamaat-i-Islami Bangladesh or JIB (Makbul AHMAD)
Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]
Jatiya Party or JP (Manju faction) [Anwar Hossain MANJU]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
National Socialist Party or JSD [KHALEQUZZAMAN]
Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON]
International organization participation
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Taranjit Singh SANDHU (since 6 February 2020)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Ambassador Mohammad ZIAUDDIN (since 18 September 2014)
chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
FAX: [1] (202) 244-2771
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth I. JUSTER (since 23 November 2017)
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Robert MILLER (since 29 November 2018)
telephone: [880] (2) 5566-2000
embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
FAX: [880] (2) 5566-2915
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation

note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
National anthem
name: "Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem

name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
Bengal tiger, water lily; national colors: green, red
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

IndiaBangladesh
Economy - overview

India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the workforce is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. Nevertheless, per capita income remains below the world average. India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2017.

India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee through 2016.

The economy slowed again in 2017, due to shocks of "demonetizaton" in 2016 and introduction of GST in 2017. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors, but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes, largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills.

India has a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and is increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.

Bangladesh's economy has grown roughly 6% per year since 2005 despite prolonged periods of political instability, poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the services sector, almost half of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product.

 

Garments, the backbone of Bangladesh's industrial sector, accounted for more than 80% of total exports in FY 2016-17. The industrial sector continues to grow, despite the need for improvements in factory safety conditions. Steady export growth in the garment sector, combined with $13 billion in remittances from overseas Bangladeshis, contributed to Bangladesh's rising foreign exchange reserves in FY 2016-17. Recent improvements to energy infrastructure, including the start of liquefied natural gas imports in 2018, represent a major step forward in resolving a key growth bottleneck.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$9.474 trillion (2017 est.)
$8.88 trillion (2016 est.)
$8.291 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$690.3 billion (2017 est.)
$642.7 billion (2016 est.)
$599.5 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
4.86% (2019 est.)
6.78% (2018 est.)
6.55% (2017 est.)
7.4% (2017 est.)
7.2% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$7,200 (2017 est.)
$6,800 (2016 est.)
$6,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$4,200 (2017 est.)
$4,000 (2016 est.)
$3,800 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 15.4% (2016 est.)
industry: 23% (2016 est.)
services: 61.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 14.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 29.3% (2017 est.)
services: 56.5% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
21.9% (2011 est.)
24.3% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
3.6% (2017 est.)
4.5% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2017 est.)
5.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force
521.9 million (2017 est.)
66.64 million (2017 est.)

note: extensive migration of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia

Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 47%
industry: 22%
services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
agriculture: 42.7%
industry: 20.5%
services: 36.9% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate
8.5% (2017 est.)
8.5% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2017 est.)
4.4% (2016 est.)

note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many persons counted as employed work only a few hours a week and at low wages

Distribution of family income - Gini index
35.2 (2011)
37.8 (1997)
32.1 (2010)
33.2 (2005)
Budget
revenues: 238.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 329 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 25.1 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 33.5 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas
Industrial production growth rate
5.5% (2017 est.)
10.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Exports
$304.1 billion (2017 est.)
$268.6 billion (2016 est.)
$35.3 billion (2017 est.)
$34.14 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
garments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather
Exports - partners
US 15.6%, UAE 10.2%, Hong Kong 4.9%, China 4.3% (2017)
Germany 12.9%, US 12.2%, UK 8.7%, Spain 5.3%, France 5.1%, Italy 4.1% (2017)
Imports
$452.2 billion (2017 est.)
$376.1 billion (2016 est.)
$47.56 billion (2017 est.)
$40.28 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
cotton, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
Imports - partners
China 16.3%, US 5.5%, UAE 5.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2017)
China 21.9%, India 15.3%, Singapore 5.7% (2017)
Debt - external
$501.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$456.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$41.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
65.17 (2017 est.)
67.195 (2016 est.)
67.195 (2015 est.)
64.152 (2014 est.)
61.03 (2013 est.)
taka (BDT) per US dollar -
80.69 (2017 est.)
78.468 (2016 est.)
78.468 (2015 est.)
77.947 (2014 est.)
77.614 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
1 April - 31 March
1 July - 30 June
Public debt
71.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

33.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$409.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$359.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.42 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$32.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$29.748 billion (2019 est.)
-$65.939 billion (2018 est.)
-$5.322 billion (2017 est.)
$1.391 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$2.602 trillion (2017 est.)
$261.5 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$377.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$318.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$155.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$144.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$369.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$228.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$92.33 billion (30 September 2017 est.)
$77.99 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$71.73 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Central bank discount rate
6% (31 December 2017)
6.25% (31 December 2016)

note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate

5% (11 December 2017)
5% (30 October 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
9.51% (31 December 2017 est.)
9.67% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.54% (31 December 2017 est.)
10.41% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$1.927 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.684 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$152.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$135.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$451.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$293.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$451.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$293.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
9.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
9.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 22.5%
male: 22.2%
female: 24.2% (2018 est.)
total: 12.8%
male: 10.8%
female: 16.8% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 28.5% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3.9% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 19.1% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 6% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 30.5% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 15% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -20.3% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
30.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
30.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

IndiaBangladesh
Electricity - production
1.386 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
60.51 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
1.137 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
53.65 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
5.15 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
5.617 billion kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
709,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
3,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
4.057 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
21,860 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
4.495 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
28 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
1.29 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
185.8 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
31.54 billion cu m (2017 est.)
29.53 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
55.43 billion cu m (2017 est.)
29.53 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
76.45 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
367.8 million kW (2016 est.)
11.9 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
71% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
97% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
4.897 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
26,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
4.521 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
106,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
1.305 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
901 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
653,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
81,570 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
2.383 billion Mt (2017 est.)
79.97 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 6 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 99% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 99% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 99% (2019)
population without electricity: 28 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 83% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 93% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 77% (2019)

Telecommunications

IndiaBangladesh
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 20,198,012
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.54 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,433,460
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 1,105,250,941
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 84.27 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 163,559,380
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101.55 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.in
.bd
Internet users
total: 446,759,327
percent of population: 34.45% (July 2018 est.)
total: 23,917,950
percent of population: 15% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: supported by deregulation and liberalization of telecommunication laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; implementation of 4G/LTE services shift to data services across the country; highly competitive mobile market with price wars and value-added-services of mobile data; potential to become one of the largest five data center markets globally; steps taken towards 5G services; fixed broadband penetration is expected to grow at a moderate rate over the next five years to 2023 (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions stands at 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular at 84 per 100; mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 (very small aperture terminals) VSAT (2019)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 & 4, AAE-1, BBG, EIG, FALCON, FEA, GBICS, MENA, IMEWE, SEACOM/ Tata TGN-Eurasia, SAFE, WARF, Bharat Lanka Cable System, IOX, Chennai-Andaman & Nicobar Island Cable, SAEx2, Tata TGN-Tata Indicom and i2icn that provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, South East Asia, numerous Indian Ocean islands including Australia ; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: slow to moderate growth in mobile subscriber rate; regulator's recent budget allowance and telecoms investment in LTE infrastructure is leading the way to the migration of 5G; fixed broadband penetration in Bangladesh remains very low mainly due to the dominance of the mobile platform (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 101 telephones per 100 persons; mobile subscriber growth is anticipated over the next five years to 2023; strong local competition (2019)
international: country code - 880; landing points for the SeaMeWe-4 and SeaMeWe-5 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 18.17 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)
total: 10,237,003
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
Doordarshan, India's public TV network, has a monopoly on terrestrial broadcasting and operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly
state-owned Bangladesh Television (BTV) broadcasts throughout the country. Some channels, such as BTV World, operate via satellite. The government also owns a medium wave radio channel and some private FM radio broadcast news channels. Of the 41 Bangladesh approved TV stations, 26 are currently being used to broadcast. Of those, 23 operate under private management via cable distribution. Collectively, TV channels can reach more than 50 million people across the country.

Transportation

IndiaBangladesh
Railways
total: 68,525 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified) (2014)
622 0.762-m gauge
total: 2,460 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
broad gauge: 659 km 1.676-m gauge (2014)
Roadways
total: 4,699,024 km (2015)

note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads

total: 369,105 km (2018)
paved: 110,311 km (2018)
unpaved: 258,794 km (2018)
Waterways
14,500 km (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels) (2012)
8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season) (2011)
Pipelines
9 km condensate/gas, 13581 km gas, 2054 km liquid petroleum gas, 8943 km oil, 20 km oil/gas/water, 11069 km refined products (2013)
2950 km gas (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam
container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,549,457), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,833,397), Mundra (4,240,260) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira
major seaport(s): Chittagong
container port(s) (TEUs): Chittagong (2,566,597) (2017)
river port(s): Mongla Port (Sela River)
Merchant marine
total: 1,731
by type: bulk carrier 67, container ship 25, general cargo 579, oil tanker 128, other 932 (2019)
total: 376
by type: bulk carrier 36, container ship 5, general cargo 97, oil tanker 136, other 102 (2019)
Airports
total: 346 (2013)
total: 18 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 253 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 22 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 59 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 82 (2017)
under 914 m: 14 (2017)
total: 16 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
under 914 m: 5 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 93 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 38 (2013)
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
total: 2 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports
45 (2013)
3 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 14 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 164,035,637 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,703,960,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 30
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,984,155 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 63.82 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
VT (2016)
S2 (2016)

Military

IndiaBangladesh
Military branches
Indian Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes marines), Air Force, Coast Guard; Defense Security Corps (paramilitary forces); Ministry of Home Affairs paramilitary forces: Central Armed Police Force (includes Assam Rifles, Border Security Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, National Security Guards, Sashastra Seema Bal) (2019)
Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force; Ministry of Home Affairs: Border Guard Bangladesh (BGB), Bangladesh Coast Guard, Ansars, Village Defense Party (VDP) (2019)
note: the Ansars and VDP are paramilitary organizations for internal security
Military service age and obligation
16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and under consideration for Army combat roles (2019)
16-21 years of age for voluntary military service; Bangladeshi nationality and 10th grade education required; officers: 17-21 years of age, Bangladeshi nationality, and 12th grade education required (2018)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2.4% of GDP (2019)
2.4% of GDP (2018)
2.5% of GDP (2017)
2.5% of GDP (2016)
2.4% of GDP (2015)
1.3% of GDP (2019)
1.3% of GDP (2018)
1.2% of GDP (2017)
1.4% of GDP (2016)
1.4% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

IndiaBangladesh
Disputes - international

since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal

Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Indian Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 912,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Rakhine State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border

Illicit drugs
world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production
transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 108,008 (Tibet/China), 59,428 (Sri Lanka), 18,813 (Burma), 7,470 (Afghanistan) (2019)
IDPs: 470,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2019)
stateless persons: 17,730 (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 861,545 (Burma) (2020) (includes an estimated 712,152 Rohingya refugees who have fled conflict since 25 August 2017)
IDPs: 427,000 (conflict, development, human rights violations, religious persecution, natural disasters) (2019)

Terrorism

IndiaBangladesh
Terrorist groups - foreign based
al-Qa'ida (AQ):
aim(s): overthrow the Indian Government and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
area(s) of operation: maintains an operational presence as al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (2018)
al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS): aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
area(s) of operation: targets primarily military and security personnel, especially in the states of Assam, Gujarat, and Jammu and Kashmir; present in large cities, including Delhi (2018)
Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM): aim(s): enhance its networks and paramilitary training in India and, ultimately, annex Kashmir into Pakistan and establish an Islamic state in Kashmir
area(s) of operation: conducts attacks against Indian troops and civilians in Kashmir (2018)
Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI): aim(s): enhance its networks and operational capabilities in India
area(s) of operation: maintains an operational presence, especially in the south, including in Bangalore and Hubli (2018)
Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B): aim(s): enhance its networks in India and, ultimately, install an Islamic state in Bangladesh
area(s) of operation: maintains a low-profile presence (2018)
Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Khorasan (ISIS-K): aim(s):  spread the ISIS caliphate by eliminating the Indian Government and, ultimately, unite Kashmir with Pakistan
area(s) of operation:  maintains a recruitment presence in major cities (2018)
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM): aim(s): annex Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan
area(s) of operation: operates primarily in Jammu and Kashmir State (2018)
Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT): aim(s): annex Jammu and Kashmir State to Pakistan and, ultimately, install Islamic rule throughout South Asia
area(s) of operation: operational throughout India, especially in the north in Jammu and Kashmir State, since at least 1993
note: continues to be one of the largest and most deadly of the anti-India-focused armed groups (2018)
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE): aim(s): enhance its networks in India and, ultimately, revive the movement to establish a Tamil homeland
area(s) of operation: maintains safe havens, transit routes, human trafficking, and an operational presence in an effort to revive the movement and conduct attacks (2018)
al-Qa'ida (AQ): aim(s): overthrow the Bangladesh Government and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
area(s) of operation:
operates in collaboration with its al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent affiliate
note:  also known as Ansar al-Islam in Bangladesh (2019)
al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS): aim(s): protect Muslims in Bangladesh from perceived injustices and, ultimately, establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
area(s) of operation:
active throughout the country, targeting primarily military and security personnel, but also activists, bloggers, academics, and religious minorities
note:  also known as Ansar al-Islam in Bangladesh (2019)
Terrorist groups - home based
Hizbul Mujahideen (HM): aim(s): annex the state of Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan
area(s) of operation: HM is an indigenous Kashmiri militant group that operates in Jammu and Kashmir (2018)
Indian Mujahedeen (IM): aim(s): establish Islamic rule in India and, ultimately, convert all non-Muslims to Islam; stated goal is to carry out terrorist attacks against Indians for perceived atrocities against Indian Muslims
area(s) of operation: formerly based in the western state of Maharashtra, India's third-largest and second-most populous state, and now probably operates mostly outside India, particularly Nepal (2018)
Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B): aim(s): install an Islamic state in Bangladesh
area(s) of operation: headquartered in Bangladesh and mostly active in the southeast; maintains a network of madrassas in Bangladesh; has links with al-Qa'ida and Pakistan-based terror groups advocating similar objectives, including Harakat-ul Jihad Islami (HUJI) and Lashkar e-Tayibba (LeT) (2019)
Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) networks in Bangladesh: aim(s): replace the Bangladesh Government with an Islamic state and implement ISIS's strict interpretation of Sharia; ISIS operates in Bangladesh under the name Islamic State in Bangladesh (ISB)
area(s) of operation: operates primarily in Dhaka
note: targets foreigners, foreign aid workers, university professors, students, and secular bloggers for assassination; core ISIS refers to its Bangladesh branch as Bengal (2019)

Source: CIA Factbook