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Guatemala vs. Honduras

Introduction

GuatemalaHonduras
BackgroundThe Maya civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the internal conflict, which had left more than 200,000 people dead and had created, by some estimates, about 1 million refugees.
Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage. Since then, the economy has slowly rebounded.

Geography

GuatemalaHonduras
LocationCentral America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua
Geographic coordinates15 30 N, 90 15 W
15 00 N, 86 30 W
Map referencesCentral America and the Caribbean
Central America and the Caribbean
Areatotal: 108,889 sq km
land: 107,159 sq km
water: 1,730 sq km
total: 112,090 sq km
land: 111,890 sq km
water: 200 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Pennsylvania
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundariestotal: 1,667 km
border countries (4): Belize 266 km, El Salvador 199 km, Honduras 244 km, Mexico 958 km
total: 1,575 km
border countries (3): Guatemala 244 km, El Salvador 391 km, Nicaragua 940 km
Coastline400 km
823 km (Caribbean Sea 669 km, Gulf of Fonseca 163 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terraintwo east-west trending mountain chains divide the country into three regions: the mountainous highlands, the Pacific coast south of mountains, and the vast northern Peten lowlands
mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 759 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan Tajumulco 4,220 m (highest point in Central America)
mean elevation: 684 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 41.2%
arable land 14.2%; permanent crops 8.8%; permanent pasture 18.2%
forest: 33.6%
other: 25.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 28.8%
arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 4%; permanent pasture 15.7%
forest: 45.3%
other: 25.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land3,375 sq km (2012)
900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsnumerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms
volcanism: significant volcanic activity in the Sierra Madre range; Santa Maria (3,772 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pacaya (2,552 m), which erupted in May 2010 causing an ashfall on Guatemala City and prompting evacuations, is one of the country's most active volcanoes with frequent eruptions since 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Acatenango, Almolonga, Atitlan, Fuego, and Tacana
frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast
Environment - current issuesdeforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethere are no natural harbors on the west coast
has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
Population distributionthe vast majority of the populace resides in the southern half of the country, particularly in the mountainous regions; more than half of the population lives in rural areas
most residents live in the mountainous western half of the country; unlike other Central American nations, Honduras is the only one with an urban population that is distributed between two large centers - the capital of Tegucigalpa and the city of San Pedro Sula; the Rio Ulua valley in the north is the only densely populated lowland area

