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India vs. Afghanistan

Demographics

IndiaAfghanistan
Population1,281,935,911 (July 2017 est.)
34,124,811 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.34% (male 186,087,665/female 164,398,204)
15-24 years: 17.9% (male 121,879,786/female 107,583,437)
25-54 years: 41.08% (male 271,744,709/female 254,834,569)
55-64 years: 7.45% (male 47,846,122/female 47,632,532)
65 years and over: 6.24% (male 37,837,801/female 42,091,086) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 40.92% (male 7,093,980/female 6,869,737)
15-24 years: 22.22% (male 3,859,696/female 3,723,679)
25-54 years: 30.35% (male 5,273,969/female 5,082,972)
55-64 years: 3.92% (male 659,635/female 678,942)
65 years and over: 2.59% (male 407,437/female 474,764) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.9 years
male: 27.2 years
female: 28.6 years (2017 est.)
total: 18.8 years
male: 18.8 years
female: 18.9 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.17% (2017 est.)
2.36% (2017 est.)
Birth rate19 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
37.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 110.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 118 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 102.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 68.8 years
male: 67.6 years
female: 70.1 years (2017 est.)
total population: 51.7 years
male: 50.3 years
female: 53.2 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.43 children born/woman (2017 est.)
5.12 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.3% (2016 est.)
<.1% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan
Ethnic groupsIndo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz)
note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan are not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2.1 million (2016 est.)
7,500 (2016 est.)
ReligionsHindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths62,000 (2016 est.)
<500 (2016 est.)
LanguagesHindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 est.)
Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 80% (Dari functions as the lingua franca), Pashto (official) 47%, Uzbek 11%, English 5%, Turkmen 2%, Urdu 2%, Pashayi 1%, Nuristani 1%, Arabic 1%, Balochi, Shughni, Pamiri, Hindi, Russian, German, French <.5% each, don't know/refused <1%
note 1: data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because there is much bilingualism in the country and because respondents were allowed to select more than one language
note 2: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them (2017 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.2%
male: 52%
female: 24.2% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2014)
total: 11 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2014)
Education expenditures3.8% of GDP (2013)
3.4% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 33.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 27.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.77% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 78.2% of population
rural: 47% of population
total: 55.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.8% of population
rural: 53% of population
total: 44.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 62.6% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 39.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 37.4% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 45.1% of population
rural: 27% of population
total: 31.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 54.9% of population
rural: 73% of population
total: 68.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationNEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
KABUL (capital) 4.635 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
396 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight35.7% (2015)
25% (2013)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
8.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.73 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.9% (2016)
5.5% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate53.5% (2015/16)
22.5% (2015/16)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.2
youth dependency ratio: 43.6
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6
potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 88.8
youth dependency ratio: 84.1
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7
potential support ratio: 21.2 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook