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Guinea vs. Mali

Introduction

GuineaMali
Background
Guinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though results were questionable due to a lack in transparency and neutrality in the electoral process. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that peaked in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people. In early December 2009, CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy. The country held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively, and in October 2015 held a second consecutive presidential election. Alpha CONDE was reelected to a second five-year term as president in 2015, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's first cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. The country held a successful political dialogue in August and September 2016 that brought together the government and opposition to address long-standing tensions. Local elections were held in February 2018, and disputed results in some of the races resulted in ongoing protests against CONDE's government.

Present-day Mali is named for the Mali Empire that at its peak in the 14th century covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, France seized control of Mali. The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha Oumar KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE.

The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. A French-led international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month, most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president. The Malian Government and northern armed groups signed an internationally mediated peace accord in June 2015, however, the parties to the peace accord have made little progress in the accord's implementation, despite a June 2017 target for its completion. Furthermore, extremist groups outside the peace process made steady inroads into rural areas of central Mali following the consolidation of three major terrorist organizations in March 2017. In central and northern Mali, terrorist groups have exploited age-old ethnic rivalries between pastoralists and sedentary communities and inflicted serious losses on the Malian military. Intercommunal violence incidents such as targeted killings occur with increasing regularity. KEITA was reelected president in 2018 in an election that was deemed credible by international observers, despite some security and logistic shortfalls.



Geography

GuineaMali
Location
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
Geographic coordinates
11 00 N, 10 00 W
17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 245,857 sq km
land: 245,717 sq km
water: 140 sq km
total: 1,240,192 sq km
land: 1,220,190 sq km
water: 20,002 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Oregon; slightly larger than twice the size of Pennsylvania
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries
total: 4,046 km
border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km
total: 7,908 km
border countries (7): Algeria 1359 km, Burkina Faso 1325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1062 km, Mauritania 2236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km
Coastline
320 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climate
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrain
generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 472 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
mean elevation: 343 m
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower, note, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use
agricultural land: 58.1% (2011 est.)
arable land: 11.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 2.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 43.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 26.5% (2011 est.)
other: 15.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 34.1% (2011 est.)
arable land: 5.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 28.4% (2011 est.)
forest: 10.2% (2011 est.)
other: 55.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
950 sq km (2012)
3,780 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment - current issues
deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices lead to environmental damage; water pollution; improper waste disposal
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; loss of pasture land; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
Population distribution
areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map
the overwhelming majority of the population lives in the southern half of the country, with greater density along the border with Burkina Faso as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

GuineaMali
Population
12,527,440 (July 2020 est.)
19,553,397 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 41.2% (male 2,601,221/female 2,559,918)
15-24 years: 19.32% (male 1,215,654/female 1,204,366)
25-54 years: 30.85% (male 1,933,141/female 1,930,977)
55-64 years: 4.73% (male 287,448/female 305,420)
65 years and over: 3.91% (male 218,803/female 270,492) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 47.69% (male 4,689,121/female 4,636,685)
15-24 years: 19% (male 1,768,772/female 1,945,582)
25-54 years: 26.61% (male 2,395,566/female 2,806,830)
55-64 years: 3.68% (male 367,710/female 352,170)
65 years and over: 3.02% (male 293,560/female 297,401) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 19.1 years
male: 18.9 years
female: 19.4 years (2020 est.)
total: 16 years
male: 15.3 years
female: 16.7 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.76% (2020 est.)
2.95% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
36.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
42.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 99.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 94.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 52.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 64 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 69.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 58.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 63.2 years
male: 61.3 years
female: 65 years (2020 est.)
total population: 61.6 years
male: 59.4 years
female: 63.9 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.92 children born/woman (2020 est.)
5.72 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
1.4% (2019 est.)
1.2% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups
Fulani (Peuhl) 33.4%, Malinke 29.4%, Susu 21.2%, Guerze 7.8%, Kissi 6.2%, Toma 1.6%, other/foreign .4% (2018 est.)
Bambara 33.3%, Fulani (Peuhl) 13.3%, Sarakole/Soninke/Marka 9.8%, Senufo/Manianka 9.6%, Malinke 8.8%, Dogon 8.7%, Sonrai 5.9%, Bobo 2.1%, Tuareg/Bella 1.7%, other Malian 6%, from members of Economic Community of West Africa .4%, other .3% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
110,000 (2019 est.)
140,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 89.1%, Christian 6.8%, animist 1.6%, other .1%, none 2.4% (2014 est.)
Muslim 93.9%, Christian 2.8%, animist .7%, none 2.5% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
3,100 (2019 est.)
5,800 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official), Pular, Maninka, Susu, other native languages

note: about 40 languages are spoken; each ethnic group has its own language

French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peuhl/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3% (2009 est.)

note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 30.4%
male: 38.1%
female: 22.8% (2015)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.5%
male: 46.2%
female: 25.7% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever (2016)
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2014)
total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2017)
Education expenditures
2.2% of GDP (2017)
3.1% of GDP (2016)
Urbanization
urban population: 36.5% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.54% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 43.9% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 97.9% of population
rural: 69.8% of population
total: 79.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.1% of population
rural: 27.6% of population
total: 20.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 72.8% of population
total: 82.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 27.2% of population
total: 17.1% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 34.8% of population
total: 53% of population
unimproved: urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 65.2% of population
total: 47% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 34.1% of population
total: 54.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 65.9% of population
total: 45.8% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
1.938 million CONAKRY (capital) (2020)
2.618 million BAMAKO (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
576 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
562 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
16.3% (2018)
18.6% (2018)
Health expenditures
4.1% (2017)
3.8% (2017)
Physicians density
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
7.7% (2016)
8.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.5 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

18.9 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Guinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.

Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile "Parrot’s Beak" region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence.

Mali’s total population is expected to double by 2035; its capital Bamako is one of the fastest-growing cities in Africa. A young age structure, a declining mortality rate, and a sustained high total fertility rate of 6 children per woman – the third highest in the world – ensure continued rapid population growth for the foreseeable future. Significant outmigration only marginally tempers this growth. Despite decreases, Mali’s infant, child, and maternal mortality rates remain among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa because of limited access to and adoption of family planning, early childbearing, short birth intervals, the prevalence of female genital cutting, infrequent use of skilled birth attendants, and a lack of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care.

Mali’s high total fertility rate has been virtually unchanged for decades, as a result of the ongoing preference for large families, early childbearing, the lack of female education and empowerment, poverty, and extremely low contraceptive use. Slowing Mali’s population growth by lowering its birth rate will be essential for poverty reduction, improving food security, and developing human capital and the economy.

Mali has a long history of seasonal migration and emigration driven by poverty, conflict, demographic pressure, unemployment, food insecurity, and droughts. Many Malians from rural areas migrate during the dry period to nearby villages and towns to do odd jobs or to adjoining countries to work in agriculture or mining. Pastoralists and nomads move seasonally to southern Mali or nearby coastal states. Others migrate long term to Mali’s urban areas, Cote d’Ivoire, other neighboring countries, and in smaller numbers to France, Mali’s former colonial ruler. Since the early 1990s, Mali’s role has grown as a transit country for regional migration flows and illegal migration to Europe. Human smugglers and traffickers exploit the same regional routes used for moving contraband drugs, arms, and cigarettes.

Between early 2012 and 2013, renewed fighting in northern Mali between government forces and Tuareg secessionists and their Islamist allies, a French-led international military intervention, as well as chronic food shortages, caused the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Malians. Most of those displaced domestically sought shelter in urban areas of southern Mali, except for pastoralist and nomadic groups, who abandoned their traditional routes, gave away or sold their livestock, and dispersed into the deserts of northern Mali or crossed into neighboring countries. Almost all Malians who took refuge abroad (mostly Tuareg and Maure pastoralists) stayed in the region, largely in Mauritania, Niger, and Burkina Faso.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
10.9% (2018)
17.2% (2018)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 85.2
youth dependency ratio: 79.7
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
potential support ratio: 18.3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 98
youth dependency ratio: 93.1
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.4 (2020 est.)

Government

GuineaMali
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
etymology: name derives from the West African Mali Empire of the 13th to 16th centuries A.D.
Government type
presidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capital
name: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: according to tradition, the name derives from the fusion of the name "Cona," a Baga wine and cheese producer who lived on Tombo Island (the original site of the present-day capital), and the word "nakiri," which in Susu means "the other bank" or "the other side"; supposedly, Baga's palm grove produced the best wine on the island and people traveling to sample his vintage, would say: "I am going to Cona, on the other bank (Cona-nakiri)," which over time became Conakry
name: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name in the Bambara language can mean either "crocodile tail" or "crocodile river" and three crocodiles appear on the city seal
Administrative divisions
7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore
10 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Menaka, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Taoudenni, Tombouctou (Timbuktu); note - Menaka and Taoudenni were legislated in 2016, but implementation has not been confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names
Independence
2 October 1958 (from France)
22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday
Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Constitution
history: previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010; note - in late December 2019, President CONDE announced a new draft constitution
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; consideration of proposals requires approval by simple majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval in referendum; the president can opt to submit amendments directly to the Assembly, in which case approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote
history: several previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992, suspended briefly in 2012
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by members of the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum; constitutional sections on the integrity of the state, its republican and secular form of government, and its multiparty system cannot be amended; amended 1999
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima FOFANA (since 22 May 2018)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2025); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha CONDE reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 59.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 33.5%, other 7%
chief of state: President of transitional government, Bah NDAW (since 25 September 2020); vice president of the transitional government, Assimi GOITA (since 25 September 2020); former president Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was deposed by the Malian military on 18 August 2020; on 21 September, a group of 17 electors chosen by the Malian military junta, called the National Committee for the Salvation of the People (NCSP), selected former Malian defense minister and chairman of the NCSP, Bah NDAW, as transitional president, and retired Malian Army Colonel Assimi GOITA as transitional vice president; the transitional government was inaugurated on 25 September 2020
head of government: Prime Minister Moctar OUANE (appointed by the transitional government on 27 Sep 2020; former PM Boubou CISSE was removed on 18 August 2020 following the military coup)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 July 2018 with a runoff on 12 August 2018; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; 76 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 38 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next to be held 1 March 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, PEDN 2, UPG 2, other 10; composition - men 89, women 25, percent of women 21.9%
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single and multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; 13 seats reserved for citizens living abroad; members serve 5-year terms)

note - the National Assembly was dissolved on 18 August 2020 following a military coup and the resignation of President KEITA
elections: last held on 30 March and 19 April 2020 (prior to the August 2020 coup, the next election was scheduled to be held in 2025)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA composition - NA
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, 10 councilors, the solicitor general, and NA deputies); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve until age 65; Constitutional Court member appointments - 2 by the National Assembly and the president of the republic, 3 experienced judges designated by their peers, 1 experienced lawyer, 1 university professor with expertise in public law designated by peers, and 2 experienced representatives of the Independent National Institution of Human Rights; members serve single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; Court of Account (Court of Auditors); Courts of First Instance (Tribunal de Premiere Instance); labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts
highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 judges organized into judicial, administrative, and accounting sectons); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court judges selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office); administrative courts (first instance and appeal); commercial courts; magistrate courts; labor courts; juvenile courts; special court of state security
Political parties and leaders
Bloc Liberal or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Ruling partyRally of the Guinean People (Rassemblement du Peuple Guinéen, RPG)Opposition partiesAfrican Democratic Party of Guinea (Parti démocratique africain de Guinée)Party of Unity and Progress (Parti de l'Unité et du Progrès, PUP)Union for Progress and Renewal (Union pour le Progrès et le Renouveau, UPR)Union for Progress of Guinea (Union pour le Progrès de la Guinée, UPG)Democratic Party of Guinea-African Democratic Rally (Parti Démocratique de Guinée-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain, PDG-RDA)National Alliance for Progress (Alliance Nationale pour le Progrès, ANP)Party of the Union for Development (Parti de l’Union pour le Développement, PUD)Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea ( Union des Forces Démocratiques de Guinée, UFDG ), led by Cellou Dalein DialloUnion of Republican Forces (Union des Forces Républicaines, UFR)the Party of Democrats for Hope (" PADES") Led by Dr Ousmane Kaba
African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO]
Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Tiemoko SANGARE]
Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP-Maliba [Amadou THIAM]
Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]
Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE]
Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO]
Democratic Alliance for Peace or ADP-Maliba [Aliou Boubacar DIALLO]
Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR]
Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (coalition of smaller opposition parties)
National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]
Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]
Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA]
Rally for Mali or RPM [Boucary TRETA]
Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Kerfalla YANSANE (since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800
Ambassador Mahamadou NIMAGA (since 22 June 2018)
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Simon HENSHAW (since 4 March 2019)
telephone: [224] 655-10-40-00
embassy: Transversale #2, Center Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
mailing address: P.O. Box 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
FAX: [224] 655-10-42-97
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis B. HANKINS (since 15 March 2019)
telephone: [223] 2070-2300
embassy: ACI 2000, Rue 243, (located off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge west of the Bamako central district), Porte 297, Bamako
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
FAX: [223] 2070-2479
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

National anthem
name: "Liberte" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA

note: adopted 1958

name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO

note: adopted 1962; also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
elephant; national colors: red, yellow, green
Great Mosque of Djenne; national colors: green, yellow, red
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: na
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mali
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

GuineaMali
Economy - overview

Guinea is a poor country of approximately 12.9 million people in 2016 that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves, as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main exports. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth.

Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in 2008 and the coup that followed, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea. However, the IMF approved a 3-year Extended Credit Facility arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013, the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014, Guinea complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts. Guinea completed its program with the IMF in October 2016 even though some targeted reforms have been delayed. Currently Guinea is negotiating a new IMF program which will be based on Guinea’s new five-year economic plan, focusing on the development of higher value-added products, including from the agro-business sector and development of the rural economy.

Political instability, a reintroduction of the Ebola virus epidemic, low international commodity prices, and an enduring legacy of corruption, inefficiency, and lack of government transparency are factors that could impact Guinea’s future growth. Economic recovery will be a long process while the government adjusts to lower inflows of international donor aid following the surge of Ebola-related emergency support. Ebola stalled promising economic growth in the 2014-15 period and impeded several projects, such as offshore oil exploration and the Simandou iron ore project. The economy, however, grew by 6.6% in 2016 and 6.7% in 2017, mainly due to growth from bauxite mining and thermal energy generation as well as the resiliency of the agricultural sector. The 240-megawatt Kaleta Dam, inaugurated in September 2015, has expanded access to electricity for residents of Conakry. An combined with fears of Ebola virus, continue to undermine Guinea's economic viability.

Guinea’s iron ore industry took a hit in 2016 when investors in the Simandou iron ore project announced plans to divest from the project. In 2017, agriculture output and public investment boosted economic growth, while the mining sector continued to play a prominent role in economic performance.

Successive governments have failed to address the country's crumbling infrastructure. Guinea suffers from chronic electricity shortages; poor roads, rail lines and bridges; and a lack of access to clean water - all of which continue to plague economic development. The present government, led by President Alpha CONDE, is working to create an environment to attract foreign investment and hopes to have greater participation from western countries and firms in Guinea's economic development.

Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, landlocked Mali depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid.

Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River; about 65% of Mali’s land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks.

Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will depend on global price trends. Although the political coup in 2012 slowed Mali’s growth, the economy has since bounced back, with GDP growth above 5% in 2014-17, although physical insecurity, high population growth, corruption, weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital continue to constrain economic development. Higher rainfall helped to boost cotton output in 2017, and the country’s 2017 budget increased spending more than 10%, much of which was devoted to infrastructure and agriculture. Corruption and political turmoil are strong downside risks in 2018 and beyond.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$27.97 billion (2017 est.)
$25.84 billion (2016 est.)
$23.39 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$41.22 billion (2017 est.)
$39.1 billion (2016 est.)
$36.97 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
8.2% (2017 est.)
10.5% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
5.4% (2017 est.)
5.8% (2016 est.)
6.2% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$2,200 (2017 est.)
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$1,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$2,200 (2017 est.)
$2,100 (2016 est.)
$2,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 19.8% (2017 est.)
industry: 32.1% (2017 est.)
services: 48.1% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 41.8% (2017 est.)
industry: 18.1% (2017 est.)
services: 40.5% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
47% (2006 est.)
36.1% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
8.9% (2017 est.)
8.2% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2017 est.)
-1.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force
5.558 million (2017 est.)
6.447 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 76%
industry: 24% (2006 est.)
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate
2.7% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
7.9% (2017 est.)
7.8% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
39.4 (2007)
40.3 (1994)
40.1 (2001)
50.5 (1994)
Budget
revenues: 1.7 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.748 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 3.075 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 3.513 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing
food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate
11% (2017 est.)
6.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
rice, coffee, pineapples, mangoes, palm kernels, cocoa, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, potatoes, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports
$3.514 billion (2017 est.)
$1.954 billion (2016 est.)
$3.06 billion (2017 est.)
$2.803 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
bauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
cotton, gold, livestock
Exports - partners
China 35.8%, Ghana 20.1%, UAE 11.6%, India 4.3% (2017)
Switzerland 31.8%, UAE 15.4%, Burkina Faso 7.8%, Cote d'Ivoire 7.3%, South Africa 5%, Bangladesh 4.6% (2017)
Imports
$4.799 billion (2017 est.)
$4.43 billion (2016 est.)
$3.644 billion (2017 est.)
$3.403 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners
Netherlands 17.2%, China 13.2%, India 11.8%, Belgium 10%, France 6.9%, UAE 4.5% (2017)
Senegal 24.4%, China 13.2%, Cote d'Ivoire 9%, France 7.3% (2017)
Debt - external
$1.458 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.462 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.192 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.981 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
9,230 (2017 est.)
9,085 (2016 est.)
9,085 (2015 est.)
7,485.5 (2014 est.)
7,014.1 (2013 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
37.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
35.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
36% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$331.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$383.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$647.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$395.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$705 million (2017 est.)
-$2.705 billion (2016 est.)
-$886 million (2017 est.)
-$1.015 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$10.25 billion (2017 est.)
$15.37 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$3.174 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.391 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.845 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.266 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$1.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$69.19 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$286.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$62.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

NA

Central bank discount rate
22.25% (31 December 2005)
16% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
22.2% (31 December 2017 est.)
22.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.2% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$1.762 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.931 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.972 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.891 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$1.84 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.04 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.553 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$1.84 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.04 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.553 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
16.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
20% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-2.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 1%
male: 1.5%
female: 0.6% (2012 est.)
total: 16.9%
male: 15.3%
female: 18.8% (2018 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 80.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 6.6% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 9.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 18.5% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 21.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -36.9% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 82.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 17.4% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 19.3% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 22.1% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
5.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
-6.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

GuineaMali
Electricity - production
598 million kWh (2016 est.)
2.489 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
556.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
2.982 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
800 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
550,000 kW (2016 est.)
590,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
33% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
68% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
67% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
31% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
19,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
22,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
18,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)
20,610 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
2.794 million Mt (2017 est.)
3.388 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 7 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 46% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 84% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 24% (2019)
population without electricity: 10 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 50% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 78% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 28% (2019)

Telecommunications

GuineaMali
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 0
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total subscriptions: 227,831
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.2 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 12,283,911
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100.8 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 21,850,850
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115.09 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.gn
.ml
Internet users
total: 2,133,974
percent of population: 18% (July 2018 est.)
total: 2,395,886
percent of population: 13% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: huge improvement over the last ten years; in May 2019, 4G Wi-Fi was launched in the capital; the regional administrative centers all have 3G access; the 2018 set up of an IXP (Internet Exchange Point) reduced the cost of Internet bandwidth and improved infrastructure; a National Backbone Network is nearing completion to connect administrative centers (2020)
domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity is less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and now 101 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 224; ACE submarine cable connecting Guinea with 20 landing points in Western and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: telecoms infrastructure is barely adequate in most town and not available in many areas of the country; geography is a challenge for telecommunications; poverty, security, high illiteracy and low PC use has taken its toll; 4 mobile operators in market; mobile penetration high and potential for mobile broadband service; local plans for Internet Exchange Point; as Mali is landlocked there is hope that neighboring countries will allow use of international bandwidth; G5 Sahel countries adopt free roaming measures; Chinese company Huawei attempts to build a national backbone network but security issues make this difficult (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscribership 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 115 per 100 persons; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas (2019)
international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 1,213
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 120,934
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 less than 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media

government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a dozen private television stations; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services 

(2019)
national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2019)

Transportation

GuineaMali
Railways
total: 1,086 km (2017)
standard gauge: 279 km 1.435-m gauge (2017)
narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
total: 593 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways
total: 44,301 km (2018)
paved: 3,346 km (2018)
unpaved: 40,955 km (2018)
total: 139,107 km (2018)
Waterways
1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system) (2011)
1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar
river port(s): Koulikoro (Niger)
Airports
total: 16 (2013)
total: 25 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 4 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
total: 8 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 12 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 17 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
3X (2016)
TZ, TT (2016)

Military

GuineaMali
Military branches
National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee), Presidential Security Battalion (Battailon Autonome de la Sécurité Presidentielle, BASP), Gendarmerie, People's Militia (Reserves) (2019)
Malian Armed Forces (FAMa): Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM); National Gendarmerie; National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2019)
note(s): the Gendarmerie and the National Guard are under the authority of the Ministry of Defense and Veterans Affairs (Ministere De La Defense Et Des Anciens Combattants, MDAC), but operational control is shared between the MDAC and the Ministry of Internal Security and Civil Protection

the Gendarmerie's primary mission is internal security and public order; its duties also include territorial defense, humanitarian operations, intelligence gathering, and protecting private property, mainly in rural areas

the National Guard is a military force responsible for providing security to government facilities and institutions, prison service, public order, humanitarian operations, some border security, and intelligence gathering; it has special units on camels (the Camel Corps) for patrolling the deserts and borders of northern Mali
Military service age and obligation
no compulsory military service (2017)
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service (men and women); 2-year conscript service obligation (2014)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2% of GDP (2019)
2.3% of GDP (2018)
2.5% of GDP (2017)
2.5% of GDP (2016)
3.3% of GDP (2015)
2.7% of GDP (2019)
2.9% of GDP (2018)
3% of GDP (2017)
2.6% of GDP (2016)
2.4% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

GuineaMali
Disputes - international

Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998

demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso

Trafficking in persons
current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children, and trafficking is more prevalent among Guineans than foreign national migrants; Guinean girls are subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg or to work as street vendors, shoe shiners, or miners; Guinea is a source country and transit point for West African children forced to work as miners in the region; Guinean women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude and sex trafficking in West Africa, the Middle East, the US, and increasingly Europe, while Thai, Chinese, and Vietnamese women are forced into prostitution and some West Africans are forced into domestic servitude in Guinea
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Guinea was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; no new investigations were conducted in 2014, and the one ongoing case led to the prosecution of four offenders for forced child labor, three of whom were convicted but given inadequate sentences for the crime; the government did not identify or provide protective services to victims and did not support NGOs that assisted victims but continued to refer child victims to NGOs on an ad hoc basis; Guinean law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, excluding, for example, debt bondage; the 2014 Ebolavirus outbreak negatively affected Guinea’s ability to address human trafficking (2015)
current situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking, but foreign women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are forced to work in agricultural settings, gold mines, the informal commercial sector and to beg within Mali and neighboring countries; Malians and other Africans who travel through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya in hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking; men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's Tamachek community are subjected to hereditary slavery-related practices; Malian women and girls are victims of sex trafficking in Gabon, Libya, Lebanon, and Tunisia; the recruitment of child soldiers by armed groups in northern Mali decreased
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Mali does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Mali was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; officials failed to distribute the 2012 anti-trafficking law to judicial and law enforcement personnel, perpetuating a lack of understanding and awareness of the legislation; anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts decreased in 2014, with only one case investigated and no prosecutions or convictions; fewer victims were identified, and the government did not support the privately funded NGOs and international organizations it relied upon to provide victims with services; the government did not conduct any awareness-raising campaigns, workshops, or training sessions (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook