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Haiti vs. Dominican Republic

Introduction

HaitiDominican Republic
Background
The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Christopher COLUMBUS first landed on it in 1492 - were virtually wiped out by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but relied heavily on the forced labor of enslaved Africans and environmentally degrading practices. In the late 18th century, Toussaint L'OUVERTURE led a revolution of Haiti's nearly half a million slaves that ended France's rule on the island. After a prolonged struggle, and under the leadership of Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, Haiti became the first country in the world led by former slaves after declaring its independence in 1804, but it was forced to pay an indemnity to France for more than a century and was shunned by other countries for nearly 40 years. After the US occupied Haiti from 1915-1934, Francois "Papa Doc" DUVALIER and then his son Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” DUVALIER led repressive and corrupt regimes that ruled Haiti from 1957-1971 and 1971-1986, respectively. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years. On 4 October 2016, Hurricane Matthew made landfall in Haiti, resulting in over 500 deaths and causing extensive damage to crops, houses, livestock, and infrastructure. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti continues to experience bouts of political instability.

 

 

The Taino - indigenous inhabitants of Hispaniola prior to the arrival of the Europeans - divided the island into five chiefdoms and territories. Christopher COLUMBUS explored and claimed the island on his first voyage in 1492; it became a springboard for Spanish conquest of the Caribbean and the American mainland. In 1697, Spain recognized French dominion over the western third of the island, which in 1804 became Haiti. The remainder of the island, by then known as Santo Domingo, sought to gain its own independence in 1821 but was conquered and ruled by the Haitians for 22 years; it finally attained independence as the Dominican Republic in 1844. In 1861, the Dominicans voluntarily returned to the Spanish Empire, but two years later they launched a war that restored independence in 1865. A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative rule followed, capped by the dictatorship of Rafael Leonidas TRUJILLO from 1930 to 1961. Juan BOSCH was elected president in 1962 but was deposed in a military coup in 1963. In 1965, the US led an intervention in the midst of a civil war sparked by an uprising to restore BOSCH. In 1966, Joaquin BALAGUER defeated BOSCH in the presidential election. BALAGUER maintained a tight grip on power for most of the next 30 years when international reaction to flawed elections forced him to curtail his term in 1996. Since then, regular competitive elections have been held in which opposition candidates have won the presidency. Former President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (first term 1996-2000) won election to a new term in 2004 following a constitutional amendment allowing presidents to serve more than one term, and was later reelected to a second consecutive term. In 2012, Danilo MEDINA Sanchez became president; he was reelected in 2016.

Geography

HaitiDominican Republic
Location
Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti
Geographic coordinates
19 00 N, 72 25 W
19 00 N, 70 40 W
Map references
Central America and the Caribbean
Central America and the Caribbean
Area
total: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km
total: 48,670 sq km
land: 48,320 sq km
water: 350 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Maryland
slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundaries
total: 376 km
border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km
total: 376 km
border countries (1): Haiti 376 km
Coastline
1,771 km
1,288 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
Climate
tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall
Terrain
mostly rough and mountainous
rugged highlands and mountains interspersed with fertile valleys
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 470 m
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
mean elevation: 424 m
lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
highest point: Pico Duarte 3,098 m
Natural resources
bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land
nickel, bauxite, gold, silver, arable land
Land use
agricultural land: 66.4% (2011 est.)
arable land: 38.5% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 10.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 17.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 3.6% (2011 est.)
other: 30% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 51.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 16.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 24.8% (2011 est.)
forest: 40.8% (2011 est.)
other: 7.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
970 sq km (2012)
3,070 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues
extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; overpopulation leads to inadequate supplies of potable water and and a lack of sanitation; natural disasters
water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note
shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic); it is the most mountainous nation in the Caribbean
shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds makes up the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti); the second largest country in the Antilles (after Cuba); geographically diverse with the Caribbean's tallest mountain, Pico Duarte, and lowest elevation and largest lake, Lago Enriquillo
Population distribution
fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas
coastal development is significant, especially in the southern coastal plains and the Cibao Valley, where population density is highest; smaller population clusters exist in the interior mountains (Cordillera Central)

Demographics

HaitiDominican Republic
Population
10,788,440 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

10,298,756 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 32.27% (male 1,733,920 /female 1,747,387)
15-24 years: 21.11% (male 1,139,188 /female 1,137,754)
25-54 years: 37.32% (male 1,997,816 /female 2,028,495)
55-64 years: 5.1% (male 262,494 /female 287,515)
65 years and over: 4.21% (male 199,617 /female 254,254) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 27.56% (male 1,442,926 /female 1,395,809)
15-24 years: 18.52% (male 969,467 /female 937,765)
25-54 years: 40.28% (male 2,112,813 /female 2,035,902)
55-64 years: 7.71% (male 397,821 /female 396,172)
65 years and over: 5.92% (male 286,300 /female 323,781) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 23.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 23.1 years
female: 23.6 years
total: 27.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 27.1 years
female: 27.4 years
Population growth rate
1.31% (2018 est.)
0.99% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
22.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
18.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 45.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 51.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.2 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 25 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 64.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 61.9 years
female: 67.2 years
total population: 71.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 69.7 years
female: 73.1 years
Total fertility rate
2.66 children born/woman (2018 est.)
2.28 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
2% (2018 est.)
0.9% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican
Ethnic groups
black 95%, mixed and white 5%
mixed 70.4% (mestizo/indio 58%, mulatto 12.4%), black 15.8%, white 13.5%, other 0.3% (2014 est.)

note: respondents self-identified their race; the term "indio" in the Dominican Republic is not associated with people of indigenous ancestry but people of mixed ancestry or skin color between light and dark

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
160,000 (2018 est.)
70,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 54.7%, Protestant 28.5% (Baptist 15.4%, Pentecostal 7.9%, Adventist 3%, Methodist 1.5%, other 0.7%), Vodou 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10.2% (2003 est.)

note: many Haitians practice elements of Vodou in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; Vodou was recognized as an official religion in 2003

Roman Catholic 47.8%, Protestant 21.3%, other 2.2%, none 28%, don't know/no response .7% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
2,700 (2018 est.)
1,200 (2018 est.)
Languages
French (official), Creole (official)
Spanish (official)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.7%
male: 64.3%
female: 57.3% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.8%
male: 93.8%
female: 93.8% (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

Education expenditures
2.4% of GDP (2016)
NA
Urbanization
urban population: 56.2% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.9% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 81.8% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.06% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 64.9% of population
rural: 47.6% of population
total: 57.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 35.1% of population
rural: 52.4% of population
total: 42.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 85.4% of population
rural: 81.9% of population
total: 84.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 14.6% of population
rural: 18.1% of population
total: 15.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 33.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 19.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 27.6% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 66.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 80.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 72.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 86.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 75.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 84% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 13.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 24.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 16% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
2.704 million PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) (2019)
3.245 million SANTO DOMINGO (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
480 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
95 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
9.5% (2017)
4% (2013)
Health expenditures
6.9% (2015)
6.2% (2016)
Physicians density
0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
1.56 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
22.7% (2016)
27.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
22.8 years (2016/7 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

21.3 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate
34.3% (2016/17)
69.5% (2014)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 62.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 54.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 13.3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 57.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 47.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 9.5 (2015 est.)

Government

HaitiDominican Republic
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
conventional short form: Haiti
local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d Ayiti
local short form: Haiti/Ayiti
etymology: the native Taino name means "Land of High Mountains" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola
conventional long form: Dominican Republic
conventional short form: The Dominican
local long form: Republica Dominicana
local short form: La Dominicana
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Santo Domingo (Saint Dominic)
Government type
semi-presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Port-au-Prince
geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
etymology: according to tradition, in 1706, a Captain de Saint-Andre named the bay and its surrounding area after his ship Le Prince; the name of the town that grew there means, "the Port of The Prince"
name: Santo Domingo
geographic coordinates: 18 28 N, 69 54 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: named after Saint Dominic de Guzman (1170-1221), founder of the Dominican Order
Administrative divisions
10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
10 regions (regiones, singular - region); Cibao Nordeste, Cibao Noroeste, Cibao Norte, Cibao Sur, El Valle, Enriquillo, Higuamo, Ozama, Valdesia, Yuma
Independence
1 January 1804 (from France)
27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
National holiday
Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
Constitution
history: many previous; latest adopted 10 March 1987
amendments: proposed by the executive branch or by either the Senate or the Chamber of Deputies; consideration of proposed amendments requires support by at least two-thirds majority of both houses; passage requires at least two-thirds majority of the membership present and at least two-thirds majority of the votes cast; approved amendments enter into force after installation of the next president of the republic; constitutional articles on the democratic and republican form of government cannot be amended; amended 2011, 2012 (2018)
history: many previous (38 total); latest proclaimed 13 June 2015
amendments: proposed by a special session of the National Congress called the National Revisory Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority approval by at least one half of those present in both houses of the Assembly; passage of amendments to constitutional articles, such as fundamental rights and guarantees, territorial composition, nationality, or the procedures for constitutional reform, also requires approval in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2017 (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age can vote; note - members of the armed forces and national police by law cannot vote
Executive branch
chief of state: President Jovenel MOISE (since 7 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Fritz William MICHEL (since 22 July 2019); note - Prime Minister Jean Michel LAPIN resigned on 22 July 2019
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); last election originally scheduled for 9 October 2016 but postponed until 20 November 2016 due to Hurricane Matthew
election results: Jovenel MOISE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Jovenel MOISE (PHTK) 55.6%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.6%, Jean-Charles MOISE (PPD) 11%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9%; other 4.8%
chief of state: President Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (since 16 August 2012); Vice President Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (since 16 August 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (since 16 August 2012); Vice President Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (since 16 August 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a maximum of two consecutive terms); election last held on 15 May 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Danilo MEDINA Sanchez reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (PLD) 61.7%, Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (PRM) 35%, other 3.3%; Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (PLD) reelected vice president
Legislative branch
description: bicameral legislature or le Corps l'egislatif ou le Parlement consists of:
le S'enat or Senate (30 seats, 29 filled as of June 2019; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
la Chambre de deput'es or Chamber of Deputies (119 seats; 116 filled as of June 2019; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - when the 2 chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assembl'ee nationale or the National Assembly and is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution
elections:
Senate - last held on 20 November 2016 with runoff on 29 January 2017 (next scheduled for 27 October 2019)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with runoff on 25 October 2015 and 20 November 2016 (next scheduled for 27 October 2019)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 27, women 1, percent of women 3.6%
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 115, women 3, percent of women 2.5%; note - total legislature percent of women 2.7%
description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Senate or Senado (32 seats; note - electoral system changes by the Central Election Commission are being challenged by the ruling party and opposition)
House of Representatives or Camara de Diputados (190 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 15 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2020)
House of Representatives - last held on 15 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2020)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 26, PRM 2, BIS 1, PLRD 1, PRD 1, PRSC 1; composition as of 2018 - men 29, women 3, percent of women 9.4%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 106, PRM 42, PRSC 18, PRD 16, PLRD 3, other 5; composition as of 2018 - men 139, women 51, percent of women 26.8%; note - total National Congress percent of women 24.3%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour de cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of Haiti's constitution states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for 10 years, whereas Article 177 states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrate's courts;  land, labor, and children's courts
note: the Superior Council of the Judiciary or Conseil Superieur du Pouvoir Judiciaire is a 9-member body charged with the administration and oversight of the judicial branch of government
highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia (consists of a minimum of 16 magistrates); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges); note - the Constitutional Court was established in 2010 by constitutional amendment
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary comprised of the president, the leaders of both chambers of congress, the president of the Supreme Court, and a non-governing party congressional representative; Supreme Court judges appointed for 7-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; justices of the peace; special courts for juvenile, labor, and land cases; Contentious Administrative Court for cases filed against the government
Political parties and leaders
Alternative League for Haitian Progress and Empowerment or LAPEH [Jude CELESTIN]
Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH [Luc MESADIEU]
Christian National Movement for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Chavannes JEUNE]
Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
Democratic Alliance Party or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition includes KID and PPRH)
Democratic Centers' National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
Dessalinian Patriotic and Popular Movement or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]
For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]
Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]
Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]
Haitian Tet Kale Party or PHTK [Ann Valerie Timothee MILFORT]
Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT
Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT, Camille LEBLANC]
Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]
New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]
Organization for the Advancement of Haiti and Haitians or OLAHH
Party for the Integral Advancement of the Haitian People or PAIPH
Patriotic Unity or IP [Marie Denise CLAUDE]
Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]
Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]
Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE, Himmler REBU]
Platform Pitit Desaline or PPD [Jean-Charles MOISE]
Pont
Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]
PPG18
Rally of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]
Renmen Ayiti or RA [Jean-Henry CEANT]
Reseau National Bouclier or Bouclier
Respect or RESPE
Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]
Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Jacques-Edouard ALEXIS]
Truth (Verite)
Union [Chavannes JEUNE]
Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE]
Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]
Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]
Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Miguel VARGAS Maldonado]
Institutional Social Democratic Bloc or BIS
Liberal Reformist Party or PRL (formerly the Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic or PLRD)
Modern Revolutionary Party or PRM [Jose Ignacio PALIZA]
National Progressive Front or FNP [Vinicio CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]
Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Federico ANTUN]
International organization participation
ACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AOSIS, BCIE, Caricom (observer), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA (associated member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Paul Getty ALTIDOR (since 2 May 2012)
chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Ambassador Jose Tomas PEREZ Vazquez (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280, 660-2263
FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Michele SISON (since 21 February 2018)
telephone: [509] 229-8000
embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince
mailing address: (in Haiti) P.O. Box 1634, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; (from abroad) 3400 Port-au-Prince, State Department, Washington, DC 20521-3400
FAX: [509] 229-8028
chief of mission: Ambassador Robin BERNSTEIN (since 6 September 2018)
telephone: [1] (809) 567-7775
embassy: Av. Republica de Colombia # 57, Santo Domingo
mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500
FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437
Flag description
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes
a centered white cross that extends to the edges divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are ultramarine blue (hoist side) and vermilion red, and the bottom ones are vermilion red (hoist side) and ultramarine blue; a small coat of arms featuring a shield supported by a laurel branch (left) and a palm branch (right) is at the center of the cross; above the shield a blue ribbon displays the motto, DIOS, PATRIA, LIBERTAD (God, Fatherland, Liberty), and below the shield, REPUBLICA DOMINICANA appears on a red ribbon; in the shield a bible is opened to a verse that reads "Y la verdad nos hara libre" (And the truth shall set you free); blue stands for liberty, white for salvation, and red for the blood of heroes
National anthem
name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)
lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD

note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti

name: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Emilio PRUD'HOMME/Jose REYES

note: adopted 1934; also known as "Quisqueyanos valientes" (Valient Sons of Quisqueye); the anthem never refers to the people as Dominican but rather calls them "Quisqueyanos," a reference to the indigenous name of the island

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red
palmchat (bird); national colors: red, white, blue
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Dominican Republic
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Economy

HaitiDominican Republic
Economy - overview

Haiti is a free market economy with low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, which remains vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population represent some of the most serious impediments to Haiti’s economic growth. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equivalent to more than a quarter of GDP, and nearly double the combined value of Haitian exports and foreign direct investment.

Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with close to 60% of the population living under the national poverty line, Haiti’s GDP growth rose to 5.5% in 2011 as the Haitian economy began recovering from the devastating January 2010 earthquake that destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. However, growth slowed to below 2% in 2015 and 2016 as political uncertainty, drought conditions, decreasing foreign aid, and the depreciation of the national currency took a toll on investment and economic growth. Hurricane Matthew, the fiercest Caribbean storm in nearly a decade, made landfall in Haiti on 4 October 2016, with 140 mile-per-hour winds, creating a new humanitarian emergency. An estimated 2.1 million people were affected by the category 4 storm, which caused extensive damage to crops, houses, livestock, and infrastructure across Haiti’s southern peninsula.

US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act (HOPE II) have contributed to an increase in apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. The Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act of 2010 extended the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020, while the Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015 extended trade benefits provided to Haiti in the HOPE and HELP Acts through September 2025. Apparel sector exports in 2016 reached approximately $850 million and account for over 90% of Haitian exports and more than 10% of the GDP.

Investment in Haiti is hampered by the difficulty of doing business and weak infrastructure, including access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to $2.6 billion as of December 2017, the majority of which is owed to Venezuela under the PetroCaribe program. Although the government has increased its revenue collection, it continues to rely on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over 20% of its annual budget coming from foreign aid or direct budget support.

The Dominican Republic was for most of its history primarily an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, but over the last three decades the economy has become more diversified as the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer, due to growth in construction, tourism, and free trade zones. The mining sector has also played a greater role in the export market since late 2012 with the commencement of the extraction phase of the Pueblo Viejo Gold and Silver mine, one of the largest gold mines in the world.

For the last 20 years, the Dominican Republic has been one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America. The economy rebounded from the global recession in 2010-16, and the fiscal situation is improving. A tax reform package passed in November 2012, a reduction in government spending, and lower energy costs helped to narrow the central government budget deficit from 6.6% of GDP in 2012 to 2.6% in 2016, and public debt is declining. Marked income inequality, high unemployment, and underemployment remain important long-term challenges; the poorest half of the population receives less than one-fifth of GDP, while the richest 10% enjoys nearly 40% of GDP.

The economy is highly dependent upon the US, the destination for approximately half of exports and the source of 40% of imports. Remittances from the US amount to about 7% of GDP, equivalent to about a third of exports and two-thirds of tourism receipts. The Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement came into force in March 2007, boosting investment and manufacturing exports.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$19.97 billion (2017 est.)
$19.74 billion (2016 est.)
$19.46 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$173 billion (2017 est.)
$165.4 billion (2016 est.)
$155.2 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
1.2% (2017 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
4.6% (2017 est.)
6.6% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$1,800 (2017 est.)
$1,800 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$17,000 (2017 est.)
$16,400 (2016 est.)
$15,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 22.1% (2017 est.)
industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)
services: 57.6% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 5.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 33% (2017 est.)
services: 61.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
58.5% (2012 est.)
30.5% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 37.4% (2013 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
14.7% (2017 est.)
13.4% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2017 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force
4.594 million (2014 est.)

note: shortage of skilled labor; unskilled labor abundant

4.732 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 38.1%
industry: 11.5%
services: 50.4% (2010)
agriculture: 14.4%
industry: 20.8% (2014)
services: 64.7% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate
40.6% (2010 est.)

note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs

5.1% (2017 est.)
5.5% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
60.8 (2012)
59.2 (2001)
47.1 (2013 est.)
45.7 (2012 est.)
Budget
revenues: 1.567 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.65 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 11.33 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 13.62 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts
tourism, sugar processing, gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco, electrical components, medical devices
Industrial production growth rate
0.9% (2017 est.)
3.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
coffee, mangoes, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood, vetiver
cocoa, tobacco, sugarcane, coffee, cotton, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs
Exports
$980.2 million (2017 est.)
$995 million (2016 est.)
$10.12 billion (2017 est.)
$9.86 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee
gold, silver, cocoa, sugar, coffee, tobacco, meats, consumer goods
Exports - partners
US 80.6%, Dominican Republic 4.9% (2017)
US 50.3%, Haiti 9.1%, Canada 8.2%, India 5.6% (2017)
Imports
$3.618 billion (2017 est.)
$3.183 billion (2016 est.)
$17.7 billion (2017 est.)
$17.4 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners
US 20.7%, China 18.8%, Netherlands Antilles 15.7%, Indonesia 8.5% (2017)
US 41.4%, China 13.9%, Mexico 4.5%, Brazil 4.3% (2017)
Debt - external
$2.762 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.16 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
65.21 (2017 est.)
63.34 (2016 est.)
63.34 (2015 est.)
50.71 (2014 est.)
45.22 (2013 est.)
Dominican pesos (DOP) per US dollar -
47.42 (2017 est.)
46.078 (2016 est.)
46.078 (2015 est.)
45.052 (2014 est.)
43.556 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
1 October - 30 September
calendar year
Public debt
31.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
37.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
34.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$2.361 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.873 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.134 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$348 million (2017 est.)
-$83 million (2016 est.)
-$165 million (2017 est.)
-$815 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$8.608 billion (2017 est.)
$76.09 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$1.46 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.37 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$37.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$33.56 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

NA

Commercial bank prime lending rate
13.1% (31 December 2017 est.)
13.23% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.91% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.08% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$3.112 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.253 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$35.42 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$33.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$1.273 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.049 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.011 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.491 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$1.273 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.049 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.011 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.491 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
18.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
14.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 99.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 10% (2016 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 32.6% (2016 est.)
investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 20% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -60.3% (2017 est.)

note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption

household consumption: 69.3% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 12.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 21.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 24.8% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -28.1% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
24.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

HaitiDominican Republic
Electricity - production
1.023 billion kWh (2016 est.)
18.03 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
406.2 million kWh (2016 est.)
15.64 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
16,980 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
1.161 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
1.161 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
332,000 kW (2016 est.)
3.839 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
82% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
77% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
18% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
16,060 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
21,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
134,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
20,030 bbl/day (2015 est.)
108,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
3.595 million Mt (2017 est.)
23.79 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 8 million (2017)
electrification - total population: 38.7% (2016)
electrification - urban areas: 65.4% (2016)
electrification - rural areas: 0.5% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

HaitiDominican Republic
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 5,703
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,329,852
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 6,486,549
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 61 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 8,769,127
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least-developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic cell service is functional (2018)
domestic: fixed-line is less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular telephone services have expanded greatly in the last decade due to low-cost GSM (Global Systems for Mobile) phones and pay-as-you-go plans; mobile-cellular teledensity is 61 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 509; landing points for the BDSNi and Fibralink submarine cables to 14 points in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
general assessment: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network; there are multiple operators licensed to provide services, most of them are small and localized; the telecom sector across the Caribbean region remains one of the key growth areas (2018)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 12 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile-cellular service with a subscribership of over 80 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-809; 1-829; 1-849; landing point for the ARCOS-1, Antillas 1, AMX-1, SAm-1, East-West, Deep Blue Cable and the Fibralink submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
Internet country code
.ht
.do
Internet users
total: 1,282,686
percent of population: 12.2% (July 2016 est.)
total: 6,504,998
percent of population: 61.3% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media

98 television stations throughout the country, including 1 government-owned; cable TV subscription service available; 850 radio stations (of them, only 346 are licensed), including 1 government-owned; more than 100 community radio stations; over 64 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone; VOA Creole Service broadcasts daily on 30 affiliate stations

(2016)
combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media; 1 state-owned TV network and a number of private TV networks; networks operate repeaters to extend signals throughout country; combination of state-owned and privately owned radio stations with more than 300 radio stations operating (2019)

Transportation

HaitiDominican Republic
Roadways
total: 4,266 km (2009)
paved: 768 km (2009)
unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)
total: 19,705 km (2002)
paved: 9,872 km (2002)
unpaved: 9,833 km (2002)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince
major seaport(s): Puerto Haina, Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo
oil terminal(s): Punta Nizao oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Andres LNG terminal (Boca Chica)
Merchant marine
total: 4
by type: general cargo 3, other 1 (2018)
total: 23
by type: general cargo 2, oil tanker 1, other 20 (2018)
Airports
total: 14 (2013)
total: 36 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 4 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
total: 16 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 10 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 20 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 14,463 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
HH (2016)
HI (2016)

Military

HaitiDominican Republic
Military branches
the Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH), disbanded in 1995, began to be reconstituted in 2017 to assist with natural disaster relief, border security, and combating transnational crime; the small Coast Guard is not part of the military, but rather the Haitian National Police. (2019)
Armed Forces of the Dominican Republic:  Army (Ejercito Nacional, EN), Navy (Marina de Guerra, MdG, includes naval infantry), Dominican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Dominicana, FAD) (2017)

Transnational Issues

HaitiDominican Republic
Disputes - international

since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

Haitian migrants cross the porous border into the Dominican Republic to find work; illegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage each year to Puerto Rico to find better work

Illicit drugs
Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabis
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point for ecstasy from the Netherlands and Belgium destined for US and Canada; substantial money laundering activity in particular by Colombian narcotics traffickers; significant amphetamine consumption
Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs: 34,508 (includes only IDPs from the 2010 earthquake living in camps or camp-like situations; information is lacking about IDPs living outside of camps or who have left camps) (2019)
stateless persons: 2,992 (2018); note - individuals without a nationality who were born in the Dominican Republic prior to January 2010
refugees (country of origin): 8,119 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019)
stateless persons: 133,770 (2016); note - a September 2013 Constitutional Court ruling revoked the citizenship of those born after 1929 to immigrants without proper documentation, even though the constitution at the time automatically granted citizenship to children born in the Dominican Republic and the 2010 constitution provides that constitutional provisions cannot be applied retroactively; the decision overwhelmingly affected people of Haitian descent whose relatives had come to the Dominican Republic since the 1890s as a cheap source of labor for sugar plantations; a May 2014 law passed by the Dominican Congress regularizes the status of those with birth certificates but will require those without them to prove they were born in the Dominican Republic and to apply for naturalization; the government has issued documents to thousands of individuals who may claim citizenship under this law, but no official estimate has been released

note: revised estimate includes only individuals born to parents who were both born abroad; it does not include individuals born in the country to one Dominican-born and one foreign-born parent or subsequent generations of individuals of foreign descent; the estimate, as such, does not include all stateless persons (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook