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Germany vs. Luxembourg

Introduction

GermanyLuxembourg
Background

As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating world wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC (now the EU) and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.

Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. In 1867, Luxembourg attained full independence under the condition that it promise perpetual neutrality. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.

Geography

GermanyLuxembourg
LocationCentral Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of DenmarkWestern Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates51 00 N, 9 00 E49 45 N, 6 10 E
Map referencesEuropeEurope
Areatotal: 357,022 sq km

land: 348,672 sq km

water: 8,350 sq km
total: 2,586 sq km

land: 2,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativethree times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montanaslightly smaller than Rhode Island; about half the size of Delaware
Land boundariestotal: 3,694 km

border countries (9): Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czechia 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 447 km, Switzerland 348 km
total: 327 km

border countries (3): Belgium 130 km, France 69 km, Germany 128 km
Coastline2,389 km0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) windmodified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrainlowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in southmostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremeshighest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.5 m

mean elevation: 263 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

lowest point: Moselle River 133 m

mean elevation: 325 m
Natural resourcescoal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable landiron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land useagricultural land: 48% (2018 est.)

arable land: 34.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 31.8% (2018 est.)

other: 20.2% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 50.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 24% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.8% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land6,500 sq km (2012)0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsfloodingoccasional flooding
Environment - current issuesemissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directiveair and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland; unsustainable patterns of consumption (transport, energy, recreation, space) threaten biodiversity and landscapes
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - notestrategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea; most major rivers in Germany - the Rhine, Weser, Oder, Elbe - flow northward; the Danube, which originates in the Black Forest, flows eastwardlandlocked; the only grand duchy in the world
Total renewable water resources154 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)3.5 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionmost populous country in Europe; a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations, particularly in the far western part of the industrial state of North Rhine-Westphaliamost people live in the south, on or near the border with France

Demographics

GermanyLuxembourg
Population79,903,481 (July 2021 est.)639,589 (July 2021 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 12.89% (male 5,302,850/female 5,025,863)

15-24 years: 9.81% (male 4,012,412/female 3,854,471)

25-54 years: 38.58% (male 15,553,328/female 15,370,417)

55-64 years: 15.74% (male 6,297,886/female 6,316,024)

65 years and over: 22.99% (male 8,148,873/female 10,277,538) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 16.73% (male 54,099/female 51,004)

15-24 years: 11.78% (male 37,946/female 36,061)

25-54 years: 43.93% (male 141,535/female 134,531)

55-64 years: 12.19% (male 39,289/female 37,337)

65 years and over: 15.37% (male 43,595/female 52,984) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 47.8 years

male: 46.5 years

female: 49.1 years (2020 est.)
total: 39.5 years

male: 38.9 years

female: 40 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate-0.21% (2021 est.)1.7% (2021 est.)
Birth rate8.63 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)11.62 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate12.22 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)7.26 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)12.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.24 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.61 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.3 years

male: 78.93 years

female: 83.8 years (2021 est.)
total population: 82.78 years

male: 80.31 years

female: 85.39 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate1.48 children born/woman (2021 est.)1.63 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.1% (2020 est.)0.3% (2018 est.)
Nationalitynoun: German(s)

adjective: German
noun: Luxembourger(s)

adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groupsGerman 86.3%, Turkish 1.8%, Polish 1%, Syrian 1%, Romanian 1%, other/stateless/unspecified 8.9% (2020 est.)

note:  data represent population by nationality
Luxembourger 51.1%, Portuguese 15.7%, French 7.5%, Italian 3.6%, Belgian 3.3%, German 2.1%, Spanish 1.1%, British 1%, other 14.6% (2019 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS93,000 (2020 est.)

note: estimate does not include children
1,200 (2018 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 27.1%, Protestant 24.9%, Muslim 5.2%, Orthodox 2%, other Christian 1%, other 1%, none 38.8% (2019 est.)Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.4%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.5%, none 26.8% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths<500 (2020 est.)

note: estimate does not include children
<100 (2018 est.)
LanguagesGerman (official); note - Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

major-language sample(s):
Das World Factbook, die unverzichtbare Quelle für grundlegende Informationen. (German)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 55.8%, Portuguese 15.7%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 12.1%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 3.1%, Italian 2.9%, English 2.1%, other 8.4% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 17 years (2018)
total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2018)
Education expenditures4.9% of GDP (2017)3.6% of GDP (2017)
Urbanizationurban population: 77.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.13% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 91.7% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 98.8% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 1.2% of population

total: 1% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 99.9% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population3.567 million BERLIN (capital), 1.789 million Hamburg, 1.553 million Munich, 1.129 million Cologne, 785,000 Frankfurt (2021)120,000 LUXEMBOURG (capital) (2018)
Maternal mortality rate7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)5 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures11.4% (2018)5.3% (2018)
Physicians density4.25 physicians/1,000 population (2017)3.01 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density8 beds/1,000 population (2017)4.7 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.3% (2016)22.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth29.8 years (2019 est.)31.1 years (2019 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 55.4

youth dependency ratio: 21.7

elderly dependency ratio: 33.7

potential support ratio: 3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 42.8

youth dependency ratio: 22.2

elderly dependency ratio: 20.5

potential support ratio: 4.9 (2020 est.)

Government

GermanyLuxembourg
Country nameconventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany

conventional short form: Germany

local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form: Deutschland

former: German Reich

etymology: the Gauls (Celts) of Western Europe may have referred to the newly arriving Germanic tribes who settled in neighboring areas east of the Rhine during the first centuries B.C. as "Germani," a term the Romans adopted as "Germania"; the native designation "Deutsch" comes from the Old High German "diutisc" meaning "of the people"
conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

conventional short form: Luxembourg

local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

local short form: Luxembourg

etymology: the name derives from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the surrounding city and then to the country itself
Government typefederal parliamentary republicconstitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Berlin

geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the origin of the name is unclear but may be related to the old West Slavic (Polabian) word "berl" or "birl," meaning "swamp"
name: Luxembourg

geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name derives from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the city that grew around the fortress
Administrative divisions16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat), while Bremen calls itself a Free Hanseatic City (Freie Hansestadt) and Hamburg considers itself a Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt)12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz
Independence18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holidayGerman Unity Day, 3 October (1990)National Day (birthday of Grand Duke HENRI), 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the national festivities were shifted in 1962 to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
Constitutionhistory: previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10-23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage and enactment into law require two-thirds majority vote by both the Bundesrat (upper house) and the Bundestag (lower house) of Parliament; articles including those on basic human rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2020; note - in early 2021, the German federal government introduced a bill to incorporate children’s rights into the constitution
history: previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1868

amendments: proposed by the Chamber of Deputies or by the monarch to the Chamber; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Chamber in two successive readings three months apart; a referendum can be substituted for the second reading if approved by more than a quarter of the Chamber members or by 25,000 valid voters; adoption by referendum requires a majority of all valid voters; amended many times, last in 2020
Legal systemcivil law systemcivil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal; age 16 for some state and municipal elections18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)

head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 February 2017 (next to be held in February 2022); following the most recent Federal Parliament election, the party or coalition with the most representatives usually elects the chancellor (Angela MERKEL since 2005) and appointed by the president to serve a renewable 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 14 March 2018 (next to be held after the Bundestag elections in 2021)

election results: Frank-Walter STEINMEIER elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 931, Christopher BUTTERWEGGE (The Left) 128, Albrecht GLASER (Alternative for Germany AfD) 42, Alexander HOLD (BVB/FW) 25, Engelbert SONNEBORN (Pirates) 10; Angela MERKEL (CDU) reelected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 364 to 315
chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Etienne SCHNEIDER (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Felix BRAZ (since 5 December 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments)
Federal Diet or Bundestag (709 seats - total seats can vary each electoral term; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
Bundesrat - none; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
Bundestag - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held in 2021 at the latest); most postwar German governments have been coalitions

election results:
Bundesrat - composition - men 50, women 19, percent of women 27.5%
Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 33%, SPD 20.5%, AfD 12.6%, FDP 10.7%, The Left 9.2%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.9%, other 5%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 246, SPD 152, AfD 91, FDP 80, The Left 69, Alliance '90/Greens 67; composition - men 490, women 219, percent of women 30.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 30.5%
description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies

elections: last held on 14 October 2018 (next to be held by October 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 28.3%, LSAP 17.6%, DP 16.9%, Green Party 15.1%, ADR 8.3%, Pirate Party 6.4%, The Left 5.5%, other 1.9%; seats by party - CSV 21, DP 12, LSAP 10, Green Party 9, ADR 4, Pirate Party 2, The Left 2; composition - men 46, women 14, percent of women 23.3%
Judicial branchhighest courts: Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges, including the court president, vice presidents, presiding judges, other judges and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels); Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)

judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated states and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 federated states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts; two English-speaking commercial courts opened in late 2020 in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg - English-speaking Stuttgart Commercial Court and English-speaking Mannheim Commercial Court
highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life

subordinate courts: Court of Accounts; district and local tribunals and courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance '90/Greens [Annalena BAERBOCK and Robert HABECK]
Alternative for Germany or AfD [Alexander GAULAND - Honorary President, Joerg MEUTHEN and Tino CHRUPALLA]
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Armin LASCHET]
Christian Social Union or CSU [Markus SOEDER]
Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
The Left or Die Linke [Janine WISSLER and Susanne HENNING-WELLSOW]
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Saskia ESKEN and Norbert WALTER-BORJANS]
Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Jean SCHOOS]
Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ]
Democratic Party or DP [Corinne CAHEN]
Green Party [Francoise FOLMER, Christian KMIOTEK]
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Claude HAAGEN]
The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [collective leadership, Central Committee]
other minor parties
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Emily Margarethe HABER (since 22 June 2018)

chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000

FAX: [1] (202) 298-4261

email address and website:
info@washington.diplo.de

https://www.germany.info/us-en

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Gaston Pierre Jean STRONCK (since 16 September 2019)

chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171

FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270

email address and website:
washington.amb@mae.etat.lu

https://washington.mae.lu/en.html

consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d’Affaires Woodward "Clark" PRICE (since 1 July 2021)

embassy: Pariser Platz 2, 10117 Berlin

Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin (administrative services)

mailing address: 5090 Berlin Place, Washington DC  20521-5090

telephone: [49] (30) 8305-0

FAX: [49] (30) 8305-1215

email address and website:
BerlinPCO@state.gov

https://de.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Casey MACE (since 20 January 2021)

embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City

mailing address: 5380 Luxembourg Place, Washington DC  20521-5380

telephone: [352] 46-01-23-00

FAX: [352] 46-14-01

email address and website:
Luxembourgconsular@state.gov

https://lu.usembassy.gov/
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold fieldthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)
National anthemname: "Das Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans)

lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN

note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as "Deutschlandlied" (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, "Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany
name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)

lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown

note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)eagle; national colors: black, red, yellowred, rampant lion; national colors: red, white, light blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
citizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

GermanyLuxembourg
Economy - overview

The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment. Germany benefits from a highly skilled labor force, but, like its Western European neighbors, faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.

Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong economic growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II. The German Government introduced a minimum wage in 2015 that increased to $9.79 (8.84 euros) in January 2017.

Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2017 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.7%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016, though the target was already reached in 2012.

Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power largely with renewable energy, which accounted for 29.5% of gross electricity consumption in 2016, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production.

The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros during 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Domestic consumption, investment, and exports are likely to drive German GDP growth in 2018, and the country’s budget and trade surpluses are likely to remain high.

This small, stable, high-income economy has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. Luxembourg, the only Grand Duchy in the world, is a landlocked country in northwestern Europe surrounded by Belgium, France, and Germany. Despite its small landmass and small population, Luxembourg is the fifth-wealthiest country in the world when measured on a gross domestic product (PPP) per capita basis. Luxembourg has one of the highest current account surpluses as a share of GDP in the euro zone, and it maintains a healthy budgetary position, with a 2017 surplus of 0.5% of GDP, and the lowest public debt level in the region.

Since 2002, Luxembourg’s government has proactively implemented policies and programs to support economic diversification and to attract foreign direct investment. The government focused on key innovative industries that showed promise for supporting economic growth: logistics, information and communications technology (ICT); health technologies, including biotechnology and biomedical research; clean energy technologies, and more recently, space technology and financial services technologies. The economy has evolved and flourished, posting strong GDP growth of 3.4% in 2017, far outpacing the European average of 1.8%.

Luxembourg remains a financial powerhouse – the financial sector accounts for more than 35% of GDP - because of the exponential growth of the investment fund sector through the launch and development of cross-border funds (UCITS) in the 1990s. Luxembourg is the world’s second-largest investment fund asset domicile, after the US, with $4 trillion of assets in custody in financial institutions.

Luxembourg has lost some of its advantage as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure, as well as the "LuxLeaks" scandal, which revealed advantageous tax treatments offered to foreign corporations. In 2015, the government’s compliance with EU requirements to implement automatic exchange of tax information on savings accounts - thus ending banking secrecy - has constricted banking activity. Likewise, changes to the way EU members collect taxes from e-commerce has cut Luxembourg’s sales tax revenues, requiring the government to raise additional levies and to reduce some direct social benefits as part of the tax reform package of 2017. The tax reform package also included reductions in the corporate tax rate and increases in deductions for families, both intended to increase purchasing power and increase competitiveness.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$4,482,448,000,000 (2019 est.)

$4,457,688,000,000 (2018 est.)

$4,401,873,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$70.966 billion (2019 est.)

$69.373 billion (2018 est.)

$67.28 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.59% (2019 est.)

1.3% (2018 est.)

2.91% (2017 est.)
2.31% (2019 est.)

3.14% (2018 est.)

1.81% (2017 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$53,919 (2019 est.)

$53,768 (2018 est.)

$53,255 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
$114,482 (2019 est.)

$114,110 (2018 est.)

$112,823 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 0.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 30.7% (2017 est.)

services: 68.6% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 12.8% (2017 est.)

services: 86.9% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line14.8% (2018 est.)17.5% (2018 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 24% (2000)
lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.4% (2019 est.)

1.7% (2018 est.)

1.5% (2017 est.)
1.7% (2019 est.)

1.5% (2018 est.)

1.7% (2017 est.)
Labor force44.585 million (2020 est.)476,000 (2020 est.)

note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 1.4%

industry: 24.2%

services: 74.3% (2016)
agriculture: 1.1%

industry: 20%

services: 78.9% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate4.98% (2019 est.)

5.19% (2018 est.)
5.36% (2019 est.)

5.46% (2018 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index31.9 (2016 est.)

30 (1994)
34.9 (2017 est.)

26 (2005 est.)
Budgetrevenues: 1.665 trillion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.619 trillion (2017 est.)
revenues: 27.75 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 26.8 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesamong the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textilesbanking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology
Industrial production growth rate3.3% (2017 est.)1.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsmilk, sugar beet, wheat, barley, potatoes, pork, maize, rye, rapeseed, triticalemilk, wheat, barley, triticale, potatoes, pork, beef, grapes, rapeseed, oats
Exports$2,004,158,000,000 (2019 est.)

$1,984,745,000,000 (2018 est.)

$1,937,273,000,000 (2017 est.)
$133.61 billion (2019 est.)

$132.487 billion (2018 est.)

$131.834 billion (2017 est.)
Exports - commoditiescars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, aircraft, medical cultures/vaccines, industrial machinery (2019)iron and iron products, tires, cars, broadcasting equipment, clothing and apparel  (2019)
Exports - partnersUnited States 9%, France 8%, China 7%, Netherlands 6%, United Kingdom 6%, Italy 5%, Poland 5%, Austria 5% (2019)Germany 23%, France 13%, Belgium 12%, Netherlands 6%, Italy 5% (2019)
Imports$1,804,453,000,000 (2019 est.)

$1,759,299,000,000 (2018 est.)

$1,695,300,000,000 (2017 est.)
$111.287 billion (2019 est.)

$110.275 billion (2018 est.)

$110.656 billion (2017 est.)
Imports - commoditiescars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, medical cultures/vaccines (2019)cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, scrap iron, aircraft (2019)
Imports - partnersNetherlands 9%, China 8%, France 7%, Belgium 6%, Poland 6%, Italy 6%, Czechia 5%, United States 5% (2019)Belgium 27%, Germany 24%, France 11%, Netherlands 5% (2019)
Debt - external$5,671,463,000,000 (2019 est.)

$5,751,408,000,000 (2018 est.)
$4,266,792,000,000 (2019 est.)

$4,581,617,000,000 (2018 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

67.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euros; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank
23% of GDP (2017 est.)

20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$200.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$173.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$878 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$974 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$280.238 billion (2019 est.)

$297.434 billion (2018 est.)
$3.254 billion (2019 est.)

$3.296 billion (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$3,860,923,000,000 (2019 est.)$71.089 billion (2019 est.)
Taxes and other revenues45% (of GDP) (2017 est.)44.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 5.8%

male: 6.6%

female: 4.8% (2019 est.)
total: 17%

male: 17.8%

female: 16% (2019 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 53.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 47.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 30.2% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 230% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -194% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving28.5% of GDP (2019 est.)

28.7% of GDP (2018 est.)

28.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.7% of GDP (2019 est.)

17.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

17.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

Energy

GermanyLuxembourg
Electricity - production612.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)334.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption536.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)6.475 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports78.86 billion kWh (2016 est.)1.42 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports28.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)7.718 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production41,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports1.836 million bbl/day (2017 est.)0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports6,569 bbl/day (2017 est.)0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves129.6 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves39.5 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production7.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption93.36 billion cu m (2017 est.)792.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports34.61 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports119.5 billion cu m (2017 est.)792.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity208.5 million kW (2016 est.)1.709 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)25% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources52% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)67% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production2.158 million bbl/day (2017 est.)0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption2.46 million bbl/day (2017 est.)59,850 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports494,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports883,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)59,020 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2020)electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

GermanyLuxembourg
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 40.4 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50.35 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 267,400

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43.31 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 107.2 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133.61 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 835,900

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135.39 (2019 est.)
Internet country code.de.lu
Internet userstotal: 72,202,773

percent of population: 89.74% (July 2018 est.)
total: 587,955

percent of population: 97.06% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

one of the world's most technologically advanced telecom systems with additional security measures; LTE universally available and 5G service to over 80% of population; mobile market is driven by data, with increased broadband subscribership; regulatory measures aimed at facilitating wholesale network access to provide fiber-based broadband services; government aims to provide smart technology solutions; over 60 cities use smart technology in urban development, many through joint initiative with private sector, utility companies, and universities; importer of broadcast equipment and computers from China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries; 48 per 100 for fixed-line and 128 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2019)

international: country code - 49; landing points for SeaMeWe-3, TAT-14, AC-1, CONTACT-3, Fehmarn Balt, C-Lion1, GC1, GlobalConnect-KPN, and Germany-Denmark 2 & 3 - submarine cables to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia; as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment:

small but highly developed telecom system dominated by state-owned operator; gains in fixed-line and drop in mobile/roving sector during 2020 travel restrictions; government-state operator extended 1GB/s service with aims to make Luxembourg the first fully fiber country in Europe; regulator completed auction for 5G spectrum; importer of broadcast equipment from China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity about 43 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated with 136 per 100 mobile-cellular (2019)

international: country code - 352

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 35,071,539

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43.71 (2019 est.)
total: 230,100

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37.27 (2019 est.)
Broadcast mediaa mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; 70 national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stationsLuxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL Group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL Group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available

Transportation

GermanyLuxembourg
Railwaystotal: 33,590 km (2017)

standard gauge: 33,331 km 1.435-m gauge (19,973 km electrified) (2015)

narrow gauge: 220 km 1.000-m gauge (79 km electrified)

15 km 0.900-m gauge, 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2015)
total: 275 km (2014)

standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (275 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 625,000 km (2017)

paved: 625,000 km (includes 12,996 km of expressways) (2017)

note: includes local roads
total: 2,875 km (2019)
Waterways7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)37 km (on Moselle River) (2010)
Pipelines37 km condensate, 26985 km gas, 2400 km oil, 4479 km refined products, 8 km water (2013)142 km gas, 27 km refined products (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Kiel, Rostock
North Sea - Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Emden, Hamburg, Wilhelmshaven

oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals

container port(s) (TEUs): Bremen/Bremerhaven (4,856,900), Hamburg (9,274,215) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg

river port(s): Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Lubeck (Wakenitz); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe)
river port(s): Mertert (Moselle)
Merchant marinetotal: 607

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 84, general cargo 86, oil tanker 37, other 399 (2020)
total: 150

by type: bulk carrier 4, container ship 1, general cargo 21, oil tanker 3, other 121 (2020)
Airportstotal: 539 (2013)total: 2 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 318 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 14 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 49 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 60 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 70 (2017)

under 914 m: 125 (2017)
total: 1 (2019)

over 3,047 m: 1
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 221 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 35 (2013)

under 914 m: 185 (2013)
total: 1 (2013)

under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports23 (2013)1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 20 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,113

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 109,796,202 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,969,860,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 66

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,099,102 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,323,040,000 mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixDLX

Military

GermanyLuxembourg
Military branchesFederal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe, includes air defense), Joint Support Service (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw), Cyber and Information Space Command (Kommando Cyber- und Informationsraum, Kdo CIR) (2021)Luxembourg Army (l'Armée Luxembourgeoise) (2021)
Military service age and obligation17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2019)18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (abolished 1969); Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2021)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.56% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.36% of GDP (2019)

1.25% of GDP (2018)

1.23% of GDP (2017)

1.2% of GDP (2016)
0.57% of GDP (2020 est.)

0.54% of GDP (2019)

0.5% of GDP (2018)

0.51% of GDP (2017)

0.39% of GDP (2016)
Military - notethe Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO in May 1955; with the reunification of Germany in October 1990, the states of the former German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany in its membership of NATOLuxembourg is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

Transnational Issues

GermanyLuxembourg
Disputes - international

none

none

Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 572,818 (Syria), 141,650 (Iraq), 140,366 (Afghanistan), 58,569 (Eritrea), 43,244 (Iran), 28,470 (Turkey), 26,015 (Somalia), 8,722 (Russia), 8,639 (Serbia and Kosovo), 8,125 (Pakistan), 7,828 (Nigeria) (2019)

stateless persons: 26,675 (2020)
stateless persons: 194 (2020)

Source: CIA Factbook