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Guinea vs. Senegal

Introduction

GuineaSenegal
Background
Guinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though results were questionable due to a lack in transparency and neutrality in the electoral process. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that peaked in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people. In early December 2009, CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy. The country held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively, and in October 2015 held a second consecutive presidential election. Alpha CONDE was reelected to a second five-year term as president in 2015, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's first cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. The country held a successful political dialogue in August and September 2016 that brought together the government and opposition to address long-standing tensions. Local elections were held in February 2018, and disputed results in some of the races resulted in ongoing protests against CONDE's government.
A Jolof Empire ruled parts of Senegal from 1350 to 1549. Various European powers, including Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain, competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward. A slave station on the island of Goree, next to modern Dakar, was used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. Having abolished slavery in 1815, the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland in the second half of the 19th century and made it a French colony. The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several attempts at reaching a comprehensive peace agreement have failed to resolve the conflict but, despite sporadic incidents of violence, an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by the Socialist Party of Senegal, first under President Léopold Sédar SENGHOR, and then President Abdou DIOUF, for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was re-elected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents - the change did not apply to SALL's first term. SALL won his bid for re-election in February 2019; his term will end in 2024. A month after the election, the National Assembly voted to abolish the office of the prime minister. Opposition organizations and civil society have criticized the decision as a further concentration of power in the executive branch at the expense of the legislative and judicial branches.

Geography

GuineaSenegal
Location
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates
11 00 N, 10 00 W
14 00 N, 14 00 W
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 245,857 sq km
land: 245,717 sq km
water: 140 sq km
total: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Oregon; slightly larger than twice the size of Pennsylvania
slightly smaller than South Dakota; slightly larger than twice the size of Indiana
Land boundaries
total: 4,046 km
border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km
total: 2,684 km
border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
Coastline
320 km
531 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Terrain
generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 472 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
mean elevation: 69 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m
Natural resources
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use
agricultural land: 58.1% (2011 est.)
arable land: 11.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 2.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 43.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 26.5% (2011 est.)
other: 15.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 46.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 17.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 29.1% (2011 est.)
forest: 43.8% (2011 est.)
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
950 sq km (2012)
1,200 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues
deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices lead to environmental damage; water pollution; improper waste disposal
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; periodic droughts; seasonal flooding; overfishing; weak environmental protective laws; wildlife populations threatened by poaching
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands
westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
Population distribution
areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map
the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

GuineaSenegal
Population
12,527,440 (July 2020 est.)
15,736,368 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 41.2% (male 2,601,221/female 2,559,918)
15-24 years: 19.32% (male 1,215,654/female 1,204,366)
25-54 years: 30.85% (male 1,933,141/female 1,930,977)
55-64 years: 4.73% (male 287,448/female 305,420)
65 years and over: 3.91% (male 218,803/female 270,492) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 40.38% (male 3,194,454/female 3,160,111)
15-24 years: 20.35% (male 1,596,896/female 1,606,084)
25-54 years: 31.95% (male 2,327,424/female 2,700,698)
55-64 years: 4.21% (male 283,480/female 378,932)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 212,332/female 275,957) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 19.1 years
male: 18.9 years
female: 19.4 years (2020 est.)
total: 19.4 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.76% (2020 est.)
2.31% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
36.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
31.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 99.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 93.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 52.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 45.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 51.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 63.2 years
male: 61.3 years
female: 65 years (2020 est.)
total population: 63.2 years
male: 61.1 years
female: 65.4 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.92 children born/woman (2020 est.)
4.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
1.4% (2019 est.)
0.4% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
Ethnic groups
Fulani (Peuhl) 33.4%, Malinke 29.4%, Susu 21.2%, Guerze 7.8%, Kissi 6.2%, Toma 1.6%, other/foreign .4% (2018 est.)
Wolof 37.1%, Pular 26.2%, Serer 17%, Mandinka 5.6%, Jola 4.5%, Soninke 1.4%, other 8.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
110,000 (2019 est.)
41,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 89.1%, Christian 6.8%, animist 1.6%, other .1%, none 2.4% (2014 est.)
Muslim 95.9% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.1% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
3,100 (2019 est.)
1,200 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official), Pular, Maninka, Susu, other native languages

note: about 40 languages are spoken; each ethnic group has its own language

French (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 30.4%
male: 38.1%
female: 22.8% (2015)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.9%
male: 64.8%
female: 39.8% (2017)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever (2016)
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2014)
total: 9 years
male: 8 years
female: 9 years (2019)
Education expenditures
2.2% of GDP (2017)
4.8% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 36.5% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.54% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 48.1% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 97.9% of population
rural: 69.8% of population
total: 79.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.1% of population
rural: 27.6% of population
total: 20.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 92.3% of population
rural: 74.5% of population
total: 83.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.7% of population
rural: 25.5% of population
total: 16.7% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 34.8% of population
total: 53% of population
unimproved: urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 65.2% of population
total: 47% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 91.2% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 68.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.8% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 31.6% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
1.938 million CONAKRY (capital) (2020)
3.140 million DAKAR (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
576 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
315 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
16.3% (2018)
13.3% (2019)
Health expenditures
4.1% (2017)
4.1% (2017)
Physicians density
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
7.7% (2016)
8.8% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.5 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

21.9 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Guinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.

Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile "Parrot’s Beak" region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence.

Senegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.

Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).

Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
10.9% (2018)
27.8% (2017)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 85.2
youth dependency ratio: 79.7
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
potential support ratio: 18.3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 84.2
youth dependency ratio: 78.4
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.5 (2020 est.)

Government

GuineaSenegal
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
Government type
presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: according to tradition, the name derives from the fusion of the name "Cona," a Baga wine and cheese producer who lived on Tombo Island (the original site of the present-day capital), and the word "nakiri," which in Susu means "the other bank" or "the other side"; supposedly, Baga's palm grove produced the best wine on the island and people traveling to sample his vintage, would say: "I am going to Cona, on the other bank (Cona-nakiri)," which over time became Conakry
name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the Atlantic coast trading settlement of Ndakaaru came to be called "Dakar" by French colonialists
Administrative divisions
7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore
14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence
2 October 1958 (from France)
4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holiday
Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Constitution
history: previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010; note - in late December 2019, President CONDE announced a new draft constitution
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; consideration of proposals requires approval by simple majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval in referendum; the president can opt to submit amendments directly to the Assembly, in which case approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote
history: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2019
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima FOFANA (since 22 May 2018)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2025); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha CONDE reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 59.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 33.5%, other 7%
chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2024)
election results: Macky SALL elected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; 76 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 38 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next to be held 1 March 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, PEDN 2, UPG 2, other 10; composition - men 89, women 25, percent of women 21.9%
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (165 seats; 105 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 60 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 2 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBK 49.5%, CGWS 16.7%, MTS 11.7%, PUR 4.7%, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2%, other 15.4%; seats by party/coalition - BBY 125, CGWS 19, MTS 7, PUR 3, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2, other 9; composition - men 96, women 69, percent of women 41.8%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, 10 councilors, the solicitor general, and NA deputies); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve until age 65; Constitutional Court member appointments - 2 by the National Assembly and the president of the republic, 3 experienced judges designated by their peers, 1 experienced lawyer, 1 university professor with expertise in public law designated by peers, and 2 experienced representatives of the Independent National Institution of Human Rights; members serve single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; Court of Account (Court of Auditors); Courts of First Instance (Tribunal de Premiere Instance); labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts
highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the court president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members, including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Superior Council of the Magistrates, a body chaired by the president and minister of justice; judge tenure varies, with mandatory retirement either at 65 or 68 years; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker; judges serve 6-year terms, with renewal of 2 members every 2 years
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court
Political parties and leaders
Bloc Liberal or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Ruling partyRally of the Guinean People (Rassemblement du Peuple Guinéen, RPG)Opposition partiesAfrican Democratic Party of Guinea (Parti démocratique africain de Guinée)Party of Unity and Progress (Parti de l'Unité et du Progrès, PUP)Union for Progress and Renewal (Union pour le Progrès et le Renouveau, UPR)Union for Progress of Guinea (Union pour le Progrès de la Guinée, UPG)Democratic Party of Guinea-African Democratic Rally (Parti Démocratique de Guinée-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain, PDG-RDA)National Alliance for Progress (Alliance Nationale pour le Progrès, ANP)Party of the Union for Development (Parti de l’Union pour le Développement, PUD)Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea ( Union des Forces Démocratiques de Guinée, UFDG ), led by Cellou Dalein DialloUnion of Republican Forces (Union des Forces Républicaines, UFR)the Party of Democrats for Hope (" PADES") Led by Dr Ousmane Kaba
Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
Alliance for Citizenship and Labor or ACT [Abdoul MBAYE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox]
Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, BGC, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, and UNP)
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Abdoulaye BATHILY]
Dare the Future movement [Aissata Tall SALL]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
General Alliance for the Interests of the Republic or AGIR [Thierno BOCOUM]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
Madicke 2019 coalition [Madicke NIANG]
National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE]
Only Senegal movement [Pierre Goudiaby ATEPA]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [El Hadji SALL]
Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
Patriots of Senegal for Ethics, Work and Fraternity or (PASTEF) [Ousmane SONKO]
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Kerfalla YANSANE (since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800
Ambassador Mansour KANE (since 6 January 2020)
chancery: 2215 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Simon HENSHAW (since 4 March 2019)
telephone: [224] 655-10-40-00
embassy: Transversale #2, Center Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
mailing address: P.O. Box 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
FAX: [224] 655-10-42-97
chief of mission: Ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since August 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

National anthem
name: "Liberte" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA

note: adopted 1958

name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
elephant; national colors: red, yellow, green
lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: na
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

GuineaSenegal
Economy - overview

Guinea is a poor country of approximately 12.9 million people in 2016 that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves, as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main exports. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth.

Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in 2008 and the coup that followed, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea. However, the IMF approved a 3-year Extended Credit Facility arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013, the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014, Guinea complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts. Guinea completed its program with the IMF in October 2016 even though some targeted reforms have been delayed. Currently Guinea is negotiating a new IMF program which will be based on Guinea’s new five-year economic plan, focusing on the development of higher value-added products, including from the agro-business sector and development of the rural economy.

Political instability, a reintroduction of the Ebola virus epidemic, low international commodity prices, and an enduring legacy of corruption, inefficiency, and lack of government transparency are factors that could impact Guinea’s future growth. Economic recovery will be a long process while the government adjusts to lower inflows of international donor aid following the surge of Ebola-related emergency support. Ebola stalled promising economic growth in the 2014-15 period and impeded several projects, such as offshore oil exploration and the Simandou iron ore project. The economy, however, grew by 6.6% in 2016 and 6.7% in 2017, mainly due to growth from bauxite mining and thermal energy generation as well as the resiliency of the agricultural sector. The 240-megawatt Kaleta Dam, inaugurated in September 2015, has expanded access to electricity for residents of Conakry. An combined with fears of Ebola virus, continue to undermine Guinea's economic viability.

Guinea’s iron ore industry took a hit in 2016 when investors in the Simandou iron ore project announced plans to divest from the project. In 2017, agriculture output and public investment boosted economic growth, while the mining sector continued to play a prominent role in economic performance.

Successive governments have failed to address the country's crumbling infrastructure. Guinea suffers from chronic electricity shortages; poor roads, rail lines and bridges; and a lack of access to clean water - all of which continue to plague economic development. The present government, led by President Alpha CONDE, is working to create an environment to attract foreign investment and hopes to have greater participation from western countries and firms in Guinea's economic development.

Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which are the primary sources of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and Senegal is also working on oil exploration projects. It relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. Senegal reached a growth rate of 7% in 2017, due in part to strong performance in agriculture despite erratic rainfall.

President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

Senegal receives technical support from the IMF under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s fifth review in December 2017. Financial markets have signaled confidence in Senegal through successful Eurobond issuances in 2014, 2017, and 2018.

The government is focusing on 19 projects under the ESP to continue The government’s goal under the ESP is structural transformation of the economy. Key projects include the Thiès-Touba Highway, the new international airport opened in December 2017, and upgrades to energy infrastructure. The cost of electricity is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a US presidential initiative led by USAID, supports Senegal’s plans to improve reliability and increase generating capacity.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$27.97 billion (2017 est.)
$25.84 billion (2016 est.)
$23.39 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$54.8 billion (2017 est.)
$51.15 billion (2016 est.)
$48.15 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
8.2% (2017 est.)
10.5% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
7.2% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
6.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$2,200 (2017 est.)
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$1,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$3,500 (2017 est.)
$3,300 (2016 est.)
$3,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 19.8% (2017 est.)
industry: 32.1% (2017 est.)
services: 48.1% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 16.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 24.3% (2017 est.)
services: 58.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
47% (2006 est.)
46.7% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
8.9% (2017 est.)
8.2% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2017 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force
5.558 million (2017 est.)
6.966 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 76%
industry: 24% (2006 est.)
agriculture: 77.5%
industry: 22.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate
2.7% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
48% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
39.4 (2007)
40.3 (1994)
40.3 (2011)
Budget
revenues: 1.7 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.748 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 4.139 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.9 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate
11% (2017 est.)
7.7% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
rice, coffee, pineapples, mangoes, palm kernels, cocoa, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, potatoes, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
Exports
$3.514 billion (2017 est.)
$1.954 billion (2016 est.)
$2.362 billion (2017 est.)
$2.498 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
bauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners
China 35.8%, Ghana 20.1%, UAE 11.6%, India 4.3% (2017)
Mali 14.8%, Switzerland 11.4%, India 6%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, UAE 5.1%, Gambia, The 4.2%, Spain 4.1% (2017)
Imports
$4.799 billion (2017 est.)
$4.43 billion (2016 est.)
$5.217 billion (2017 est.)
$4.966 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partners
Netherlands 17.2%, China 13.2%, India 11.8%, Belgium 10%, France 6.9%, UAE 4.5% (2017)
France 16.3%, China 10.4%, Nigeria 8%, India 7.2%, Netherlands 4.8%, Spain 4.2% (2017)
Debt - external
$1.458 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.462 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.571 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
9,230 (2017 est.)
9,085 (2016 est.)
9,085 (2015 est.)
7,485.5 (2014 est.)
7,014.1 (2013 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
617.4 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
37.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
48.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$331.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$383.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$705 million (2017 est.)
-$2.705 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.547 billion (2017 est.)
-$769 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$10.25 billion (2017 est.)
$21.11 billion (2017 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

NA

Central bank discount rate
22.25% (31 December 2005)
0.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
22.2% (31 December 2017 est.)
22.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$1.762 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.931 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.695 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.219 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$1.84 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.944 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$1.84 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.944 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
16.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
19.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-3.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 1%
male: 1.5%
female: 0.6% (2012 est.)
total: 8.1%
male: 7.4%
female: 8.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 80.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 6.6% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 9.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 18.5% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 21.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -36.9% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 71.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3.4% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
5.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
-6.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

GuineaSenegal
Electricity - production
598 million kWh (2016 est.)
4.167 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
556.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
3.497 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
17,880 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
550,000 kW (2016 est.)
977,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
33% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
82% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
67% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
17,590 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
19,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
48,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
4,063 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
18,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)
32,050 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
2.794 million Mt (2017 est.)
8.644 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 7 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 46% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 84% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 24% (2019)
population without electricity: 5 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 71% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 94% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 50% (2019)

Telecommunications

GuineaSenegal
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 0
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total subscriptions: 195,288
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.27 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 12,283,911
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100.8 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 16,871,654
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109.72 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.gn
.sn
Internet users
total: 2,133,974
percent of population: 18% (July 2018 est.)
total: 6,909,635
percent of population: 46% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: huge improvement over the last ten years; in May 2019, 4G Wi-Fi was launched in the capital; the regional administrative centers all have 3G access; the 2018 set up of an IXP (Internet Exchange Point) reduced the cost of Internet bandwidth and improved infrastructure; a National Backbone Network is nearing completion to connect administrative centers (2020)
domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity is less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and now 101 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 224; ACE submarine cable connecting Guinea with 20 landing points in Western and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: mobile penetration reached 108% in March 2019; mobile broadband accounts for close to 100% (97.2%) Internet accesses; 3G and LTE services for 50% of population; growth in the intel market along with economic growth for the country; regulator awards more MVNO licenses, deactivated some 5 million unregistered SIM cards (2020)
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 110 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 221; landing points for the ACE, Atlantis-2, MainOne and SAT-3/WASC submarine cables providing connectivity from South Africa, numerous western African countries, Europe and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 1,213
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 129,820
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media

government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a dozen private television stations; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services 

(2019)
state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2019)

Transportation

GuineaSenegal
Railways
total: 1,086 km (2017)
standard gauge: 279 km 1.435-m gauge (2017)
narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
total: 906 km (713 km operational in 2017) (2017)
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
Roadways
total: 44,301 km (2018)
paved: 3,346 km (2018)
unpaved: 40,955 km (2018)
total: 16,665 km (2017)
paved: 6,126 km (includes 241 km of expressways) (2017)
unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
Waterways
1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system) (2011)
1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar
major seaport(s): Dakar
Merchant marine
total: 2
by type: other 2 (2019)
total: 32
by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 1, other 27 (2019)
Airports
total: 16 (2013)
total: 20 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 4 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
total: 9 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 12 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 11 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
3X (2016)
6V (2016)

Military

GuineaSenegal
Military branches
National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee), Presidential Security Battalion (Battailon Autonome de la Sécurité Presidentielle, BASP), Gendarmerie, People's Militia (Reserves) (2019)
Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal), National Gendarmerie (includes Territorial and Mobile components) (2020)
Military service age and obligation
no compulsory military service (2017)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2% of GDP (2019)
2.3% of GDP (2018)
2.5% of GDP (2017)
2.5% of GDP (2016)
3.3% of GDP (2015)
1.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2018)
1.5% of GDP (2017)
1.6% of GDP (2016)
1.2% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

GuineaSenegal
Disputes - international

Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998

cross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau

Source: CIA Factbook