Demographics

GuatemalaHonduras
Population15,460,732 (July 2017 est.)
9,038,741
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 34.5% (male 2,719,027/female 2,614,720)
15-24 years: 21.58% (male 1,677,634/female 1,658,941)
25-54 years: 34.12% (male 2,516,456/female 2,759,393)
55-64 years: 5.26% (male 384,967/female 428,198)
65 years and over: 4.54% (male 324,492/female 376,904) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 32.95% (male 1,521,300/female 1,456,727)
15-24 years: 21% (male 968,013/female 930,060)
25-54 years: 36.63% (male 1,675,574/female 1,635,241)
55-64 years: 5.13% (male 218,342/female 245,447)
65 years and over: 4.29% (male 167,957/female 220,080) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 22.1 years
male: 21.4 years
female: 22.8 years (2017 est.)
total: 23 years
male: 22.6 years
female: 23.3 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.75% (2017 est.)
1.6% (2017 est.)
Birth rate24.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
22.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 21.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 17.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.6 years
male: 70.6 years
female: 74.7 years (2017 est.)
total population: 71.2 years
male: 69.5 years
female: 72.9 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.77 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.67 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.5% (2016 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan
noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 60.1%, Maya 39.3% (K'iche 11.3%, Q'eqchi 7.6%, Kaqchikel 7.4%, Mam 5.5%, other 7.5%), non-Maya, non-mestizo 0.15% (Xinca (indigenous, non-Maya), Garifuna (mixed West and Central African, Island Carib, and Arawak)), other 0.5% (2001 est.)
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS46,000
21,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan beliefs
Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 41%, atheist 1%, other 2%, none 9% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,600 (2016 est.)
<1000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official) 68.9%, Maya languages 30.9% (K'iche 8.7%, Q'eqchi 7%, Mam 4.6%, Kaqchikel 4.3%, other 6.3%), other 0.3% (includes Xinca and Garifuna)
note: the 2003 Law of National Languages officially recognized 23 indigenous languages, including 21 Maya languages, Xinka, and Garifuna (2001 est.)
Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 76.3% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 89%
female: 88.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2014)
Education expenditures3% of GDP (2015)
5.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 52.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 55.9% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.85% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.4% of population
rural: 86.8% of population
total: 92.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.6% of population
rural: 13.2% of population
total: 7.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 91.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 8.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 77.5% of population
rural: 49.3% of population
total: 63.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.5% of population
rural: 50.7% of population
total: 36.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 86.7% of population
rural: 77.7% of population
total: 82.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.3% of population
rural: 22.3% of population
total: 17.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationGUATEMALA CITY (capital) 2.918 million (2015)
TEGUCIGALPA (capital) 1.123 million; San Pedro Sula 852,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate88 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight12.6% (2015)
7.1% (2012)
Health expenditures6.2% of GDP (2014)
8.7% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.2% (2016)
21.4% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 929,852
percentage: 21%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2006 est.)
total number: 280,809
percentage: 16% (2002 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
20.4 years
note: median age a first birth among women 25-29 (2011/12 est.)
Demographic profileGuatemala is a predominantly poor country that struggles in several areas of health and development, including infant, child, and maternal mortality, malnutrition, literacy, and contraceptive awareness and use. The country's large indigenous population is disproportionately affected. Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America and has the highest fertility rate in Latin America. It also has the highest population growth rate in Latin America, which is likely to continue because of its large reproductive-age population and high birth rate. Almost half of Guatemala's population is under age 19, making it the youngest population in Latin America. Guatemala's total fertility rate has slowly declined during the last few decades due in part to limited government-funded health programs. However, the birth rate is still more close to three children per woman and is markedly higher among its rural and indigenous populations.
Guatemalans have a history of emigrating legally and illegally to Mexico, the United States, and Canada because of a lack of economic opportunity, political instability, and natural disasters. Emigration, primarily to the United States, escalated during the 1960 to 1996 civil war and accelerated after a peace agreement was signed. Thousands of Guatemalans who fled to Mexico returned after the war, but labor migration to southern Mexico continues.
Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and has the one of the world's highest murder rates. More than half of the population lives in poverty and per capita income is one of the lowest in the region. Poverty rates are higher among rural and indigenous people and in the south, west, and along the eastern border than in the north and central areas where most of Honduras' industries and infrastructure are concentrated. The increased productivity needed to break Honduras' persistent high poverty rate depends, in part, on further improvements in educational attainment. Although primary-school enrollment is near 100%, educational quality is poor, the drop-out rate and grade repetition remain high, and teacher and school accountability is low.
Honduras' population growth rate has slowed since the 1990s, but it remains high at nearly 2% annually because the birth rate averages approximately three children per woman and more among rural, indigenous, and poor women. Consequently, Honduras' young adult population - ages 15 to 29 - is projected to continue growing rapidly for the next three decades and then stabilize or slowly shrink. Population growth and limited job prospects outside of agriculture will continue to drive emigration. Remittances represent about a fifth of GDP.
Contraceptive prevalence rate60.6% (2014/15)
73.2% (2011/12)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 68.7
youth dependency ratio: 61.1
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 59.8
youth dependency ratio: 52.7
elderly dependency ratio: 7.1
potential support ratio: 14.2 (2015 est.)

Government

GuatemalaHonduras
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala
etymology: name derives from the Maya word meaning ""Land of Trees""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Honduras
conventional short form: Honduras
local long form: Republica de Honduras
local short form: Honduras
etymology: the name means ""depths"" in Spanish and refers to the deep anchorage in the northern Bay of Trujillo
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Guatemala City
geographic coordinates: 14 37 N, 90 31 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Tegucigalpa
geographic coordinates: 14 06 N, 87 13 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence15 September 1821 (from Spain)
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 15 September (1821)
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; suspended, reinstated, and amended in 1994 (2016)
several previous; latest approved 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2015, the Honduran Supreme Court struck down several constitutional articles on presidential term limits (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces and police by law cannot vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (since 14 January 2016); Vice President Jafeth CABRERA Franco (since 14 January 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (since 14 January 2016); Vice President Jafeth CABRERA Franco (since 14 January 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (not eligible for consecutive terms); election last held in 2 rounds on 6 September and 25 October 2015 (next to be held in September 2019)
election results: Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (FNC) 23.9%, Sandra TORRES (UNE) 19.8%, Manuel BALDIZON (LIDER) 19.6%, other 36.7%; percent of vote in second round - Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera 67.4%, Sandra TORRES 32.6%
chief of state: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Rossana GUEVARA, and Lorena HERRERA (since 27 January 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Rossana GUEVARA, and Lorena HERRERA (since 27 January 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 4-year term; election last held on 26 November 2017 (next to be held in November 2021); note - in 2015, the Constitutional Chamber of the Honduran Supreme Court struck down the constitutional provisions on presidential term limits
election results: Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado reelected president; percent of vote Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (PNH) 43%, Salvador NASRALLA (Alliance Against the Dictatorship) 41.4%, Luis Orlando ZELAYA Medrano (PL) 14.7%, other .9%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; 127 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies within each of the country's 22 departments by simple majority vote and 31 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 September 2015 (next to be held in September 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - LIDER 19.1%, UNE 14.8%, TODOS 9.7%, PP 9.4%, FCN 8.8%, EG 6.2%, CREO-PU 5.7%, UCN 5.4%, Winaq-URNG-MAIZ 4.3%, Convergence 3.8%, VIVA 3.7%, PAN 3.4%, FUERZA 2.1%, other 3.5%; seats by party - LIDER 44, UNE 36, TODOS 18, PP 17, FCN 11, EG 7, UCN 6, CREO-PU 5, Winaq-URNG-MAIZ 3, Convergence 3, VIVA 3, PAN 3, FUERZA 2; note - seats by party as of 6 January 2016 - FCN 37, UNE 32, MR 20, TODOS 17, AC 12, EG 7, UCN 6, CREO 5, LIDER 5, VIVA 4, Convergence 3, PAN 3, PP 2, FUERZA 1, PU 1, URNG 1, Winaq 1, independent 1
description: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 November 2013 (next to be held on 26 November 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNH 33.6%, LIBRE 27.5%, PL 17.0%, PAC 15.2%, PINU 1.9%, UD 1.7%, DC 1.6%, other 1.5%; seats by party - PNH 48, LIBRE 37, PL 27, PAC 13, PINU 1, UD 1, DC 1; note - seats by party as of 6 January 2016 - PNH 49, PL 27, LIBRE 31, PAC 13, VAMOS 4, PINU 1, UD 1, independents 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 13 magistrates including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - the court president also supervises trial judges countrywide; Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitucionalidad (consists of 5 judges and 5 alternates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates elected by the Congress of the Republic from candidates proposed by the Postulation Committee, an independent body of deans of the country's university law schools, representatives of the country's law associations, and representatives of the Courts of Appeal; magistrates elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; Constitutional Court judges - 1 elected by the Congress of the Republic, 1 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 1 by the (public) University of San Carlos, and 1 by the lawyers bar association; judges elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; the presidency of the court rotates among the magistrates for a single 1-year term
subordinate courts: numerous first instance and appellate courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 principal judges - including the court president - and 7 alternates; court organized into civil, criminal, constitutional, and labor chambers); note - the court has both judicial and constitutional jurisdiction
judge selection and term of office: court president elected by his peers; judges elected by the National Congress from candidates proposed by the Nominating Board, a diverse 7-member group of judicial officials, and other government and non-government officials selected by each of their organizations; judges elected by Congress for renewable, 7-year terms
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; peace courts
Political parties and leadersCitizen Alliance or AC
Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Richard LEE Abularach]
Convergence [Pablo MONSANTO]
Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENEGRO Cottom]
Everyone Together for Guatemala or TODOS [Felipe ALEJOS]
FUERZA [Maurico REDFORD]
Grand National Alliance or GANA [Carlos Alberto MARTINEZ Castellanos]
Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or Winaq-URNG [Angel SANCHEZ Viesca]
Heart New Nation or CNN [Mario Roberto CHU Catalan]
My Country or Mi Pais [Alfredo RABBE]
National Advancement Party or PAN [Juan GUTIERREZ Strauss]
National Unity for Hope or UNE [Sandra TORRES]
National Convergence Front or FCN [Edgar Justino OVALLE Maldonado]
National Welfare or BIEN [Fidel REYES Lee]
Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA]
Patriot Party or PP [Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias]
Political Movement Winaq or WINAQ [Amilcar de Jesus POP Ac]
Productivity and Labor Party or PPT [Edgar Alfredo RODRIGUEZ]
Progressive Liberating Party or PLP [Ana BERNAT]
Reform Movement or MR [Jose Raul VIGIL Arias]
Renewed Democratic Liberty or LIDER [Manuel BALDIZON]
Unionista Party or PU [Alvaro ARZU Escobar]
UNITED [Mario Rolando TORRES Marroquin]
Victoria (Victory) [Manuel de Jesus RIVERA]
Vision with Values or VIVA [Cromwell CUESTAS Paz]
Alliance against the Dictatorship [Salvador NASRALLA] (electoral coalition)
Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Marlene ALVARENGA]
Christian Democratic Party or DC [Felicito AVILA Ordonez]
Democratic Unification Party or UD [Cesar HAM]
Freedom and Refoundation Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales]
Go Solidarity Movement or VAMOS [Augusto CRUZ Asensio]
Liberal Party or PL [Luis Orlando ZELAYA Medrano]
National Party of Honduras or PNH [Gladis Aurora LOPEZ]
Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Guillermo VALLE]
Political pressure groups and leadersAlliance Against Impunity or AI (includes Center for Legal Action on Human Rights or CALDH, Family and Friends of the Disappeared of Guatemala or FAMDEGUA)
Civic and Political Convergence of Women
Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC
Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF
Foundation for the Development of Guatemala or FUNDESA
Guatemala Visible
Mutual Support Group or GAM
Movimiento PRO-Justicia
National Union of Agriculture Workers or UNAGRO
Beverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH
Committee of the Relatives of the Disappeared in Honduras or COFADEH
Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH
Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP
General Workers Confederation or CGT
Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP
National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH
National Union of Campesinos or UNC
Popular Bloc or BP
United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan OR MUCA
International organization participationBCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC (suspended), IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO (suspended), WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Manuel Alfredo ESPINA Pinto (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
consulate(s): Del Rio (TX), San Bernardino (CA), Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ)
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Lake Worth (FL), Los Angeles, McAllen (TX), Miami, New York, Phoenix, Providence (RI), San Francisco, Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ)
chief of mission: Ambassador Marlon Ramsses TABORA Munoz (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: Suite 4-M, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2604
FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751
consulate(s): Dallas, McAllen (TX)
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Luis ARREAGA (since 4 October 2017)
embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: DPO AA 34024
telephone: [502] 2326-4000
FAX: [502] 2326-4654
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Heide B. FULTON (since June 2017)
embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa
mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone: [504] 2236-9320, 2238-5114
FAX: [504] 2236-9037
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue, with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) representing liberty and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles signifying Guatemala's willingness to defend itself and a pair of crossed swords representing honor and framed by a laurel wreath symbolizing victory; the blue bands represent the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea; the white band denotes peace and purity
note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Mozambique
three equal horizontal bands of cerulean blue (top), white, and cerulean blue, with five cerulean, five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water and the peace and prosperity of its people
note: similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band
National anthem"name: ""Himno Nacional de Guatemala"" (National Anthem of Guatemala)
lyrics/music: Jose Joaquin PALMA/Rafael Alvarez OVALLE
note: adopted 1897, modified lyrics adopted 1934; Cuban poet Jose Joaquin PALMA anonymously submitted lyrics to a public contest calling for a national anthem; his authorship was not discovered until 1911
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional de Honduras"" (National Anthem of Honduras)
lyrics/music: Augusto Constancio COELLO/Carlos HARTLING
note: adopted 1915; the anthem's seven verses chronicle Honduran history; on official occasions, only the chorus and last verse are sung
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)quetzal (bird); national colors: blue, white
scarlet macaw, white-tailed deer; national colors: blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years with no absences of six consecutive months or longer or absences totaling more than a year
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 1 to 3 years

Economy

GuatemalaHonduras
Economy - overviewGuatemala is the most populous country in Central America with a GDP per capita roughly half the average for Latin America and the Caribbean. The agricultural sector accounts for 13.5% of GDP and 31% of the labor force; key agricultural exports include sugar, coffee, bananas, and vegetables. Guatemala is the top remittance recipient in Central America as a result of Guatemala's large expatriate community in the US. These inflows are a primary source of foreign income, equivalent to over one-half of the country's exports and one-tenth of its GDP.

The 1996 peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, and Guatemala has since pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. The Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) entered into force in July 2006, spurring increased investment and diversification of exports, with the largest increases in ethanol and non-traditional agricultural exports. While CAFTA-DR has helped improve the investment climate, concerns over security, the lack of skilled workers, and poor infrastructure continue to hamper foreign direct investment.

The distribution of income remains highly unequal with the richest 20% of the population accounting for more than 51% of Guatemala's overall consumption. More than half of the population is below the national poverty line, and 23% of the population lives in extreme poverty. Poverty among indigenous groups, which make up more than 40% of the population, averages 79%, with 40% of the indigenous population living in extreme poverty. Nearly one-half of Guatemala's children under age five are chronically malnourished, one of the highest malnutrition rates in the world.

Guatemala is facing growing fiscal pressures, exacerbated by multiple corruption scandals that led to the resignation of the president, vice president, and numerous high-level economic officials in 2015.
Honduras, the second poorest country in Central America, suffers from extraordinarily unequal distribution of income, as well as high underemployment. While historically dependent on the export of bananas and coffee, Honduras has diversified its export base to include apparel and automobile wire harnessing.

Honduras’s economy depends heavily on US trade and remittances. The US-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement came into force in 2006 and has helped foster foreign direct investment, but physical and political insecurity, as well as crime and perceptions of corruption, may deter potential investors; about 15% of foreign direct investment is from US firms.

The economy registered modest economic growth of 3.1%-4.0% from 2010 to 2017, insufficient to improve living standards for the nearly 65% of the population in poverty. In 2017, Honduras faced rising public debt, but its economy has performed better than expected due to low oil prices and improved investor confidence. Haiti signed a three-year standby arrangement with the IMF in December 2014, aimed at easing Honduras’s poor fiscal position.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$138.3 billion (2017 est.)
$134 billion (2016 est.)
$130 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$45.68 billion (2017 est.)
$43.92 billion (2016 est.)
$42.39 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.2% (2017 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
4% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
3.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$8,200 (2017 est.)
$8,100 (2016 est.)
$8,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$5,500 (2017 est.)
$5,400 (2016 est.)
$5,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 13.2%
industry: 23.6%
services: 63.2% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 13.8%
industry: 28.4%
services: 57.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line59.3% (2014 est.)
29.6% (2014)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 38.4% (2014)
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 38.4% (2014)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)4.4% (2017 est.)
4.4% (2016 est.)
4% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force6.664 million (2017 est.)
3.735 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 30.5%
industry: 13.7%
services: 55.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 39.2%
industry: 20.9%
services: 39.8% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate2.4% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
5.9% (2017 est.)
6.3% (2016 est.)
note: about one-third of the people are underemployed
Distribution of family income - Gini index53 (2014 est.)
56 (2011)
47.1 (2014)
45.7 (2009)
Budgetrevenues: $8.335 billion
expenditures: $9.6 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $4.376 billion
expenditures: $5.086 billion (2017 est.)
Industriessugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
sugar processing, coffee, woven and knit apparel, wood products, cigars
Industrial production growth rate3.1% (2017 est.)
4.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productssugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens
bananas, coffee, citrus, corn, African palm; beef; timber; shrimp, tilapia, lobster, sugar, oriental vegetables
Exports$10.53 billion (2017 est.)
$10.58 billion (2016 est.)
$8.173 billion (2017 est.)
$7.841 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiessugar, coffee, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, manufacturing products, precious stones and metals, electricity
coffee, apparel, coffee, shrimp, automobile wire harnesses, cigars, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber
Exports - partnersUS 34%, El Salvador 11.5%, Honduras 7.1%, Nicaragua 6%, Costa Rica 4.5%, Mexico 4.3% (2016)
US 36.7%, Germany 10.7%, El Salvador 8.6%, Guatemala 6.5%, Netherlands 5.4%, Nicaragua 5.3% (2016)
Imports$17.48 billion (2017 est.)
$17.64 billion (2016 est.)
$10.87 billion (2017 est.)
$10.56 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity, mineral products, chemical products, plastic materials and products
communications equipment, machinery and transport, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersUS 38.1%, Mexico 11%, China 9.9%, El Salvador 5%, Panama 4.2% (2016)
US 32.8%, China 14.1%, Guatemala 8.9%, Mexico 7.3%, El Salvador 5.7% (2016)
Debt - external$23.54 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$21.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.025 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.852 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesquetzales (GTQ) per US dollar -
7.323 (2017 est.)
7.5999 (2016 est.)
7.5999 (2015 est.)
7.6548 (2014 est.)
7.7322 (2013 est.)
lempiras (HNL) per US dollar -
23.74 (2017 est.)
22.995 (2016 est.)
22.995 (2015 est.)
22.098 (2014 est.)
21.137 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt30.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
51.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$10.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.156 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.46 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.814 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$364 million (2017 est.)
$644 million (2016 est.)
-$917 million (2017 est.)
-$811 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$70.81 billion (2016 est.)
$22.68 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate7.53% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2010)
6.25% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate13.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
13.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
19.33% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$35.27 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$30.44 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.72 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$12.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.729 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.455 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$28.42 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.35 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.334 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.602 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues11.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
-3.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 4.8%
male: 3.6%
female: 7.5% (2015 est.)
total: 14.2%
male: 7.6%
female: 25.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 85.4%
government consumption: 9.8%
investment in fixed capital: 12.5%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 19.3%
imports of goods and services: -27.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 78%
government consumption: 14.9%
investment in fixed capital: 22.3%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 42.5%
imports of goods and services: -58.9% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving13.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
13.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

GuatemalaHonduras
Electricity - production10.88 billion kWh (2016 est.)
8.367 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.833 billion kWh (2016 est.)
7.215 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports1.335 billion kWh (2016 est.)
536 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports746.9 million kWh (2016 est.)
679 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production8,977 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports17,220 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports7,407 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves83.07 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves2.96 billion cu m (1 January 2006 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity4.139 million kW (2016 est.)
2.499 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels42.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
45.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants28.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
25.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources34.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
32% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production1,069 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption91,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
52,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports11,780 bbl/day (2016 est.)
13,160 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports104,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
64,820 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy13.6 million Mt (2013 est.)
10 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 1,600,000
electrification - total population: 78%
electrification - urban areas: 85%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)
population without electricity: 900,000
electrification - total population: 82%
electrification - urban areas: 97%
electrification - rural areas: 66% (2013)

Telecommunications

GuatemalaHonduras
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1.675 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 442,929
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 19,208,673
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (July 2016 est.)
total: 7,832,802
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 88 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala
domestic: state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opened the way for competition; fixed-line teledensity roughly 10 per 100 persons; fixed-line investments are being concentrated on improving rural connectivity; mobile-cellular teledensity about 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 502; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that, together, provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
general assessment: fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in subscribership
domestic: beginning in 2003, private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to a small increase in fixed-line teledensity; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 504; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2016)
Internet country code.gt
.hn
Internet userstotal: 5,241,952
percent of population: 34.5% (July 2016 est.)
total: 2,667,978
percent of population: 30.0% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media4 privately owned national terrestrial TV channels dominate TV broadcasting; multi-channel satellite and cable services are available; 1 government-owned radio station and hundreds of privately owned radio stations (2007)
multiple privately owned terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by multiple cable TV networks; Radio Honduras is the lone government-owned radio network; roughly 300 privately owned radio stations (2007)

Transportation

GuatemalaHonduras
Railwaystotal: 800 km
narrow gauge: 800 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
total: 699 km
narrow gauge: 164 km 1.067-m gauge; 115 km 1.057-m gauge; 420 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 17,621 km
paved: 7,489 km
unpaved: 10,132 km (includes 4,960 km of rural roads) (2016)
total: 14,742 km
paved: 3,367 km
unpaved: 11,375 km (1,543 km summer only)
note: an additional 8,951 km of non-official roads used by the coffee industry (2012)
Waterways990 km (260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season) (2012)
465 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2012)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
major seaport(s): La Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela
Merchant marinetotal: 9
by type: oil tanker 1, other 8 (2017)
total: 552
by type: container ship 1, general cargo 250, oil tanker 90, other 211 (2017)
Airports291 (2013)
103 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 4 (2017)
total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 275
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 77
under 914 m: 195 (2013)
total: 90
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 73 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 93,129
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 455,520 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 5
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 251,149
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 502,372 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixTG (2016)
HR (2016)

Military

GuatemalaHonduras
Military branchesNational Army of Guatemala (Ejercito Nacional de Guatemala, ENG, includes Guatemalan Navy (Fuerza de Mar, including Marines) and Guatemalan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Guatemalteca, FAG)) (2013)
Honduran Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Honduras, FFAA): Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Honduran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Hondurena, FAH) (2012)
Military service age and obligationall male citizens between the ages of 18 and 50 are eligible for military service; in practice, most of the force is volunteer, however, a selective draft system is employed, resulting in a small portion of 17-21 year-olds conscripted; conscript service obligation varies from 1 to 2 years; women can serve as officers (2013)
18 years of age for voluntary 2- to 3-year military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.39% of GDP (2016)
0.43% of GDP (2015)
0.45% of GDP (2014)
0.46% of GDP (2013)
0.45% of GDP (2012)
1.59% of GDP (2016)
1.52% of GDP (2015)
1.62% of GDP (2014)
1.55% of GDP (2013)
1.15% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

GuatemalaHonduras
Disputes - internationalannual ministerial meetings under the Organization of American States-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land and maritime claims in Belize and the Caribbean Sea; Guatemala persists in its territorial claim to half of Belize, but agrees to Line of Adjacency to keep Guatemalan squatters out of Belize's forested interior; both countries agreed in April 2012 to hold simultaneous referenda, scheduled for 6 October 2013, to decide whether to refer the dispute to the ICJ for binding resolution, but this vote was suspended indefinitely; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US
"International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of ""bolsones"" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Guatemala consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Guatemala Differendum
"
Illicit drugsmajor transit country for cocaine and heroin; it is estimated that 1,000 mt of cocaine are smuggled through the country each year, primarily destined for the US market; in 2016, the Guatamalan government estimated that an average of 4,500 hectares of opium poppy were being cultivated; marijuana cultivation for mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (particularly for cocaine); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem
transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; some money-laundering activity
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 257,000 (more than three decades of internal conflict that ended in 1996 displaced mainly the indigenous Maya population and rural peasants; ongoing drug cartel and gang violence) (2016)
IDPs: 190,000 (violence, extortion, threats, forced recruitment by urban gangs) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook