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El Salvador vs. Honduras

Demographics

El SalvadorHonduras
Population
6,187,271 (July 2018 est.)
9,182,766 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 25.3% (male 802,813 /female 762,852)
15-24 years: 19.88% (male 619,550 /female 610,725)
25-54 years: 39.8% (male 1,143,226 /female 1,319,138)
55-64 years: 7.32% (male 198,513 /female 254,640)
65 years and over: 7.69% (male 208,817 /female 266,997) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 32.37% (male 1,518,526 /female 1,453,891)
15-24 years: 20.88% (male 977,899 /female 939,490)
25-54 years: 37.07% (male 1,724,257 /female 1,679,694)
55-64 years: 5.27% (male 229,066 /female 255,169)
65 years and over: 4.41% (male 174,771 /female 230,003) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 27.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 26.1 years
female: 29.1 years
total: 23.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 23 years
female: 23.7 years
Population growth rate
0.25% (2018 est.)
1.56% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
16.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
22 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-7.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 75.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 71.8 years
female: 78.6 years
total population: 71.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 69.6 years
female: 73 years
Total fertility rate
1.84 children born/woman (2018 est.)
2.61 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.6% (2018 est.)
0.3% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran
noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran
Ethnic groups
mestizo 86.3%, white 12.7%, Amerindian 0.2% (includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), black 0.1%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
25,000 (2018 est.)
23,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 36%, other 2%, none 12% (2014 est.)
Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 41%, atheist 1%, other 2%, none 9% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<1000 (2018 est.)
<1000 (2018 est.)
Languages
Spanish (official), Nawat (among some Amerindians)
Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.1%
male: 90.3%
female: 86.3% (2016 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 89%
female: 88.9% (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2016)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 11 years (2014)
Education expenditures
3.8% of GDP (2017)
6% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 72.7% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 57.7% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.75% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 86.5% of population
total: 93.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 13.5% of population
total: 6.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 91.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 8.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 82.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 60% of population (2015 est.)
total: 75% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 17.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 40% of population (2015 est.)
total: 25% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 86.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 77.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 82.6% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 22.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 17.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.106 million SAN SALVADOR (capital) (2019)
1.403 million TEGUCIGALPA (capital), 876,000 San Pedro Sula (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
46 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
65 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
5% (2014)
7.1% (2012)
Health expenditures
7% (2016)
7.6% (2015)
Physicians density
1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
0.31 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2014)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
24.6% (2016)
21.4% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
20.8 years (2008 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

20.4 years (2011/12 est.)

note: median age a first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. It is well into its demographic transition, experiencing slower population growth, a decline in its number of youths, and the gradual aging of its population. The increased use of family planning has substantially lowered El Salvador's fertility rate, from approximately 6 children per woman in the 1970s to replacement level today. A 2008 national family planning survey showed that female sterilization remained the most common contraception method in El Salvador - its sterilization rate is among the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean - but that the use of injectable contraceptives is growing. Fertility differences between rich and poor and urban and rural women are narrowing.

Salvadorans fled during the 1979 to 1992 civil war mainly to the United States but also to Canada and to neighboring Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Emigration to the United States increased again in the 1990s and 2000s as a result of deteriorating economic conditions, natural disasters (Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and earthquakes in 2001), and family reunification. At least 20% of El Salvador's population lives abroad. The remittances they send home account for close to 20% of GDP, are the second largest source of external income after exports, and have helped reduce poverty.

Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and has one of the world's highest murder rates. More than half of the population lives in poverty and per capita income is one of the lowest in the region. Poverty rates are higher among rural and indigenous people and in the south, west, and along the eastern border than in the north and central areas where most of Honduras' industries and infrastructure are concentrated. The increased productivity needed to break Honduras' persistent high poverty rate depends, in part, on further improvements in educational attainment. Although primary-school enrollment is near 100%, educational quality is poor, the drop-out rate and grade repetition remain high, and teacher and school accountability is low.

Honduras' population growth rate has slowed since the 1990s, but it remains high at nearly 2% annually because the birth rate averages approximately three children per woman and more among rural, indigenous, and poor women. Consequently, Honduras' young adult population - ages 15 to 29 - is projected to continue growing rapidly for the next three decades and then stabilize or slowly shrink. Population growth and limited job prospects outside of agriculture will continue to drive emigration. Remittances represent about a fifth of GDP.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
72% (2014)
73.2% (2011/12)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 56.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 44.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 12.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 59.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 52.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 14.2 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook