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Germany vs. Czech Republic

Introduction

GermanyCzech Republic
BackgroundAs Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.
"At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country's predominantly Czech leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the territory that today comprises Czechia, and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create ""socialism with a human face,"" ushering in a period of repression known as ""normalization."" The peaceful ""Velvet Revolution"" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent ""velvet divorce"" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. The country changed its short-form name to Czechia in 2016.
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Geography

GermanyCzech Republic
LocationCentral Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria
Geographic coordinates51 00 N, 9 00 E
49 45 N, 15 30 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 357,022 sq km
land: 348,672 sq km
water: 8,350 sq km
total: 78,867 sq km
land: 77,247 sq km
water: 1,620 sq km
Area - comparativethree times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montana
about two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundariestotal: 3,714 km
border countries (9): Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 467 km, Switzerland 348 km
total: 2,143 km
border countries (4): Austria 402 km, Germany 704 km, Poland 796 km, Slovakia 241 km
Coastline2,389 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrainlowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 263 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.5 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
mean elevation: 433 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Natural resourcescoal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 48%
arable land 34.1%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 13.3%
forest: 31.8%
other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.8%
arable land 41%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 12.8%
forest: 34.4%
other: 10.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land6,500 sq km (2012)
320 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding
flooding
Environment - current issuesemissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea; most major rivers in Germany - the Rhine, Weser, Oder, Elbe - flow northward; the Danube, which originates in the Black Forest, flows eastward
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
Population distributionmost populous country in Europe; a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations, particularly in the far western part of the industrial state of North Rhine-Westphalia
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations

Demographics

GermanyCzech Republic
Population80,594,017 (July 2017 est.)
10,674,723 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 12.82% (male 5,304,341/female 5,028,776)
15-24 years: 10.09% (male 4,145,486/female 3,986,302)
25-54 years: 40.45% (male 16,467,975/female 16,133,964)
55-64 years: 14.58% (male 5,834,179/female 5,913,322)
65 years and over: 22.06% (male 7,822,221/female 9,957,451) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 15.16% (male 831,150/female 786,984)
15-24 years: 9.59% (male 527,232/female 496,530)
25-54 years: 43.84% (male 2,403,333/female 2,276,261)
55-64 years: 12.44% (male 646,106/female 681,541)
65 years and over: 18.98% (male 842,384/female 1,183,202) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 47.1 years
male: 46 years
female: 48.2 years (2017 est.)
total: 42.1 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 43.4 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate-0.16% (2017 est.)
0.12% (2017 est.)
Birth rate8.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate11.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 80.8 years
male: 78.5 years
female: 83.3 years (2017 est.)
total population: 78.8 years
male: 75.8 years
female: 81.9 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.45 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.45 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
<.1% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: German(s)
adjective: German
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
Ethnic groupsGerman 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Polish, Italian, Romanian, Syrian, and Greek)
Czech 64.3%, Moravian 5%, Slovak 1.4%, other 1.8%, unspecified 27.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA (2016 est.)
3,400 (2016 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 29%, Protestant 27%, Muslim 4.4%, Orthodox Christian 1.9%, other 1.7%, none or members of unrecorded religious groups 36% (2015 est.)
Roman Catholic 10.4%, Protestant (includes Czech Brethren and Hussite) 1.1%, other and unspecified 54%, none 34.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
<100 (2016 est.)
LanguagesGerman (official)
note: Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Czech (official) 95.4%, Slovak 1.6%, other 3% (2011 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2015)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.9% of GDP (2013)
4.1% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 75.7% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.12% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 73% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 99.2% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 0.8% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBERLIN (capital) 3.563 million; Hamburg 1.831 million; Munich 1.438 million; Cologne 1.037 million (2015)
PRAGUE (capital) 1.314 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures11.3% of GDP (2014)
7.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density4.13 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.68 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density8.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
6.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.3% (2016)
26% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth29.4 years (2015 est.)
28.1 years (2014 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.1
youth dependency ratio: 19.9
elderly dependency ratio: 32.1
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 49.5
youth dependency ratio: 22.6
elderly dependency ratio: 26.9
potential support ratio: 3.7 (2015 est.)

Government

GermanyCzech Republic
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Berlin
geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Prague
geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat), while Hamburg prides itself on being a Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt)
13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky (Karlovy Vary), Kralovehradecky (Hradec Kralove), Liberecky (Liberec), Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky (Olomouc), Pardubicky (Pardubice), Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky (Usti), Vysocina (Highlands), Zlinsky (Zlin)
Independence18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs commemorate 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day
National holidayGerman Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage and enactment into law require two-thirds majority vote by both the Bundesrat (upper house) and the Bundestag (lower house) of Parliament; articles including those on basic human rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2012 (2016)
history: previous 1960; latest ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993
amendments: passage requires at least three-fifths concurrence by members present in both houses of Parliament; amended several times, last in 2013 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
new civil code enacted in 2014, replacing civil code of 1964 - based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory - and reintroducing former Czech legal terminology
Suffrage18 years of age; universal; age 16 for some state and municipal elections
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017; inaugurated 22 March 2017)
head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 12 February 2017 (next to be held February 2022); chancellor appointed by the president following indirect election - by the Federal Parliament - for a 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 17 December 2013 (next to be held following the general election, 24 September 2017)
election results: Frank-Walter STEINMEIER elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 931, Christopher BUTTERWEGGE (The Left) 128, Albrecht GLASER (Alternative for Germany AfD) 42, Alexander HOLD (BVB/FW) 25, Engelbert SONNEBORN (Pirates) 10; Angela MERKEL (CDU) reelected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 462 for, 150 against, 49 abstentions
chief of state: President Milos ZEMAN (since 8 March 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Designate Andrej BABIS (since 6 December 2017); First Deputy Prime Minister Richard BRABEC (since 24 May 2017) and Second Deputy Prime Minister Martin STROPNICKY (since 13 December 2017); note - the government of Prime Minister Bohuslav SOBOTKA (since 17 January 2014) resigned on 29 November 2017; BABIS' government was sworn in on 13 December but still must win a confidence vote scheduled for 10 January 2018
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); elections last held on 12-13 January 2018 with a runoff on 26-27 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2023); prime minister appointed by the president for a 4-year term
election results: Milos ZEMAN elected president; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 54.8%, Karel SCHWARZENBERG (TOP 09) 45.2%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments) and the Federal Diet or Bundestag (709 seats - total seats can vary each electoral term; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: Bundestag - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held in 2021); most postwar German governments have been coalitions; note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
election results: Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 32.9%, SPD 20.5%, AfD 12.6%, FDP 10.8%, The Left 9.2%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.9%, other 5%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 246, SPD 153, FDP 80, The Left 69, Alliance '90/Greens 67
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members directly elected in 14 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote with a 5% threshold required to fill a seat; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in 2 rounds on 7-8 and 14-15 October 2016 (next to be held in October 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 20-21 October 2017 (next to be held by October 2021)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; CSSD 25, KDU-CSL 14, ODS 9, ANO 7, STAN 5, SZ 4, TOP 09 2, SLK 2, SZ 2, SPO 1, Movement for Prague 1, S.cz. 1, KSCM 1, other 5, independent 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - ANO 29.6%, ODS 11.3%, Pirates 10.8%, SPD 10.6%, KSCM 7.8%, CSSD 7.3%, KDU-CSL 5.8%, TOP 09 5.3%, STAN 5.2%, other 6.3%; seats by party - ANO 78, ODS 25, Pirates 22, SPD 22, KSCM 15, CSSD 15, KDU-CSL 10, TOP 09 7, STAN 6
note: Senate seats by party as of 20 May 2017 - CSSD 25, KDU-CSL 16, STAN and TOP 09 11, ODS 10, ANO 7, SPO 2, SZ 2, S.cz. 1, KSCM 1, Movement for Prague 1, independent 5
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges including the court president, vice-presidents, presiding judges, and other judges, and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels; Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated States and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president of Germany; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68
subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 German states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into Civil Law and Commercial Division, and Criminal Division each with a court chief justice, vice justice, and several judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 justices); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 28 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Chamber of Deputies and appointed by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed for 10-year, renewable terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the president of the Court; unlimited terms
subordinate courts: High Court; superior, regional, and district courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance '90/Greens [Cem OEZDEMIR and Simone PETER]
Alternative for Germany or AfD [Alexander GAULAND and Joerg MEUTHEN]
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]
Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]
Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
The Left or Die Linke [Katja KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Martin SCHULZ]
Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK]
Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA]
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]
Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Milan CHOVANEC]
Dawn - National Coalition or Usvit-NK [Miroslav LIDINSKY]
Free Citizens Party or Svobodni [Petr MACH]
Freedom and Direct Democracy or SPD [Tomio OKAMURA]
Green Party or SZ [Matej STROPNICKY]
Mayors and Independents or STAN [Petr GAZDIK]
Movement for Prague
Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens or ANO [Andrej BABIS]
Nestranici (Non-Partisans) or NK [Vera RYBOVA]
North Bohemians or S.cz [Bronislav SCHWARZ]
Party of Civic Rights or SPO [Jan VELEBA]
Pirate Party or Pirates [Ivan BARTOS]
Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Jiri POSPISIL]
Political pressure groups and leadersbusiness associations and employers' organizations
trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Josef STREDULA]
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Hans Peter WITTIG (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Hynek KMONICEK (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kent LOGSDON (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Pariser Platz 2
mailing address: Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin
telephone: [49] (30) 8305-0
FAX: [49] (30) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen B. KING (since 6 December 2017)
embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Prague 1 - Mala Strana
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [420] 257 022 000
FAX: [420] 257 022 809
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
note: combines the white and red colors of Bohemia with blue from the arms of Moravia; is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia
National anthem"name: ""Das Lied der Deutschen"" (Song of the Germans)
lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN
note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as ""Deutschlandlied"" (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, ""Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles"" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany
"
"name: ""Kde domov muj?"" (Where is My Home?)
lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP
note: adopted 1993; the anthem was originally written as incidental music to the play ""Fidlovacka"" (1834), it soon became very popular as an unofficial anthem of the Czech nation; its first verse served as the official Czechoslovak anthem beginning in 1918, while the second verse (Slovak) was dropped after the split of Czechoslovakia in 1993
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)eagle; national colors: black, red, yellow
silver (or white), double-tailed, rampant lion; national colors: white, red, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Czechia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

GermanyCzech Republic
Economy - overviewThe German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.

Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II. The German Government introduced a minimum wage in 2015 that increased to $9.79 (8.84 euros) in January 2017.

Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2017 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.7%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016, though the target was already reached in 2012.

The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros during 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power largely with renewable energy, which accounted for 29.5% of gross electricity consumption in 2016, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production. Domestic consumption, bolstered by low energy prices and a weak euro, and exports are likely to drive German GDP growth again in 2018.
Czechia is a prosperous market economy that boasts one of the highest GDP growth rates and lowest unemployment levels in the EU, but its dependence on exports makes economic growth vulnerable to contractions in external demand. Czechia’s exports comprise some 80% of GDP and largely consist of automobiles, the country’s single largest industry. Czechia acceded to the EU in 2004 but has yet to join the euro-zone. While the flexible koruna helps Czechia weather external shocks, it was one of the world’s strongest performing currencies in 2017, appreciating approximately 16% relative to the US dollar after the central bank (Czech National Bank - CNB) in early April ended its cap on the currency’s value, which it had maintained since November 2013. The CNB hiked rates in August and November 2017 - the first rate changes in nine years - to address rising inflationary pressures brought by strong economic growth and a tight labor market.

After slowly recovering from a steep recession in 2009, the Czech economy again fell into recession in 2012 and 2013 because of a slump in demand within the EU and government austerity measures. Inflows of EU development funds underpinned a rebound in 2014-15, with GDP growth reaching 4.5% in 2015, followed by a slowdown in 2016 largely due to a cyclical lag in EU funding in connection with a new EU budget cycle. The Czech economy was one of the EU’s best performers in 2017, with broad-based growth of nearly 4.5% and an unemployment rate of 2.8%, one of the lowest rates in the EU.

Since coming to power in 2014, the new government has undertaken some reforms to try to reduce corruption, attract investment, and improve social welfare programs, which could help increase the government’s revenues and improve living conditions for Czechs. The government introduced in December 2016 an online tax reporting system intended to reduce tax evasion and increase revenues. The government also plans to remove labor market rigidities to improve the business climate, bring procurement procedures in line with EU best practices, and boost wages. The country's low unemployment rate has led to steady increases in salaries, and the government is facing pressure from businesses to allow greater migration of qualified workers, at least from Ukraine and neighboring Central European countries.

Long-term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, a shortage of skilled workers, a lagging education system, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$4.15 trillion (2017 est.)
$4.066 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.992 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$372.6 billion (2017 est.)
$360 billion (2016 est.)
$350.9 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.1% (2017 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
3.5% (2017 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$50,200 (2017 est.)
$49,300 (2016 est.)
$48,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$35,200 (2017 est.)
$34,100 (2016 est.)
$33,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 0.6%
industry: 30.1%
services: 69.3%
(2017 est.)
agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 37.8%
services: 59.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line16.7% (2015 est.)
9.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24% (2000)
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 21.7% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.6% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
2.3% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force45.9 million (2017 est.)
5.427 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 1.4%
industry: 24.2%
services: 74.3% (2016)
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 38%
services: 59.2% (2015)
Unemployment rate3.8% (2017 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
2.8% (2017 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index27 (2006)
30 (1994)
25 (2015)
25.1 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $1.598 trillion
expenditures: $1.573 trillion (2017 est.)
revenues: $83.62 billion
expenditures: $83.93 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesamong the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments
Industrial production growth rate1.4% (2017 est.)
5.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productspotatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry
wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Exports$1.401 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.322 trillion (2016 est.)
$157.4 billion (2017 est.)
$131.1 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmotor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products
machinery and transport equipment, raw materials, fuel, chemicals
Exports - partnersUS 8.9%, France 8.4%, UK 7.1%, Netherlands 6.5%, China 6.4%, Italy 5.1%, Austria 5%, Poland 4.5%, Switzerland 4.2% (2016)
Germany 32.4%, Slovakia 8.4%, Poland 5.8%, UK 5.2%, France 5.2%, Italy 4.3%, Austria 4.2% (2016)
Imports$1.104 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.022 trillion (2016 est.)
$147.4 billion (2017 est.)
$120.8 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products
machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals
Imports - partnersNetherlands 13.3%, China 7.3%, France 7.3%, Belgium 6.1%, Italy 5.5%, Poland 5.2%, Czech Republic 4.7%, US 4.6%, Switzerland 4.4%, Austria 4.4%, UK 4.1% (2016)
Germany 30.6%, Poland 9.6%, China 7.5%, Slovakia 6.3%, Netherlands 5.3%, Italy 4.1% (2016)
Debt - external$5.326 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$5.21 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
$145.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$138 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.906 (2017 est.)
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
koruny (CZK) per US dollar -
23.34 (2017 est.)
24.44 (2016 est.)
24.44 (2015 est.)
24.599 (2014 est.)
20.758 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt65.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
68.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euro; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank
35.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$185.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$173.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$161 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$85.73 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$296 billion (2017 est.)
$290.4 billion (2016 est.)
$1.192 billion (2017 est.)
$2.154 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$3.652 trillion (2016 est.)
$209.7 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.455 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.391 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$146.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$139.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$2.074 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.981 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$43.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$1.716 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.739 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.936 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$44.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$45.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.25% (31 December 2016)
0.3% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
0.05% (31 December 2016)
0.05% (31 December 2015)
note: this is the two-week repo, the main rate CNB uses
Commercial bank prime lending rate1.8% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.91% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$4.766 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.433 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$142.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$124.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.312 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.016 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
$172.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$133.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$3.282 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.908 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$190 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$148.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues43.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
39.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
-0.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 7.2%
male: 7.9%
female: 6.5% (2015 est.)
total: 12.6%
male: 11.3%
female: 14.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 53.7%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
investment in inventories: -1%
exports of goods and services: 47.3%
imports of goods and services: -40% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 47.7%
government consumption: 19.2%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 79.1%
imports of goods and services: -72.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving27.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

GermanyCzech Republic
Electricity - production588.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
77.74 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption514.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
61.16 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports78.86 billion kWh (2016 est.)
24.79 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports28.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)
13.82 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production46,590 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2,333 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports1.837 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
105,800 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports1,987 bbl/day (2016 est.)
518.7 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves145.4 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
15 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves41.99 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
3.964 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production8.73 billion cu m (2015 est.)
247 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption773.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
11.51 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports32.51 billion cu m (2015 est.)
1 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports102.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
7.474 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity204.1 million kW (2015 est.)
21.51 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels42.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
56.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants2.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
5.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels5.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
18.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources49.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
14.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production2.198 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
121,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption2.41 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
180,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports474,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
49,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports800,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
103,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy744 million Mt (2015 est.)
103 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

GermanyCzech Republic
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 44.31 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,682,194
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 94,432,800
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (July 2016 est.)
total: 12,484,885
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2015)
general assessment: good telephone and Internet service; there are three major mobile phone providers, though the government is facing criticism for failing to promote sufficient competition, with critics complaining that Czech mobile phone and data prices are among the highest in the EU
domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s, but the number of fixed-line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s, and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population
international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2017)
Internet country code.de
.cz
Internet userstotal: 72,365,643
percent of population: 89.6% (July 2016 est.)
total: 8,141,303
percent of population: 76.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediaa mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008)
roughly 130 TV broadcasters operating some 350 channels with 4 publicly operated and the remainder in private hands; 16 TV stations have national coverage with 4 being publicly operated; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; 63 radio broadcasters are registered operating roughly 80 radio stations with 15 stations publicly operated; 10 radio stations provide national coverage with the remainder local or regional (2008)

Transportation

GermanyCzech Republic
Railwaystotal: 43,468.3 km
standard gauge: 43,209.3 km 1.435-m gauge (19,973 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 220 km 1.000-m gauge (79 km electrified); 15 km 0.900-m gauge; 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2014)
total: 9,621.5 km
standard gauge: 9,519.5 km 1.435-m gauge (3,240.5 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 102 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 645,000 km
paved: 645,000 km (includes 12,800 km of expressways)
note: includes local roads (2010)
total: 130,661 km (includes urban roads)
paved: 130,661 km (includes 730 km of expressways) (2011)
Waterways7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)
664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010)
Pipelinescondensate 37 km; gas 26,985 km; oil 2,826 km; refined products 4,479 km; water 8 km (2013)
gas 7,160 km; oil 536 km; refined products 94 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Rostock; North Sea - Wilhelmshaven
river port(s): Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe); Lubeck (Wakenitz)
oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals
container port(s): Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,547,000), Hamburg (8,821,000) (2015)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg
river port(s): Prague (Vltava); Decin, Usti nad Labem (Elbe)
Airports539 (2013)
128 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 318
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 49
1,524 to 2,437 m: 60
914 to 1,523 m: 70
under 914 m: 125 (2017)
total: 41
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 16 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 221
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 185 (2013)
total: 87
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 61 (2013)
Heliports23 (2013)
1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 20
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,113
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,540,886
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,985,007,915 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 48
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,971,616
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 26,619,650 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixD (2016)
OK (2016)

Military

GermanyCzech Republic
Military branchesFederal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Service (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw), Cyber and Information Space Command (Kommando Cyber- und Informationsraum, Kdo CIR) (2017)
Army of the Czech Republic (Armada Ceske Republiky): General Staff (Generalni Stab, includes Land Forces (Pozemni Sily) and Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily)) (2015)
Military service age and obligation17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)
18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.19% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.19% of GDP (2015)
1.19% of GDP (2014)
1.23% of GDP (2013)
1.31% of GDP (2012)
0.98% of GDP (2016)
0.96% of GDP (2015)
0.97% of GDP (2014)
0.99% of GDP (2013)
1.03% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

GermanyCzech Republic
Disputes - internationalnone
none
Illicit drugssource of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 375,122 (Syria); 86,045 (Iraq); 46,292 (Afghanistan); 30,020 (Eritrea); 22,910 (Iran); 19,136 (Turkey); 9,189 (Serbia and Kosovo); 7,879 (Somalia); 5,255 (Russia); 5,169 (Pakistan) (2016); 10,305 (Ukraine) (2017) note: estimate represents asylum applicants since Ukraine crisis began in 2014 until September 2017
stateless persons: 12,017 (2016)
stateless persons: 1,502 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook