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Finland vs. Sweden

Introduction

FinlandSweden
BackgroundFinland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.

Geography

FinlandSweden
LocationNorthern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates64 00 N, 26 00 E
62 00 N, 15 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km
total: 450,295 sq km
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana
almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
Land boundariestotal: 2,563 km
border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1,309 km
total: 2,211 km
border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1,666 km
Coastline1,250 km
3,218 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatecold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrainmostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 164 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m
mean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resourcestimber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 7.5%
arable land 7.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1%
forest: 72.9%
other: 19.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 7.5%
arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 1.1%
forest: 68.7%
other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land690 sq km (2012)
1,640 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssevere winters in the north
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issuesair pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelong boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe
Population distributionthe vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated
most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Demographics

FinlandSweden
Population5,518,371 (July 2017 est.)
9,960,487 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 16.43% (male 463,432/female 443,384)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 321,609/female 307,458)
25-54 years: 37.78% (male 1,064,427/female 1,020,285)
55-64 years: 13.29% (male 360,821/female 372,794)
65 years and over: 21.1% (male 506,342/female 657,819) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 17.43% (male 892,462/female 843,375)
15-24 years: 11.31% (male 581,025/female 545,971)
25-54 years: 39.42% (male 1,993,590/female 1,933,080)
55-64 years: 11.58% (male 578,942/female 574,479)
65 years and over: 20.26% (male 931,593/female 1,085,970) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 42.5 years
male: 40.9 years
female: 44.3 years (2017 est.)
total: 41.2 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.2 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.36% (2017 est.)
0.81% (2017 est.)
Birth rate10.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
12.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate10 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate2.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81 years
male: 78 years
female: 84.1 years (2017 est.)
total population: 82.1 years
male: 80.2 years
female: 84.2 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.75 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.88 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.2% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groupsFinn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Romani 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)
indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; most common countries of origin among immigrants: Finland, Syria, Iraq, Poland, Iran
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
11,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsLutheran 72%, Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.6%, unspecified 25.3% (2016 est.)
Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 63%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 17% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
<100 (2016 est.)
LanguagesFinnish (official) 88.3%, Swedish (official) 5.3%, Russian 1.4%, other 5% (2016 est.)
Swedish (official)
note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 19 years
male: 19 years
female: 20 years (2015)
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 20 years (2014)
Education expenditures7.2% of GDP (2013)
7.7% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 84.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 86.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 97.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationHELSINKI (capital) 1.18 million (2015)
STOCKHOLM (capital) 1.486 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures9.7% of GDP (2014)
11.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.01 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
4.11 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density4.53 beds/1,000 population (2014)
2.54 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.2% (2016)
20.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.8 years (2015 est.)
29.1 years (2015 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 57.9
youth dependency ratio: 25.9
elderly dependency ratio: 32
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 58.5
youth dependency ratio: 27.4
elderly dependency ratio: 31.1
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2015 est.)

Government

FinlandSweden
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
Independence6 December 1917 (from Russia)
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
National holidayIndependence Day, 6 December (1917)
National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
Constitutionhistory: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared “urgent” by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
"history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one-third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the ""Instrument of Government"") (2016)
"
Legal systemcivil law system based on the Swedish model
civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Juha SIPILA (since 28 May 2015)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 January 2012 with a runoff on 5 February 2012 (next to be held on 28 January (first round)and 11 February (second round) 2018); prime minister appointed by Parliament in 2015
election results: Sauli NIINISTO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 37%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.8%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.5%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMAKI (Vas) 5.5%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.5%; percent of vote in second round - NIINISTO 62.6%, HAAVISTO 37.4%; Juha SIPILA appointed prime minister
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 19 April 2015 (next to be held by April 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Kesk 21.1%, PS 17.6%, Kok 18.2%, SDP 16.5%, Vihr 8.5%, Vas 7.1%, SFP 4.9%, KD 3.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party/coalition - Kesk 49, PS 38, Kok 37, SDP 34, Vihr 15, Vas 12, SFP 9, KD 5, Aland Coalition 1
"description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 39 members in ""at-large"" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 September 2014 (next to be held on or before 9 September 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 31.0%, M 23.3%, SD 12.9%, MP 6.9%, C 6.1%, V 5.7%, L 5.4%, KD 4.6%, other 4.1%; seats by party - SAP 113, M 84, SD 49, MP 25, C 22, V 21, L 19, KD 16
"
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Board of Judges, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent
subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
Political parties and leadersAland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands)
Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]
Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
Finns Party or PS [Jussi HALLA-AHO]
Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO]
Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE]
Swedish People's Party or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]
Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]
Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR]
Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Isabella LOVIN and Gustav FRIDOLIN]
Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]
Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND]
Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]
Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Kirsti KAUPPI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Karin Ulrika OLOFSDOTTER (since 17 September 2017)
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Donna Ann WELTON (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David E. LINDWALL (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
Flag descriptionwhite with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
National anthem"name: ""Maamme"" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS
note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland
"
"name: ""Du Gamla, Du Fria"" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional
note: in use since 1844; also known as ""Sang till Norden"" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; ""Kungssangen"" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: blue, white
three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown
dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

FinlandSweden
Economy - overviewFinland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above that of Germany and Belgium. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. The government is open to, and actively takes steps to attract, foreign direct investment.

Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population.

Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012 to 2014. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio. The economy returned to growth in 2016, posting a 1.9% GDP increase before growing 2.8% in 2017.

Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In June 2016, the government enacted a Competitiveness Pact aimed at reducing labor costs, increasing hours worked, and introducing more flexibility into the wage bargaining system. The Government was also seeking to reform the health care system and social services. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.
Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade.

Sweden’s economy experienced modest growth in 2014-17, with real GDP growth above 3%, but continues to struggle with deflationary pressure.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$242.4 billion (2017 est.)
$235.9 billion (2016 est.)
$231.5 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$521.7 billion (2017 est.)
$506 billion (2016 est.)
$490.4 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.8% (2017 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
0% (2015 est.)
3.1% (2017 est.)
3.2% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$44,000 (2017 est.)
$43,000 (2016 est.)
$42,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$51,300 (2017 est.)
$50,600 (2016 est.)
$49,800 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.6%
industry: 27.2%
services: 70.2% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 33%
services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
15% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 21.5% (2015)
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24% (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.8% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
Labor force2.695 million (2017 est.)
5.361 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 4.5%
industry: 24%
services: 71.5% (2014)
agriculture: 2%
industry: 12%
services: 86% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate8.7% (2017 est.)
8.8% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index21.5 (2015)
26.8 (2008)
24.9 (2013)
25 (1992)
Budgetrevenues: $136.8 billion
expenditures: $140.7 billion
note: Central Government Budget (2017 est.)
revenues: $274.8 billion
expenditures: $269.9 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesmetals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate2.2% (2017 est.)
2.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsbarley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Exports$65.5 billion (2017 est.)
$58.32 billion (2016 est.)
$169.7 billion (2017 est.)
$151.4 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditieselectrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber
machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2012 est.)
Exports - partnersGermany 13.1%, Sweden 10.6%, US 7.6%, Netherlands 6.7%, Russia 5.7%, China 5.2%, UK 4.8% (2016)
Germany 10.6%, Norway 10.4%, US 7.3%, Denmark 7%, Finland 6.8%, UK 6%, Netherlands 5.4%, Belgium 4.7%, France 4.4% (2016)
Imports$62.82 billion (2017 est.)
$57.66 billion (2016 est.)
$154.8 billion (2017 est.)
$139.9 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfoodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partnersGermany 16.9%, Sweden 16.1%, Russia 11.1%, Netherlands 8.6% (2016)
Germany 18.8%, Netherlands 8.2%, Norway 7.8%, Denmark 7.6%, China 5.6%, UK 5.2%, Belgium 4.6%, Finland 4.5%, France 4.1% (2016)
Debt - external$544.7 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$524.7 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
$939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.906 (2017 est.)
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
8.442 (2017 est.)
8.5605 (2016 est.)
8.5605 (2015 est.)
8.4335 (2014 est.)
6.8612 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt63.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
63.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
39% of GDP (2017 est.)
41.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$10.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$922 million (2017 est.)
-$2.534 billion (2016 est.)
$21.4 billion (2017 est.)
$23.07 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$251.5 billion (2016 est.)
$541.9 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$110 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$114.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$405.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$390.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$169.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$153.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$495.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$479.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$133.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$NA (31 December 2015 est.)
$154.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$470.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.25% (31 December 2016)
0.3% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
"-0.5% (31 December 2016)
-0.35% (31 December 2015)
note:: the Discount rate was abolished in 2002, and replaced by a ""Reference rate"" with no bearing on monetary policy; the rate quoted here is the Reference rate
"
Commercial bank prime lending rate1.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.79% (31 December 2016 est.)
2% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.85% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$346.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$351.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$953.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$748.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$145.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$124 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
$339.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$273.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$176.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$152.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$395.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$321.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues54.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
50.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
0.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 22.5%
male: 25.4%
female: 19.7% (2015 est.)
total: 20.4%
male: 21.2%
female: 19.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 54.8%
government consumption: 22.8%
investment in fixed capital: 22.1%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 36.7%
imports of goods and services: -36.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 44.2%
government consumption: 25.4%
investment in fixed capital: 25.3%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 45.5%
imports of goods and services: -40.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving22.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

FinlandSweden
Electricity - production65.17 billion kWh (2015 est.)
154.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption79.07 billion kWh (2015 est.)
125.4 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports3.159 billion kWh (2016 est.)
26.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports22.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
14.29 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports220,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
393,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reservesNA cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production8 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption3.243 billion cu m (2015 est.)
1.25 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports2.713 billion cu m (2015 est.)
812 million cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity15.88 million kW (2015 est.)
39.67 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels44.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
6.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants20.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
40.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels17.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
24.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources23.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
30% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production303,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
418,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption200,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
320,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports167,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
336,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports147,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
220,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy43 million Mt (2016 est.)
62 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

FinlandSweden
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 457,300
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,328,371
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 7,366,100
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (July 2016 est.)
total: 12,362,191
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: digital fiber-optic, fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2015)
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2016)
Internet country code.fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax
.se
Internet userstotal: 4,822,132
percent of population: 87.7% (July 2016 est.)
total: 9,041,427
percent of population: 91.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediaa mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio (2017)
publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently (2008)

Transportation

FinlandSweden
Railwaystotal: 5,923 km
broad gauge: 5,923 km 1.524-m gauge (3,262 km electrified) (2015)
total: 14,127 km
standard gauge: 14,062 km 1.435-m gauge (12,322 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2016)
Roadwaystotal: 454,000 km
highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved)
urban roads: 26,000 km
private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)
total: 573,134 km (includes 2,050 km of expressways)
paved: 140,100 km
unpaved: 433,034 km
note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads (2016)
Waterways8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
2,052 km (2010)
Pipelinesgas transmission pipes 1,286 km; distribution pipes 1,932 km (2016)
gas 1,626 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma
major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
Merchant marinetotal: 267
by type: bulk carrier 7, container ship 1, general cargo 92, oil tanker 5, other 162 (2017)
total: 368
by type: general cargo 71, oil tanker 23, other 274 (2017)
Airports148 (2013)
231 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 74
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 14 (2017)
total: 149
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 74
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 71 (2013)
total: 82
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 77 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 73
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 9,972,333
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 713.484 million mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 8
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 219
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,623,930
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixOH (2016)
SE (2016)

Military

FinlandSweden
Military branchesFinnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat, includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2016)
Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2016)
Military service age and obligationall Finnish men are called-up for military service the year they turn 18; at 18, women may volunteer for military service; service obligation 6-12 months; individuals enter the reserve upon completing their initial obligation; military obligation to age 60 (2016)
18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, is due to be reinstated in 2018 (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.33% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.37% of GDP (2016)
1.29% of GDP (2015)
1.3% of GDP (2014)
1.41% of GDP (2013)
1.04% of GDP (2016)
1.09% of GDP (2015)
1.14% of GDP (2014)
1.13% of GDP (2013)
1.15% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

FinlandSweden
Disputes - internationalvarious groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
none
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 6,781 (Iraq) (2016)
stateless persons: 2,671 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 96,914 (Syria); 25,968 (Eritrea); 21,693 (Iraq); 22,548 (Somalia); 16,558 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 36,036 (2016); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia

Source: CIA Factbook