El Salvador vs. Guatemala


El SalvadorGuatemala
Population6,528,135 (July 2021 est.)17,422,821 (July 2021 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.83% (male 857,003/female 817,336)

15-24 years: 18.82% (male 619,368/female 600,501)

25-54 years: 40.51% (male 1,221,545/female 1,404,163)

55-64 years: 7.23% (male 198,029/female 270,461)

65 years and over: 7.6% (male 214,717/female 277,979) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 33.68% (male 2,944,145/female 2,833,432)

15-24 years: 19.76% (male 1,705,730/female 1,683,546)

25-54 years: 36.45% (male 3,065,933/female 3,186,816)

55-64 years: 5.41% (male 431,417/female 496,743)

65 years and over: 4.7% (male 363,460/female 442,066) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.7 years

male: 26.2 years

female: 29.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 23.2 years

male: 22.6 years

female: 23.8 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate0.67% (2021 est.)1.62% (2021 est.)
Birth rate18.22 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)22.79 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate5.91 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)4.94 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-5.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.73 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 12.38 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 14.03 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 26.81 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 30.23 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 23.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.11 years

male: 71.6 years

female: 78.79 years (2021 est.)
total population: 72.63 years

male: 70.59 years

female: 74.77 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate2.07 children born/woman (2021 est.)2.67 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.5% (2020 est.)0.2% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Salvadoran(s)

adjective: Salvadoran
noun: Guatemalan(s)

adjective: Guatemalan
Ethnic groupsMestizo 86.3%, White 12.7%, Amerindian 0.2% (includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), Black 0.1%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) 56%, Maya 41.7%, Xinca (Indigenous, non-Maya) 1.8%, African descent 0.2%, Garifuna (mixed West and Central African, Island Carib, and Arawak) 0.1%, foreign 0.2% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS25,000 (2020 est.)33,000 (2020 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 50%, Protestant 36%, other 2%, none 12% (2014 est.)Roman Catholic 41.7%, Evangelical 38.8%, other 2.7%, atheist 0.1%, none 13.8%, unspecified 2.9% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths<1000 (2020 est.)1,200 <1,000 (2020 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official), Nawat (among some Amerindians)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Spanish (official) 69.9%, Maya languages 29.7% (Q'eqchi' 8.3%, K'iche 7.8%, Mam 4.4%, Kaqchikel 3%, Q'anjob'al 1.2%, Poqomchi' 1%, other 4%), other 0.4% (includes Xinca and Garifuna); note - the 2003 Law of National Languages officially recognized 23 indigenous languages, including 21 Maya languages, Xinca, and Garifuna (2018 est.)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 88.5%

male: 90.6%

female: 86.7% (2017)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 81.5%

male: 87.4%

female: 76.3% (2015)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever
degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 12 years (2018)
total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 11 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.6% of GDP (2018)3.2% of GDP (2019)
Urbanizationurban population: 74.1% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.33% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 52.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.59% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 92.2% of population

total: 97.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 7.8% of population

total: 2.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 97.9% of population

rural: 92.2% of population

total: 95.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.1% of population

rural: 7.8% of population

total: 4.8% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 94.7% of population

total: 98.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 5.3% of population

total: 1.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 91.4% of population

rural: 61.7% of population

total: 76.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 8.6% of population

rural: 38.3% of population

total: 23.3% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population1.107 million SAN SALVADOR (capital) (2021)2.983 million GUATEMALA CITY (capital) (2021)
Maternal mortality rate46 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)95 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5% (2014)12.4% (2014/15)
Health expenditures7.1% (2018)5.7% (2018)
Physicians density1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2016)0.36 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density1.2 beds/1,000 population (2017)0.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate24.6% (2016)21.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.8 years (2008 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
20.6 years (2014/15 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49
Demographic profile

El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. It is well into its demographic transition, experiencing slower population growth, a decline in its number of youths, and the gradual aging of its population. The increased use of family planning has substantially lowered El Salvador's fertility rate, from approximately 6 children per woman in the 1970s to replacement level today. A 2008 national family planning survey showed that female sterilization remained the most common contraception method in El Salvador - its sterilization rate is among the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean - but that the use of injectable contraceptives is growing. Fertility differences between rich and poor and urban and rural women are narrowing.

Salvadorans fled during the 1979 to 1992 civil war mainly to the United States but also to Canada and to neighboring Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Emigration to the United States increased again in the 1990s and 2000s as a result of deteriorating economic conditions, natural disasters (Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and earthquakes in 2001), and family reunification. At least 20% of El Salvador's population lives abroad. The remittances they send home account for close to 20% of GDP, are the second largest source of external income after exports, and have helped reduce poverty.

Guatemala is a predominantly poor country that struggles in several areas of health and development, including infant, child, and maternal mortality, malnutrition, literacy, and contraceptive awareness and use. The country's large indigenous population is disproportionately affected. Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America and has the highest fertility rate in Latin America. It also has the highest population growth rate in Latin America, which is likely to continue because of its large reproductive-age population and high birth rate. Almost half of Guatemala's population is under age 19, making it the youngest population in Latin America. Guatemala's total fertility rate has slowly declined during the last few decades due in part to limited government-funded health programs. However, the birth rate is still more close to three children per woman and is markedly higher among its rural and indigenous populations.

Guatemalans have a history of emigrating legally and illegally to Mexico, the United States, and Canada because of a lack of economic opportunity, political instability, and natural disasters. Emigration, primarily to the United States, escalated during the 1960 to 1996 civil war and accelerated after a peace agreement was signed. Thousands of Guatemalans who fled to Mexico returned after the war, but labor migration to southern Mexico continues.

Contraceptive prevalence rate71.9% (2014)60.6% (2014/15)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 54.4

youth dependency ratio: 41.1

elderly dependency ratio: 13.4

potential support ratio: 7.5 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 62.3

youth dependency ratio: 54.1

elderly dependency ratio: 8.2

potential support ratio: 12.2 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook