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Germany vs. France

Introduction

GermanyFrance
Background

As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating world wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC (now the EU) and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.

France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-7, the G-20, the EU, and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE's 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.

Geography

GermanyFrance
LocationCentral Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

metropolitan France: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain;

French Guiana: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname;

Guadeloupe: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Puerto Rico;

Martinique: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago;

Mayotte: Southern Indian Ocean, island in the Mozambique Channel, about halfway between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique;

Reunion: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates51 00 N, 9 00 E

metropolitan France: 46 00 N, 2 00 E;

French Guiana: 4 00 N, 53 00 W;

Guadeloupe: 16 15 N, 61 35 W;

Martinique: 14 40 N, 61 00 W;

Mayotte: 12 50 S, 45 10 E;

Reunion: 21 06 S, 55 36 E

Map referencesEurope

metropolitan France: Europe;

French Guiana: South America;

Guadeloupe: Central America and the Caribbean;

Martinique: Central America and the Caribbean;

Mayotte: Africa;

Reunion: World

Areatotal: 357,022 sq km

land: 348,672 sq km

water: 8,350 sq km
total: 643,801 sq km ; 551,500 sq km (metropolitan France)

land: 640,427 sq km ; 549,970 sq km (metropolitan France)

water: 3,374 sq km ; 1,530 sq km (metropolitan France)

note: the first numbers include the overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion
Area - comparativethree times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montanaslightly more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 3,694 km

border countries (9): Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czechia 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 447 km, Switzerland 348 km
total: 3,956 km

border countries (8): Andorra 55 km, Belgium 556 km, Germany 418 km, Italy 476 km, Luxembourg 69 km, Monaco 6 km, Spain 646 km, Switzerland 525 km

metropolitan France - total: 2751

French Guiana - total: 1205
Coastline2,389 km4,853 km

metropolitan France: 3,427 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean Sea)

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind

metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as the mistral;

French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation;

Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average;

Mayotte: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November);

Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)

Terrainlowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

metropolitan France: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east;

French Guiana: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains;

Guadeloupe: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin;

Martinique: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano;

Mayotte: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks;

Reunion: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Elevation extremeshighest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.5 m

mean elevation: 263 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,810

lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m

mean elevation: 375 m

note: to assess the possible effects of climate change on the ice and snow cap of Mont Blanc, its surface and peak have been extensively measured in recent years; these new peak measurements have exceeded the traditional height of 4,807 m and have varied between 4,808 m and 4,811 m; the actual rock summit is 4,792 m and is 40 m away from the ice-covered summit
Natural resourcescoal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable landmetropolitan France: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, timber, arable land, fish, French Guiana, gold deposits, petroleum, kaolin, niobium, tantalum, clay
Land useagricultural land: 48% (2018 est.)

arable land: 34.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 31.8% (2018 est.)

other: 20.2% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 52.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 33.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 29.2% (2018 est.)

other: 18.1% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land6,500 sq km (2012)26,420 sq km 26,950 sq km (2012)

metropolitan France: 26,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding

metropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean;

overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding;

volcanism: Montagne Pelee (1,394 m) on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc, it last erupted in 1932; a catastrophic eruption in May 1902 destroyed the city of St. Pierre, killing an estimated 30,000 people; La Soufriere (1,467 m) on the island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean last erupted from July 1976 to March 1977; these volcanoes are part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south

Environment - current issuesemissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directivesome forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea; most major rivers in Germany - the Rhine, Weser, Oder, Elbe - flow northward; the Danube, which originates in the Black Forest, flows eastwardlargest West European nation; most major French rivers - the Meuse, Seine, Loire, Charente, Dordogne, and Garonne - flow northward or westward into the Atlantic Ocean, only the Rhone flows southward into the Mediterranean Sea
Total renewable water resources154 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)211 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionmost populous country in Europe; a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations, particularly in the far western part of the industrial state of North Rhine-Westphaliamuch of the population is concentrated in the north and southeast; although there are many urban agglomerations throughout the country, Paris is by far the largest city, with Lyon ranked a distant second

Demographics

GermanyFrance
Population79,903,481 (July 2021 est.)68,084,217 (July 2021 est.)

note: the above figure is for metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233
Age structure0-14 years: 12.89% (male 5,302,850/female 5,025,863)

15-24 years: 9.81% (male 4,012,412/female 3,854,471)

25-54 years: 38.58% (male 15,553,328/female 15,370,417)

55-64 years: 15.74% (male 6,297,886/female 6,316,024)

65 years and over: 22.99% (male 8,148,873/female 10,277,538) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 18.36% (male 6,368,767/female 6,085,318)

15-24 years: 11.88% (male 4,122,981/female 3,938,938)

25-54 years: 36.83% (male 12,619,649/female 12,366,120)

55-64 years: 12.47% (male 4,085,564/female 4,376,272)

65 years and over: 20.46% (male 6,029,303/female 7,855,244) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 47.8 years

male: 46.5 years

female: 49.1 years (2020 est.)
total: 41.7 years

male: 40 years

female: 43.4 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate-0.21% (2021 est.)0.33% (2021 est.)
Birth rate8.63 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)11.77 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate12.22 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)9.58 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.24 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.61 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 3.19 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.57 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.3 years

male: 78.93 years

female: 83.8 years (2021 est.)
total population: 82.39 years

male: 79.31 years

female: 85.61 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate1.48 children born/woman (2021 est.)2.04 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.1% (2020 est.)0.3% (2019 est.)
Nationalitynoun: German(s)

adjective: German
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective: French
Ethnic groupsGerman 86.3%, Turkish 1.8%, Polish 1%, Syrian 1%, Romanian 1%, other/stateless/unspecified 8.9% (2020 est.)

note:  data represent population by nationality
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

note: overseas departments: Black, White, Mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS93,000 (2020 est.)

note: estimate does not include children
190,000 (2019 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 27.1%, Protestant 24.9%, Muslim 5.2%, Orthodox 2%, other Christian 1%, other 1%, none 38.8% (2019 est.)Christian (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic) 63-66%, Muslim 7-9%, Buddhist 0.5-0.75%, Jewish 0.5-0.75%, other 0.5-1.0%, none 23-28% (2015 est.)

note: France maintains a tradition of secularism and has not officially collected data on religious affiliation since the 1872 national census, which complicates assessments of France's religious composition; an 1872 law prohibiting state authorities from collecting data on individuals' ethnicity or religious beliefs was reaffirmed by a 1978 law emphasizing the prohibition of the collection or exploitation of personal data revealing an individual's race, ethnicity, or political, philosophical, or religious opinions; a 1905 law codified France's separation of church and state
HIV/AIDS - deaths<500 (2020 est.)

note: estimate does not include children
<500 (2019 est.)
LanguagesGerman (official); note - Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

major-language sample(s):
Das World Factbook, die unverzichtbare Quelle für grundlegende Informationen. (German)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
French (official) 100%, declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish, Occitan, Picard); note - overseas departments: French, Creole patois, Mahorian (a Swahili dialect)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 17 years (2018)
total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2018)
Education expenditures4.9% of GDP (2017)5.5% of GDP (2017)
Urbanizationurban population: 77.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.13% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 81.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.67% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population3.567 million BERLIN (capital), 1.789 million Hamburg, 1.553 million Munich, 1.129 million Cologne, 785,000 Frankfurt (2021)11.079 million PARIS (capital), 1.734 million Lyon, 1.614 million Marseille-Aix-en-Provence, 1.068 million Lille, 1.037 million Toulouse, 980,000 Bordeaux (2021)
Maternal mortality rate7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures11.4% (2018)11.3% (2018)
Physicians density4.25 physicians/1,000 population (2017)3.27 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density8 beds/1,000 population (2017)6 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.3% (2016)21.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth29.8 years (2019 est.)28.8 years (2019 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate67% (2018)

note: percent of women aged 18-49
78.4% (2010/11)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 55.4

youth dependency ratio: 21.7

elderly dependency ratio: 33.7

potential support ratio: 3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 62.4

youth dependency ratio: 28.7

elderly dependency ratio: 33.7

potential support ratio: 3 (2020 est.)

Government

GermanyFrance
Country nameconventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany

conventional short form: Germany

local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form: Deutschland

former: German Reich

etymology: the Gauls (Celts) of Western Europe may have referred to the newly arriving Germanic tribes who settled in neighboring areas east of the Rhine during the first centuries B.C. as "Germani," a term the Romans adopted as "Germania"; the native designation "Deutsch" comes from the Old High German "diutisc" meaning "of the people"
conventional long form: French Republic

conventional short form: France

local long form: Republique francaise

local short form: France

etymology: name derives from the Latin "Francia" meaning "Land of the Franks"; the Franks were a group of Germanic tribes located along the middle and lower Rhine River in the 3rd century A.D. who merged with Gallic-Roman populations in succeeding centuries and to whom they passed on their name
Government typefederal parliamentary republicsemi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Berlin

geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the origin of the name is unclear but may be related to the old West Slavic (Polabian) word "berl" or "birl," meaning "swamp"
name: Paris

geographic coordinates: 48 52 N, 2 20 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: applies to metropolitan France only; for its overseas regions the time difference is UTC-4 for Guadeloupe and Martinique, UTC-3 for French Guiana, UTC+3 for Mayotte, and UTC+4 for Reunion

etymology:
name derives from the Parisii, a Celtic tribe that inhabited the area from the 3rd century B.C., but who were conquered by the Romans in the 1st century B.C.; the Celtic settlement became the Roman town of Lutetia Parisiorum (Lutetia of the Parisii); over subsequent centuries it became Parisium and then just Paris


Administrative divisions16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat), while Bremen calls itself a Free Hanseatic City (Freie Hansestadt) and Hamburg considers itself a Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt)18 regions (regions, singular - region); Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Bourgogne-Franche-Comte (Burgundy-Free County), Bretagne (Brittany), Centre-Val de Loire (Center-Loire Valley), Corse (Corsica), Grand Est (Grand East), Guadeloupe, Guyane (French Guiana), Hauts-de-France (Upper France), Ile-de-France, Martinique, Mayotte, Normandie (Normandy), Nouvelle-Aquitaine (New Aquitaine), Occitanie (Occitania), Pays de la Loire (Lands of the Loire), Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Reunion

note: France is divided into 13 metropolitan regions (including the "collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and 5 overseas regions (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion) and is subdivided into 96 metropolitan departments and 5 overseas departments (which are the same as the overseas regions)
Independence18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)no official date of independence: 486 (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship); 10 August 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 14 July 1789 (French monarchy overthrown); 22 September 1792 (First French Republic founded); 4 October 1958 (Fifth French Republic established)
National holidayGerman Unity Day, 3 October (1990)Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10-23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage and enactment into law require two-thirds majority vote by both the Bundesrat (upper house) and the Bundestag (lower house) of Parliament; articles including those on basic human rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2020; note - in early 2021, the German federal government introduced a bill to incorporate children’s rights into the constitution
history: many previous; latest effective 4 October 1958

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (upon recommendation of the prime minister and Parliament) or by Parliament; proposals submitted by Parliament members require passage by both houses followed by approval in a referendum; passage of proposals submitted by the government can bypass a referendum if submitted by the president to Parliament and passed by at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament’s National Assembly; amended many times, last in 2008; note - in May 2018, the prime minister submitted a bill to the National Assembly to amend several provisions of the constitution
Legal systemcivil law systemcivil law; review of administrative but not legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal; age 16 for some state and municipal elections18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)

head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 February 2017 (next to be held in February 2022); following the most recent Federal Parliament election, the party or coalition with the most representatives usually elects the chancellor (Angela MERKEL since 2005) and appointed by the president to serve a renewable 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 14 March 2018 (next to be held after the Bundestag elections in 2021)

election results: Frank-Walter STEINMEIER elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 931, Christopher BUTTERWEGGE (The Left) 128, Albrecht GLASER (Alternative for Germany AfD) 42, Alexander HOLD (BVB/FW) 25, Engelbert SONNEBORN (Pirates) 10; Angela MERKEL (CDU) reelected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 364 to 315
chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017) 

head of government: Prime Minister Jean CASTEX (since 3 July 2020) 

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister 

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 April with a runoff on 7 May 2017 (next to be held in April 2022); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Emmanuel MACRON elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (EM) 24.%, Marine LE PEN (FN) 21.3%, Francois FILLON (LR) 20.%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (FI) 19.6%, Benoit HAMON (PS) 6.4%, other 8.7%; percent of vote in second round - MACRON 66.1%, LE PEN 33.9%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments)
Federal Diet or Bundestag (709 seats - total seats can vary each electoral term; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
Bundesrat - none; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
Bundestag - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held in 2021 at the latest); most postwar German governments have been coalitions

election results:
Bundesrat - composition - men 50, women 19, percent of women 27.5%
Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 33%, SPD 20.5%, AfD 12.6%, FDP 10.7%, The Left 9.2%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.9%, other 5%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 246, SPD 152, AfD 91, FDP 80, The Left 69, Alliance '90/Greens 67; composition - men 490, women 219, percent of women 30.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 30.5%
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Senat (348 seats - 328 for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for departments with 1-3 members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats - 556 for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms)

elections:
Senate - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held on 24 September 2020)
National Assembly - last held on 11 and 18 June 2017 (next to be held in June 2022)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by political caucus (party or group of parties)  - LR 144, PS 73, UC 51. LREM 23, RDSE 22, CRCE 16, RTLI 13, other 6; composition - men 246, women 102, percent of women 29.3%
National Assembly - percent of vote by party first round - LREM 28.2%, LR 15.8%. FN 13.2%, FI 11%, PS 7.4%, other 24.4%; percent of vote by party second round - LREM 43.1%, LR 22.2%, FN 8.8%, MoDEM 6.1%, PS 5.7%. FI 4.9%, other 9.2%; seats by political caucus (party or group of parties) - LREM 306, LR 104, MoDEM 46, UDI/Agir 29, PS 29, UDI 18, FI 17, Liberties and Territories 16, PCF 16, other 14; composition - men 349, women 228, percent of women 39.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 35.7%
Judicial branchhighest courts: Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges, including the court president, vice presidents, presiding judges, other judges and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels); Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)

judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated states and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 federated states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts; two English-speaking commercial courts opened in late 2020 in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg - English-speaking Stuttgart Commercial Court and English-speaking Mannheim Commercial Court
highest courts: Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, 120 trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal); Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: appellate courts or Cour d'Appel; regional courts or Tribunal de Grande Instance; first instance courts or Tribunal d'instance; administrative courts

note: in April 2021, the French Government submitted a bill on judicial reform to Parliament
Political parties and leadersAlliance '90/Greens [Annalena BAERBOCK and Robert HABECK]
Alternative for Germany or AfD [Alexander GAULAND - Honorary President, Joerg MEUTHEN and Tino CHRUPALLA]
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Armin LASCHET]
Christian Social Union or CSU [Markus SOEDER]
Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
The Left or Die Linke [Janine WISSLER and Susanne HENNING-WELLSOW]
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Saskia ESKEN and Norbert WALTER-BORJANS]
Presidential majority Parties [Edouard PHILIPPE]
     Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU]
     La Republique en Marche! or LREM [Richard FERRAND]
     Movement of Progressives or MDP  Robert HUE]
Parliamentary right Parties [Francois BAROIN]
     Hunting, Fishing, Nature and Tradition or CPNT [Eddie PUYJAION]
     The Republicans or LR [Annie GENEVARD]
     Union of Democrats and Independents or UDI [Jean-Christophe    CAMBADELIS]
     
Parliamentary left Parties [Bernard CAZENEUVE]
     Sociatlist Party or PS [Jean-Christophe CAMBADEMAND]
     Radical Party of the Left or PRG [Sylvia PINEL]
     Citizen and Republican Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT]
     Martinican Progressive Party or PPM [Aiem CESAIRE]
Debout la France or DLF [Nicolas DUPONT-AIGNAN]
Ecology Democracy Solidarity or EDS [Paula FORTEZA, Matthieu ORPHELIN
(splinter party formed in May 2020 by defectors of LREM)
Europe Ecologists - the Greens or EELV [David CORMAND]
French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT]
La France Insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHONLIS]
National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN]

International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, FZ, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UN Security Council (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Emily Margarethe HABER (since 22 June 2018)

chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000

FAX: [1] (202) 298-4261

email address and website:
info@washington.diplo.de

https://www.germany.info/us-en

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Philippe Noel Marie Marc ETIENNE (since 8 July 2019)

chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000

FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166

email address and website:
info@ambafrance-us.org

https://franceintheus.org/

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d’Affaires Woodward "Clark" PRICE (since 1 July 2021)

embassy: Pariser Platz 2, 10117 Berlin

Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin (administrative services)

mailing address: 5090 Berlin Place, Washington DC  20521-5090

telephone: [49] (30) 8305-0

FAX: [49] (30) 8305-1215

email address and website:
BerlinPCO@state.gov

https://de.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Brian AGGELER (since 20 January 2021); note - also accredited to Monaco

embassy: 2 avenue Gabriel, 75008 Paris

mailing address: 9200 Paris Place, Washington DC  20521-9200

telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22, [33] (1) 42-66-97-83

FAX: [33] (1) 42-66-97-83

email address and website:
Citizeninfo@state.gov

https://fr.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg

consulate(s): Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold fieldthree equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the "Le drapeau tricolore" (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution when the "ancient French color" of white was combined with the blue and red colors of the Parisian militia; the official flag for all French dependent areas

note: for the first four years, 1790-94, the order of colors was reversed, red-white-blue, instead of the current blue-white-red; the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, and Netherlands
National anthemname: "Das Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans)

lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN

note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as "Deutschlandlied" (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, "Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany
name: "La Marseillaise" (The Song of Marseille)

lyrics/music: Claude-Joseph ROUGET de Lisle

note: adopted 1795, restored 1870; originally known as "Chant de Guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin" (War Song for the Army of the Rhine), the National Guard of Marseille made the song famous by singing it while marching into Paris in 1792 during the French Revolutionary Wars
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)eagle; national colors: black, red, yellowGallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne (female personification); national colors: blue, white, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of France

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

GermanyFrance
Economy - overview

The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment. Germany benefits from a highly skilled labor force, but, like its Western European neighbors, faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.

Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong economic growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II. The German Government introduced a minimum wage in 2015 that increased to $9.79 (8.84 euros) in January 2017.

Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2017 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.7%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016, though the target was already reached in 2012.

Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power largely with renewable energy, which accounted for 29.5% of gross electricity consumption in 2016, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production.

The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros during 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Domestic consumption, investment, and exports are likely to drive German GDP growth in 2018, and the country’s budget and trade surpluses are likely to remain high.

The French economy is diversified across all sectors. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, including Air France, France Telecom, Renault, and Thales. However, the government maintains a strong presence in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries. France is the most visited country in the world with 89 million foreign tourists in 2017. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that mitigate economic inequality.

France's real GDP grew by 1.9% in 2017, up from 1.2% the year before. The unemployment rate (including overseas territories) increased from 7.8% in 2008 to 10.2% in 2015, before falling to 9.0% in 2017. Youth unemployment in metropolitan France decreased from 24.6% in the fourth quarter of 2014 to 20.6% in the fourth quarter of 2017.

France’s public finances have historically been strained by high spending and low growth. In 2017, the budget deficit improved to 2.7% of GDP, bringing it in compliance with the EU-mandated 3% deficit target. Meanwhile, France's public debt rose from 89.5% of GDP in 2012 to 97% in 2017.

Since entering office in May 2017, President Emmanuel MACRON launched a series of economic reforms to improve competitiveness and boost economic growth. President MACRON campaigned on reforming France’s labor code and in late 2017 implemented a range of reforms to increase flexibility in the labor market by making it easier for firms to hire and fire and simplifying negotiations between employers and employees. In addition to labor reforms, President MACRON’s 2018 budget cuts public spending, taxes, and social security contributions to spur private investment and increase purchasing power. The government plans to gradually reduce corporate tax rate for businesses from 33.3% to 25% by 2022.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$4,482,448,000,000 (2019 est.)

$4,457,688,000,000 (2018 est.)

$4,401,873,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$3,097,061,000,000 (2019 est.)

$3,051,034,000,000 (2018 est.)

$2,997,296,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.59% (2019 est.)

1.3% (2018 est.)

2.91% (2017 est.)
1.49% (2019 est.)

1.81% (2018 est.)

2.42% (2017 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$53,919 (2019 est.)

$53,768 (2018 est.)

$53,255 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
$46,184 (2019 est.)

$45,561 (2018 est.)

$44,827 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 0.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 30.7% (2017 est.)

services: 68.6% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 19.5% (2017 est.)

services: 78.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line14.8% (2018 est.)13.6% (2018 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 24% (2000)
lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 25.4% (2013)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.4% (2019 est.)

1.7% (2018 est.)

1.5% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2019 est.)

1.8% (2018 est.)

1% (2017 est.)
Labor force44.585 million (2020 est.)27.742 million (2020 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 1.4%

industry: 24.2%

services: 74.3% (2016)
agriculture: 2.8% (2016 est.)

industry: 20% (2016 est.)

services: 77.2% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate4.98% (2019 est.)

5.19% (2018 est.)
8.12% (2019 est.)

8.69% (2018 est.)

note: includes overseas territories
Distribution of family income - Gini index31.9 (2016 est.)

30 (1994)
31.6 (2017 est.)

29.2 (2015)
Budgetrevenues: 1.665 trillion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.619 trillion (2017 est.)
revenues: 1.392 trillion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.459 trillion (2017 est.)
Industriesamong the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textilesmachinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
Industrial production growth rate3.3% (2017 est.)2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsmilk, sugar beet, wheat, barley, potatoes, pork, maize, rye, rapeseed, triticalewheat, sugar beet, milk, barley, maize, potatoes, grapes, rapeseed, pork, apples
Exports$2,004,158,000,000 (2019 est.)

$1,984,745,000,000 (2018 est.)

$1,937,273,000,000 (2017 est.)
$969.077 billion (2019 est.)

$952.316 billion (2018 est.)

$910.613 billion (2017 est.)
Exports - commoditiescars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, aircraft, medical cultures/vaccines, industrial machinery (2019)aircraft, packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, gas turbines, wine (2019)
Exports - partnersUnited States 9%, France 8%, China 7%, Netherlands 6%, United Kingdom 6%, Italy 5%, Poland 5%, Austria 5% (2019)Germany 14%, United States 8%, Italy 7%, Spain 7%, Belgium 7%, United Kingdom 7% (2019)
Imports$1,804,453,000,000 (2019 est.)

$1,759,299,000,000 (2018 est.)

$1,695,300,000,000 (2017 est.)
$1,021,633,000,000 (2019 est.)

$995.937 billion (2018 est.)

$965.949 billion (2017 est.)
Imports - commoditiescars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, medical cultures/vaccines (2019)cars, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, aircraft machinery (2019)
Imports - partnersNetherlands 9%, China 8%, France 7%, Belgium 6%, Poland 6%, Italy 6%, Czechia 5%, United States 5% (2019)Germany 18%, Belgium 9%, Italy 9%, Spain 7%, China 7%, Netherlands 6%, United Kingdom 5% (2019)
Debt - external$5,671,463,000,000 (2019 est.)

$5,751,408,000,000 (2018 est.)
$6,356,459,000,000 (2019 est.)

$6,058,438,000,000 (2018 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

67.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euros; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank
96.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

96.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$200.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$173.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$156.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$280.238 billion (2019 est.)

$297.434 billion (2018 est.)
-$18.102 billion (2019 est.)

-$16.02 billion (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$3,860,923,000,000 (2019 est.)$2,715,574,000,000 (2019 est.)
Taxes and other revenues45% (of GDP) (2017 est.)53.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)-2.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 5.8%

male: 6.6%

female: 4.8% (2019 est.)
total: 19.6%

male: 20.8%

female: 18.2% (2019 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 53.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 47.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 54.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 23.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.9% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 30.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -32% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving28.5% of GDP (2019 est.)

28.7% of GDP (2018 est.)

28.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
23.4% of GDP (2019 est.)

23.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

22.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

Energy

GermanyFrance
Electricity - production612.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)529.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption536.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)450.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports78.86 billion kWh (2016 est.)61.41 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports28.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)19.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production41,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)16,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports1.836 million bbl/day (2017 est.)1.147 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports6,569 bbl/day (2017 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves129.6 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)65.97 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves39.5 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)8.41 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production7.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)16.99 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption93.36 billion cu m (2017 est.)41.88 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports34.61 billion cu m (2017 est.)6.031 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports119.5 billion cu m (2017 est.)48.59 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity208.5 million kW (2016 est.)130.8 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)17% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)15% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)50% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources52% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production2.158 million bbl/day (2017 est.)1.311 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption2.46 million bbl/day (2017 est.)1.705 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports494,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)440,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports883,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)886,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2020)electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

GermanyFrance
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 40.4 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50.35 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 37.797 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55.89 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 107.2 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133.61 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 72.04 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106.53 (2019 est.)
Internet country code.demetropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Mayotte - .yt; Reunion - .re
Internet userstotal: 72,202,773

percent of population: 89.74% (July 2018 est.)
total: 55,265,718

percent of population: 82.04% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

one of the world's most technologically advanced telecom systems with additional security measures; LTE universally available and 5G service to over 80% of population; mobile market is driven by data, with increased broadband subscribership; regulatory measures aimed at facilitating wholesale network access to provide fiber-based broadband services; government aims to provide smart technology solutions; over 60 cities use smart technology in urban development, many through joint initiative with private sector, utility companies, and universities; importer of broadcast equipment and computers from China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries; 48 per 100 for fixed-line and 128 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2019)

international: country code - 49; landing points for SeaMeWe-3, TAT-14, AC-1, CONTACT-3, Fehmarn Balt, C-Lion1, GC1, GlobalConnect-KPN, and Germany-Denmark 2 & 3 - submarine cables to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia; as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment:

one of the largest mobile phone markets in Europe; LTE has universal coverage with extensive 5G; one of the largest broadband subscriber bases in Europe; regional government and telecom companies have invested in higher bandwidth with fiber infrastructure improvements, an investment of more than 20 billion euros; operator investment in developing markets, and on the greater use of artificial intelligence and data; satellite broadband connectivity across France; Paris adopted smart city technology; importer of broadcast equipment from China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: 58 per 100 persons for fixed-line and 111 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2019)

international: country code - 33; landing points for Circe South, TAT-14, INGRID, FLAG Atlantic-1, Apollo, HUGO, IFC-1, ACE, SeaMeWe-3 & 4, Dunant, Africa-1, AAE-1, Atlas Offshore, Hawk, IMEWE, Med Cable, PEACE Cable, and TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/Alexandros/Medex submarine cables providing links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries (2019)

overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; landing points for Ella Link, Kanawa, Americas II to South America, Europe, Caribbean and US; Guadeloupe - 590; landing points for GCN, Southern Caribbean Fiber, and ECFS around the Caribbean and US; Martinique - 596; landing points for Americas II, ECFS, and Southern Caribbean Fiber to South America, US and around the Caribbean;  Mayotte - 262; landing points for FLY-LION3 and LION2 to East Africa and East African Islands in Indian Ocean; Reunion - 262; landing points for SAFE, METISS, and LION submarine cables to Asia, South and East Africa, Southeast Asia and nearby Indian Ocean Island countries of Mauritius, and Madagascar (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 35,071,539

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43.71 (2019 est.)
total: 29.76 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 44.01 (2019 est.)
Broadcast mediaa mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; 70 national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stationsa mix of both publicly operated and privately owned TV stations; state-owned France television stations operate 4 networks, one of which is a network of regional stations, and has part-interest in several thematic cable/satellite channels and international channels; a large number of privately owned regional and local TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable services provide a large number of channels; public broadcaster Radio France operates 7 national networks, a series of regional networks, and operates services for overseas territories and foreign audiences; Radio France Internationale, under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a leading international broadcaster; a large number of commercial FM stations, with many of them consolidating into commercial networks

Transportation

GermanyFrance
Railwaystotal: 33,590 km (2017)

standard gauge: 33,331 km 1.435-m gauge (19,973 km electrified) (2015)

narrow gauge: 220 km 1.000-m gauge (79 km electrified)

15 km 0.900-m gauge, 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2015)
total: 29,640 km (2014)

standard gauge: 29,473 km 1.435-m gauge (15,561 km electrified) (2014)

narrow gauge: 167 km 1.000-m gauge (63 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 625,000 km (2017)

paved: 625,000 km (includes 12,996 km of expressways) (2017)

note: includes local roads
total: 1,053,215 km (2011)

urban: 654,201 km (2011)

non-urban: 399,014 km (2011)
Waterways7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)metropolitan France: 8,501 km (1,621 km navigable by craft up to 3,000 metric tons) (2010)
Pipelines37 km condensate, 26985 km gas, 2400 km oil, 4479 km refined products, 8 km water (2013)15322 km gas, 2939 km oil, 5084 km refined products (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Kiel, Rostock
North Sea - Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Emden, Hamburg, Wilhelmshaven

oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals

container port(s) (TEUs): Bremen/Bremerhaven (4,856,900), Hamburg (9,274,215) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg

river port(s): Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Lubeck (Wakenitz); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe)
major seaport(s): Brest, Calais, Dunkerque, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes,

container port(s) (TEUs): Le Havre (2,822,910) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Fos Cavaou, Fos Tonkin, Montoir de Bretagne

river port(s): Paris, Rouen (Seine)

cruise/ferry port(s): Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre

Strasbourg (Rhine) Bordeaux (Garronne)
Merchant marinetotal: 607

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 84, general cargo 86, oil tanker 37, other 399 (2020)
total: 545

by type: container ship 30, general cargo 50, oil tanker 28, other 437 (2020)

note: includes Monaco
Airportstotal: 539 (2013)total: 464 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 318 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 14 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 49 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 60 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 70 (2017)

under 914 m: 125 (2017)
total: 294 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 14 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 25 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 97 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 83 (2017)

under 914 m: 75 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 221 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 35 (2013)

under 914 m: 185 (2013)
total: 170 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 64 (2013)

under 914 m: 105 (2013)
Heliports23 (2013)1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 20 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,113

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 109,796,202 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,969,860,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 19 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 553

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 70,188,028 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,443,790,000 mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixDF

Military

GermanyFrance
Military branchesFederal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe, includes air defense), Joint Support Service (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw), Cyber and Information Space Command (Kommando Cyber- und Informationsraum, Kdo CIR) (2021)Army (Armee de Terre; includes Foreign Legion), Navy (Marine Nationale), Air and Space Force (Armee de l’Air et de l’Espace); includes Air Defense), National Guard (Reserves), National Gendarmerie (paramilitary police force that is a branch of the Armed Forces but under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior; also has additional duties to the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Justice) (2021)
Military service age and obligation17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2019)18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (abolished 2001); 1-year service obligation; women serve in noncombat posts (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.56% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.36% of GDP (2019)

1.25% of GDP (2018)

1.23% of GDP (2017)

1.2% of GDP (2016)
2.04% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.83% of GDP (2019)

1.81% of GDP (2018)

1.78% of GDP (2017)

1.79% of GDP (2016)
Military - notethe Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO in May 1955; with the reunification of Germany in October 1990, the states of the former German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany in its membership of NATOFrance was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty), which created NATO in 1949; in 1966, President Charles DE GAULLE decided to withdraw France from NATO’s integrated military structure, reflecting his desire for greater military independence, particularly vis-à-vis the US, and the refusal to integrate France’s nuclear deterrent or accept any form of control over its armed forces; it did, however, sign agreements with NATO setting out procedures in the event of Soviet aggression; beginning with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, France distanced itself from the 1966 decision and has regularly contributed troops to NATO’s military operations, being one of the largest troop-contributing states; in 2009 it officially announced its decision to fully participate in NATO structures

Transnational Issues

GermanyFrance
Disputes - international

none

Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia

Illicit drugssource of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center

metropolitan France: transshipment point for South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics;

French Guiana: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe;

Martinique: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe

Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 572,818 (Syria), 141,650 (Iraq), 140,366 (Afghanistan), 58,569 (Eritrea), 43,244 (Iran), 28,470 (Turkey), 26,015 (Somalia), 8,722 (Russia), 8,639 (Serbia and Kosovo), 8,125 (Pakistan), 7,828 (Nigeria) (2019)

stateless persons: 26,675 (2020)
refugees (country of origin): 24,293 (Afghanistan), 23,821 (Sri Lanka), 18,473 (Sudan), 18,244 (Syria), 17,512 (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 16,412 (Russia), 14,141 (Serbia and Kosovo), 11,863 (Turkey), 11,038 (Guinea), 11,021 (Cambodia), 8,829 (Iraq), 7,735 (Vietnam), 6,918 (China), 6,464 (Laos), 6,372 (Eritrea), 6,156 (Bangladesh), 5,675 (Mauritania), 5,652 (Cote d'Ivoire), 5,169 (Mali) (2019)

stateless persons: 2,068 (2020)

Source: CIA Factbook