Georgia vs. Azerbaijan


Background"The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate parliamentary elections in November 2003, touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the ""Rose Revolution,"" new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions.
Billionaire philanthropist Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary elections and removed UNM from power. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI was inaugurated as president on 17 November 2013, ending a tense year of power-sharing between SAAKASHVILI and IVANISHVILI. IVANISHVILI voluntarily resigned from office after the presidential succession, and Georgia's legislature on 20 November 2013 confirmed Irakli GARIBASHVILI as his replacement. GARIBASHVILI was replaced by Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI in December 2015. KVIRIKASHVILI remained Prime Minister following Georgian Dream’s success in the October 2016 parliamentary elections, where the party won a constitutional majority. These changes in leadership represent unique examples of a former Soviet state that emerged to conduct democratic and peaceful government transitions of power. Popular and government support for integration with the West is high in Georgia. Joining the EU and NATO are among the country's top foreign policy goals.
Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily ethnic Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous republic within Soviet Azerbaijan after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the territory's status. Armenia and Azerbaijan reignited their dispute over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated militarily after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. The OSCE Minsk Group, co-chaired by the US, France, and Russia, is the framework established to mediate a peaceful resolution of the conflict.
Corruption in the country is widespread, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum and approved extending presidential terms from 5 to 7 years in 2016, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced and infrastructure investment has increased substantially in recent years due to revenue from oil and gas production, reforms have not adequately addressed weaknesses in most government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors, as well as the court system.


LocationSouthwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Geographic coordinates42 00 N, 43 30 E
40 30 N, 47 30 E
Map referencesAsia
Areatotal: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: approximately 12,560 sq km, or about 18% of Georgia's area, is Russian occupied
total: 86,600 sq km
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than South Carolina; slightly larger than West Virginia
about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundariestotal: 1,814 km
border countries (4): Armenia 219 km, Azerbaijan 428 km, Russia 894 km, Turkey 273 km
total: 2,468 km
border countries (5): Armenia 996 km, Georgia 428 km, Iran 689 km, Russia 338 km, Turkey 17 km
Coastline310 km
0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climatewarm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
dry, semiarid steppe
Terrainlargely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; fertile soils in river valley flood plains and foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,432 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,193 m
mean elevation: 384 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,466 m
Natural resourcestimber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
Land useagricultural land: 35.5%
arable land 5.8%; permanent crops 1.8%; permanent pasture 27.9%
forest: 39.4%
other: 25.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 57.6%
arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 2.7%; permanent pasture 32.1%
forest: 11.3%
other: 31.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land4,330 sq km (2012)
14,277 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes
Environment - current issuesair pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them; Krubera Cave in the western part of the country is the deepest-known cave in the world; at -2,197 m it is the only known cave on earth deeper than 2,000 m
both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Population distributionsettlement coincides closely to the central valley, with emphasis on the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest
highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the county, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population


Population4,926,330 (July 2017 est.)
9,961,396 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 18.08% (male 466,426/female 424,295)
15-24 years: 11.94% (male 310,970/female 277,434)
25-54 years: 40.96% (male 983,144/female 1,034,794)
55-64 years: 13.01% (male 286,539/female 354,247)
65 years and over: 16.01% (male 309,353/female 479,128) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 22.95% (male 1,220,356/female 1,065,514)
15-24 years: 14.84% (male 775,422/female 703,027)
25-54 years: 45.39% (male 2,219,613/female 2,302,356)
55-64 years: 10.17% (male 467,830/female 545,505)
65 years and over: 6.64% (male 253,679/female 408,094) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 38.1 years
male: 35.3 years
female: 40.9 years (2017 est.)
total: 31.3 years
male: 29.8 years
female: 33 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate-0.02% (2017 est.)
0.87% (2017 est.)
Birth rate12.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
15.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 15.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.4 years
male: 72.3 years
female: 80.7 years (2017 est.)
total population: 72.8 years
male: 69.7 years
female: 76.1 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.76 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.89 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.5% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian
noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
Ethnic groupsGeorgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)
Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4%
note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS12,000 (2016 est.)
9,200 (2016 est.)
ReligionsOrthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)
Muslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2010 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
HIV/AIDS - deaths<500 (2016 est.)
<500 (2016 est.)
LanguagesGeorgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1%
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia (2014 est.)
Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Education expenditures2% of GDP (2012)
2.6% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 54% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: -0.09% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
note: data include Abkhazia and South Ossetia
urban population: 55.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 94.7% of population
rural: 77.8% of population
total: 87% of population
urban: 5.3% of population
rural: 22.2% of population
total: 13% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 95.2% of population
rural: 75.9% of population
total: 86.3% of population
urban: 4.8% of population
rural: 24.1% of population
total: 13.7% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 91.6% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 89.3% of population
urban: 8.4% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 10.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTBILISI (capital) 1.147 million (2015)
BAKU (capital) 2.374 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight1.1% (2009)
4.9% (2013)
Health expenditures7.4% of GDP (2014)
6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density4.78 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.4 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density2.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
4.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.7% (2016)
19.9% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 121,659
percentage: 18% (2005 est.)
total number: 144,397
percentage: 7%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2005 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth24.5 years
note: data do not cover Abkhazia and South Ossetia (2014 est.)
23.2 years (2014 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 50
youth dependency ratio: 28.1
elderly dependency ratio: 21.9
potential support ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 40.2
youth dependency ratio: 32.1
elderly dependency ratio: 8
potential support ratio: 12.4 (2015 est.)


Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form: Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Western name may derive from the Persian designation ""gurgan"" meaning ""Land of the Wolves""; the native name ""Sak'art'velo"" means ""Land of the Kartvelians"" and refers to the core central Georgian region of Kartli
"conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name translates as ""Land of Fire"" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges
Government typesemi-presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Tbilisi
geographic coordinates: 41 41 N, 44 50 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (kalaki), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika)
regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli; note - the breakaway region of South Ossetia consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti
city: Tbilisi
autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)
note 1: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown in parentheses
note 2: the United States recognizes the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia to be part of Georgia
66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);
rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab
cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax
Independence9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)
30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
National holidayIndependence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Republic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995
amendments: proposed as a draft law supported by more than one-half of the Parliament membership or by petition of at least 200,000 voters; passage requires support by at least three-fourths of the Parliament membership in two successive sessions three months apart and the signature and promulgation by the president of Georgia; amended several times, last in 2017 (2018)
history: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least 63 members of the National Assembly; passage requires at least 95 votes of Assembly members in two separate readings of the draft amendment six months apart and requires presidential approval after each of the two Assembly votes, followed by presidential signature; constitutional articles on the authority, sovereignty, and unity of the people cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2009, 2016 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (since 17 November 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI (since 30 December 2015); First Deputy Prime Minister Dimitry KUMSISHVILI
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president
election results: Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (independent), 62.1%, Davit BAKRADZE (UNM) 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE 10.2%, other 6%
chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006); note - RASIZADE was previously prime minister from 20 July 1996 to 4 August 2003
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 9 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum will expand presidential terms from 5 to 7 years when it formally takes effect; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the September 2016 referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the
election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 84.5%, Jamil HASANLI (National Council of Democratic Forces) 5.5%, other 10%
note: OSCE observers concluded that the election did not meet international standards
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats; 77 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 73 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 October and 30 October 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - Georgian Dream 48.7%, UNM 27.1%, Alliance of Patriots 5%, other 19.2%; seats by party - Georgian Dream 115, UNM 27, Alliance of Patriots 6, IWSG 1, independent 1; note - European Georgia split from UNM in January 2017 taking 20 of 27 parliamentary members
description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 69, CSP 2, Democratic Reforms 1, Social Democratic Party 1, Social Prosperity 1, Unity Party 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, Motherland 1, Civil Unity 1, Great Undertaking Party 1, National Renaissance Party 1, independent 43, invalid 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into several specialized judicial chambers; number of judges determined by the president of Georgia); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges); note - the Abkhazian and Ajarian Autonomous republics each have a supreme court and a hierarchy of lower courts
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Parliament; judges serve not less than 10-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president following candidate selection by the Justice Council of Georgia, a 12-member consultative body of high-level judges and presidential and parliamentary appointees; judges appointed for 10-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional (town) and district courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;
Political parties and leadersAlliance of Patriots [Irma INASHVILI]
European Georgia [Davit BAKRADZE] (split from UNM)
Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI]
Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Giorgi TOPADZE]
National Forum [Kakhaber SHARTAVA]
Free Democrats or FD [Shalva SHAVGULIDZE]
Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE]
State for the People Party [formerly Paata BURCHULADZE ]
United Democratic Movement [Nino BURJANADZE]
United National Movement or UNM [Nika MELIA]
Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
Democratic Enlightenment [Elshan MUSAYEV]
Democratic Reforms Party [Asim MOLLAZADE]
Great Undertaking [Fazil MUSTAFA]
Musavat [Arif HAJILI]
Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI]
Unity Party [Tahir KARIMLI]
Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
Political pressure groups and leadersother: separatists in the Russian-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
D18 [Ruslan IZZETLI]]
Ireli Public Union or Ireli PU [MirHasan SEYIDOV]
National Council of Democratic Forces [Jamil HASANLI]
N!DA Civic Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Ulvi HASANLI] (youth movement)
Republican Alternative or REAL [Ilgar MAMMADOV (in prison since 2013)]
International organization participationADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CPLP (associate), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador David BAKRADZE (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0864
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ian C. KELLY (since 17 September 2015)
embassy: 11 George Balanchine Street, T'bilisi 0131
mailing address: 7060 T'bilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060
telephone: [995] (32) 227-70-00
FAX: [995] (32) 253-23-10
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert CEKUTA (since 19 February 2015)
embassy: 111 Azadlig Prospekti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300
FAX: [994] (12) 488-3330
Flag descriptionwhite rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; sometimes referred to as the Five-Cross Flag; although adopted as the official Georgian flag in 2004, the five-cross design appears to date back to the 14th century
three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band; the blue band recalls Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, red stands for modernization and progress, and green refers to Islam; the crescent moon and star are a Turkic insignia; the eight star points represent the eight Turkic peoples of the world
National anthem"name: ""Tavisupleba"" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: Davit MAGRADSE/Zakaria PALIASHVILI (adapted by Joseb KETSCHAKMADSE)
note: adopted 2004; after the Rose Revolution, a new anthem with music based on the operas ""Abesalom da Eteri"" and ""Daisi"" was adopted
"name: ""Azerbaijan Marsi"" (March of Azerbaijan)
lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV
note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, ""Azerbaijan Marsi"" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)Saint George, lion; national colors: red, white
flames of fire; national colors: blue, red, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Georgia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


Economy - overviewGeorgia's main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. The country imports nearly all of its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its energy needs.

Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages and gas supply interruptions of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by increasingly relying on natural gas imports from Azerbaijan instead of from Russia. Construction of the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus gas pipeline, and the Kars-Akhalkalaki railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit hub for gas, oil, and other goods.

Georgia's economy sustained GDP growth of more than 10% in 2006-07, based on strong inflows of foreign investment and robust government spending. However, GDP growth slowed following the August 2008 conflict with Russia, and sunk to negative 4% in 2009 as foreign direct investment and workers' remittances declined in the wake of the global financial crisis. The economy rebounded in the period 2010-17, but FDI inflows, the engine of Georgian economic growth prior to the 2008 conflict, have not recovered fully. Unemployment has also remained high.

The country is pinning its hopes for renewed growth on a continued effort to liberalize the economy by reducing regulation, taxes, and corruption in order to attract foreign investment, with a focus on hydropower, agriculture, tourism, and textiles production. Georgia has historically suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, since 2004 the government has simplified the tax code, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on petty corruption, leading to higher revenues. Georgia plans to improve the domestic investment environment through a four-year economic plan targeting the tax system, educational standards, infrastructure, and governance. The government has received high marks from the World Bank for improvements in business transparency. Since 2012, the Georgian Dream-led government has continued the previous administration's low-regulation, low-tax, free market policies, while modestly increasing social spending, strengthening anti-trust policy, and amending the labor code to comply with International Labor Standards. In mid-2014, Georgia signed an association agreement with the EU, paving the way to free trade and visa-free travel. Georgia is also seeking to expand trade with China, concluding substantive negotiations on a trade agreement in October 2016.
Prior to the decline in global oil prices since 2014, Azerbaijan's high economic growth was attributable to rising energy exports, and some non-export sectors also featured double-digit growth. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa Pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The expected completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another source of revenue from gas exports. Declining oil prices caused a 3.1% contraction in GDP in 2016, and a 1% decline in 2017, reinforced by a sharp reduction in the construction sector. The economic decline has been accompanied by higher inflation and a weakened banking sector in the aftermath of the two sharp currency devaluations since 2015.

Azerbaijan has made limited progress with market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors, but the government has made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and with the “ASAN” one-stop window concept for government services. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for more foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. While trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics remains important, Azerbaijan has expanded trade with Turkey and Europe and is seeking new markets for non-oil/gas exports, mainly from the agricultural sector, for example with Gulf Cooperation Council member countries, the US, and others.

Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to implement export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to improve the business environment and diversify the economy. In late 2016, the President approved a strategic roadmap that identified key non-energy segments of the economy for development, such as agriculture, logistics, and tourism.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$39.32 billion (2017 est.)
$37.82 billion (2016 est.)
$36.81 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$166.8 billion (2017 est.)
$168.6 billion (2016 est.)
$173.9 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
-1% (2017 est.)
-3.1% (2016 est.)
0.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$10,600 (2017 est.)
$10,200 (2016 est.)
$9,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$17,400 (2017 est.)
$17,800 (2016 est.)
$18,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 9.6%
industry: 23.4%
services: 66.2% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 6.2%
industry: 49.1%
services: 44.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line9.2% (2010 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2008)
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6% (2017 est.)
2.1% (2016 est.)
12% (2017 est.)
12.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force1.998 million (2016 est.)
5.118 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 55.6%
industry: 8.9%
services: 35.5% (2006 est.)
agriculture: 37%
industry: 14.3%
services: 48.9% (2015)
Unemployment rate11.5% (2017 est.)
11.8% (2016 est.)
6% (2017 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.1 (2014)
46 (2011)
33.7 (2008)
36.5 (2001)
Budgetrevenues: $4.26 billion
expenditures: $4.852 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $9.852 billion
expenditures: $10.4 billion (2017 est.)
Industriessteel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Industrial production growth rate7% (2017 est.)
-6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscitrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
fruit, vegetables, grain, rice, grapes, tea, cotton, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Exports$3.533 billion (2017 est.)
$2.831 billion (2016 est.)
$15.69 billion (2017 est.)
$13.21 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesvehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores
oil and gas roughly 90%, machinery, foodstuffs, cotton
Exports - partnersRussia 9.8%, Turkey 8.2%, China 8.1%, Bulgaria 7.3%, Azerbaijan 7.3%, Armenia 7.2%, Germany 4.1% (2016)
Italy 19.9%, Germany 10.5%, France 8%, Indonesia 5.8%, Czech Republic 5.2% (2016)
Imports$7.846 billion (2017 est.)
$6.64 billion (2016 est.)
$8.734 billion (2017 est.)
$9.004 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports - partnersCanada 18.6%, Turkey 14%, Russia 7%, Ireland 6.5%, China 5.7%, Azerbaijan 5.1%, Germany 4.4%, Ukraine 4.3% (2016)
Russia 15.7%, Turkey 12.5%, US 9.6%, Germany 7.5%, Italy 6.7%, Japan 6.2%, China 5.4%, UK 5.4% (2016)
Debt - external$14.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rateslaris (GEL) per US dollar -
2.535 (2017 est.)
2.3668 (2016 est.)
2.3668 (2015 est.)
2.2694 (2014 est.)
1.7657 (2013 est.)
Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -
1.723 (2017 est.)
1.5957 (2016 est.)
1.5957 (2015 est.)
1.0246 (2014 est.)
0.7844 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt44.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
44.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities; Georgia does not maintain intra-governmental debt or social funds
48.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
39.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.945 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.756 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.886 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.142 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.811 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.91 billion (2016 est.)
$732 million (2017 est.)
-$1.363 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$15.23 billion (2016 est.)
$39.21 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$16.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.66 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$80.63 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$73.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$2.505 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.185 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$17.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$1.155 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$943.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$795.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Central bank discount rate6.5% (7 Setpember 2016)
7% (23 September 2015)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy rate of the National Bank of Georgia
15% (10 March 2017)
15% (14 September 2016)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key policy rate for the National Bank of Azerbaijan
Commercial bank prime lending rate11.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
12.62% (31 December 2016 est.)
12.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
12.56% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$7.179 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.753 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.203 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.389 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.044 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.419 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.454 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.86 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.521 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues28% of GDP (2017 est.)
25.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
-1.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 35.6%
male: 28.6%
female: 30.8% (2015 est.)
total: 13.4%
male: 11.4%
female: 15.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 63.4%
government consumption: 18.6%
investment in fixed capital: 29.7%
investment in inventories: 3.4%
exports of goods and services: 52.5%
imports of goods and services: -67.6% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 53.9%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 45.9%
imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving21.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
25% of GDP (2017 est.)
18% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.2% of GDP (2015 est.)


Electricity - production11.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
23.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption12.44 billion kWh (2016 est.)
20.27 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports560 million kWh (2016 est.)
265 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports478.9 million kWh (2016 est.)
108 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
833,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports1,002 bbl/day (2014 est.)
721,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves35 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
7 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
991.1 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production10 million cu m (2015 est.)
29.37 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption2.18 billion cu m (2015 est.)
18.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
7.32 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports1.26 billion cu m (2015 est.)
200 million cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity4.28 million kW (2015 est.)
7.417 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels36.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
84.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants63.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
14.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
142,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
101,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports283.1 bbl/day (2014 est.)
46,770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports23,910 bbl/day (2014 est.)
6,171 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy7 million Mt (2013 est.)
35 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 831,346
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,700,233
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 5,532,701
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (July 2016 est.)
total: 10,315,993
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 104 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country
domestic: cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 per 100 persons; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi
international: country code - 995; the Georgia-Russia fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Russia; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2015)
general assessment: requires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephone and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with three providers in 2017
domestic: teledensity of some 17 fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 104 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhchivan)
international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2017)
Internet country code.ge
Internet userstotal: 2,464,107
percent of population: 50.0% (July 2016 est.)
total: 7,720,502
percent of population: 78.2% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediaTbilisi-based Georgian Public Broadcaster (GPB) includes Channel 1, Channel 2, as well as the Batumi-based Adjara TV (also a part of GPB); all three are funded from the state budget; there are a number of independent commercial TV stations, including but not limited to Rustavi 2, Imedi, Maestro, Kavkasia, GDS, and TV1; the Georgian Orthodox Church also operates a satellite-based TV station called Unanimity; 26 regional TV broadcasters across Georgia are members of the Georgian Association of Regional Broadcasters (GARB) that seeks to strengthen the regional media's capacities and to distribute regional products; a nationwide digital switchover occurred in 2015; there are several dozen private radio stations; GPB operates 2 radio stations (2016)
3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; local relays of several international broadcasters had been available until late 2008 when their broadcasts were banned from FM frequencies (2010)


Railwaystotal: 1,363 km
broad gauge: 1,326 km 1.520-m gauge (1,251 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2014)
total: 2,944.3 km
broad gauge: 2,944.3 km 1.520-m gauge (approx. 1,767 km electrified) (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 19,109 km
paved: 19,109 km (includes 69 km of expressways) (2010)
total: 52,942 km
paved: 26,789 km
unpaved: 26,153 km (2006)
Pipelinesgas 1,596 km; oil 1,175 km (2013)
condensate 89 km; gas 3,890 km; oil 2,446 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Black Sea - Bat'umi, P'ot'i
major seaport(s): Baku (Baki) located on the Caspian Sea
Merchant marinetotal: 84
by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 24, oil tanker 2, other 57 (2017)
total: 311
by type: general cargo 48, oil tanker 48, other 215 (2017)
Airports22 (2013)
37 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2017)
total: 30
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 7
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
1 (2012)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 5
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 13
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 232,263
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 185,040 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 35
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,803,112
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 41,954,600 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix4L (2016)
4K (2016)


Military branchesGeorgian Armed Forces: Land Forces (include Air and Air Defense Forces); separatist Abkhazia Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Forces; separatist South Ossetia Armed Forces
note: Georgian naval forces have been incorporated into the Coast Guard, which is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs rather than the Ministry of Defense (2015)
Army, Navy, Air, and Air Defense Forces (2010)
Military service age and obligation18 to 27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary active duty military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months (2017)
18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; service obligation 18 months or 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.23% of GDP (2016)
2.34% of GDP (2015)
2.26% of GDP (2014)
2.53% of GDP (2013)
3.1% of GDP (2012)
3.64% of GDP (2016)
5.61% of GDP (2015)
4.56% of GDP (2014)
4.54% of GDP (2013)
4.66% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationalRussia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia
Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
Illicit drugslimited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 208,000 (displaced in the 1990s as a result of armed conflict in the breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; displaced in 2008 by fighting between Georgia and Russia over South Ossetia) (2016)
stateless persons: 250 (2016)
IDPs: 582,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2016)
stateless persons: 3,585 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook