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El Salvador vs. Guatemala

Demographics

El SalvadorGuatemala
Population
6,187,271 (July 2018 est.)
16,581,273 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 25.3% (male 802,813 /female 762,852)
15-24 years: 19.88% (male 619,550 /female 610,725)
25-54 years: 39.8% (male 1,143,226 /female 1,319,138)
55-64 years: 7.32% (male 198,513 /female 254,640)
65 years and over: 7.69% (male 208,817 /female 266,997) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 34.55% (male 2,919,281 /female 2,810,329)
15-24 years: 20.23% (male 1,688,900 /female 1,665,631)
25-54 years: 35.47% (male 2,878,075 /female 3,002,920)
55-64 years: 5.28% (male 407,592 /female 468,335)
65 years and over: 4.46% (male 336,377 /female 403,833) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 27.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 26.1 years
female: 29.1 years
total: 22.5 years (2018 est.)
male: 22 years
female: 23.1 years
Population growth rate
0.25% (2018 est.)
1.72% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
16.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
24.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-7.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 25.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 75.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 71.8 years
female: 78.6 years
total population: 71.8 years (2018 est.)
male: 69.8 years
female: 73.9 years
Total fertility rate
1.84 children born/woman (2018 est.)
2.87 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.6% (2018 est.)
0.4% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran
noun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan
Ethnic groups
mestizo 86.3%, white 12.7%, Amerindian 0.2% (includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), black 0.1%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) 56%, Maya 41.7%, Xinca (indigenous, non-Maya) 1.8%, African descent .2%, Garifuna (mixed West and Central African, Island Carib, and Arawak) .1%, foreign .2% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
25,000 (2018 est.)
47,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 36%, other 2%, none 12% (2014 est.)
Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Maya
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<1000 (2018 est.)
2,200 (2018 est.)
Languages
Spanish (official), Nawat (among some Amerindians)
Spanish (official) 69.9%, Maya languages 29.7% (Q'eqchi' 8.3%, K'iche 7.8%, Mam 4.4%, Kaqchikel 3%, Q'anjob'al 1.2%, Poqomchi' 1%, other 4%), other 0.4% (includes Xinca and Garifuna) (2018 est.)

note: the 2003 Law of National Languages officially recognized 23 indigenous languages, including 21 Maya languages, Xinca, and Garifuna

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.1%
male: 90.3%
female: 86.3% (2016 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 76.3% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2016)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2014)
Education expenditures
3.8% of GDP (2017)
2.8% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 72.7% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 51.4% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.68% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 86.5% of population
total: 93.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 13.5% of population
total: 6.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 98.4% of population
rural: 86.8% of population
total: 92.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.6% of population
rural: 13.2% of population
total: 7.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 82.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 60% of population (2015 est.)
total: 75% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 17.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 40% of population (2015 est.)
total: 25% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 49.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 63.9% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 22.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 50.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 36.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.106 million SAN SALVADOR (capital) (2019)
2.891 million GUATEMALA CITY (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
46 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
95 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
5% (2014)
12.4% (2015)
Health expenditures
7% (2016)
5.7% (2015)
Physicians density
1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
0.36 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2014)
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
24.6% (2016)
21.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
20.8 years (2008 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

21.2 years (2014/15 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. It is well into its demographic transition, experiencing slower population growth, a decline in its number of youths, and the gradual aging of its population. The increased use of family planning has substantially lowered El Salvador's fertility rate, from approximately 6 children per woman in the 1970s to replacement level today. A 2008 national family planning survey showed that female sterilization remained the most common contraception method in El Salvador - its sterilization rate is among the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean - but that the use of injectable contraceptives is growing. Fertility differences between rich and poor and urban and rural women are narrowing.

Salvadorans fled during the 1979 to 1992 civil war mainly to the United States but also to Canada and to neighboring Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Emigration to the United States increased again in the 1990s and 2000s as a result of deteriorating economic conditions, natural disasters (Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and earthquakes in 2001), and family reunification. At least 20% of El Salvador's population lives abroad. The remittances they send home account for close to 20% of GDP, are the second largest source of external income after exports, and have helped reduce poverty.

Guatemala is a predominantly poor country that struggles in several areas of health and development, including infant, child, and maternal mortality, malnutrition, literacy, and contraceptive awareness and use. The country's large indigenous population is disproportionately affected. Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America and has the highest fertility rate in Latin America. It also has the highest population growth rate in Latin America, which is likely to continue because of its large reproductive-age population and high birth rate. Almost half of Guatemala's population is under age 19, making it the youngest population in Latin America. Guatemala's total fertility rate has slowly declined during the last few decades due in part to limited government-funded health programs. However, the birth rate is still more close to three children per woman and is markedly higher among its rural and indigenous populations.

Guatemalans have a history of emigrating legally and illegally to Mexico, the United States, and Canada because of a lack of economic opportunity, political instability, and natural disasters. Emigration, primarily to the United States, escalated during the 1960 to 1996 civil war and accelerated after a peace agreement was signed. Thousands of Guatemalans who fled to Mexico returned after the war, but labor migration to southern Mexico continues.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
72% (2014)
60.6% (2014/15)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 56.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 44.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 12.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 68.7 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 61.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook