Home

Egypt vs. Sudan

Economy

EgyptSudan
Economy - overviewOccupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK.

Cairo from 2004 to 2008 pursued business climate reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions and limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent, a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 caused economic growth to slow significantly, hurting tourism, manufacturing, and other sectors and pushing up unemployment, which remains above 10%.

Weak growth and limited foreign exchange earnings have made public finances unsustainable, leaving authorities dependent on expensive borrowing for deficit finance and on Gulf allies to help cover the import bill. In 2015-16, higher levels of foreign investment contributed to a slight rebound in GDP growth after a particularly depressed post-revolution period. In 2016, Cairo enacted a value-added tax, implemented fuel and electricity subsidy cuts, and floated its currency, which led to a sharp depreciation of the pound and corresponding inflation. In November 2016, the IMF approved a $12 billion, three-year loan for Egypt and disbursed the first $2.75 billion tranche.
Sudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

Sudan was subject to comprehensive US sanctions, which were lifted in October 2017. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining and agriculture, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force.

Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but fell to about 35% per year in 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.199 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.152 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.104 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$186.8 billion (2017 est.)
$180.1 billion (2016 est.)
$174.7 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.1% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2015 est.)
3.7% (2017 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$13,000 (2017 est.)
$12,800 (2016 est.)
$12,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$4,600 (2017 est.)
$4,500 (2016 est.)
$4,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 11.9%
industry: 33.1%
services: 55.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 39.6%
industry: 2.6%
services: 57.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line25.2% (2011 est.)
46.5% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.6% (2008)
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)23.5% (2017 est.)
10.2% (2016 est.)
26.9% (2017 est.)
17.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force29.95 million (2017 est.)
11.92 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 29.2%
industry: 23.5%
services: 47.3% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate12.2% (2017 est.)
12.7% (2016 est.)
19.6% (2017 est.)
20.6% (2016 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $35.54 billion
expenditures: $55.09 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $8.198 billion
expenditures: $13.4 billion (2017 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, milling
Industrial production growth rate3.5% (2017 est.)
2.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum Arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; animal feed, sheep and other livestock
Exports$23.53 billion (2017 est.)
$20.02 billion (2016 est.)
$3.808 billion (2017 est.)
$3.094 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiescrude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar
Exports - partnersUAE 12.5%, Saudi Arabia 7.7%, Italy 6.5%, Turkey 6.3%, UK 4.6%, US 4.5% (2016)
UAE 42.9%, Saudi Arabia 19.5%, Egypt 15.9% (2016)
Imports$53.02 billion (2017 est.)
$56.71 billion (2016 est.)
$8.649 billion (2017 est.)
$7.325 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partnersChina 12.9%, Germany 8.7%, US 5.3%, Italy 4.5%, Turkey 4.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2016)
UAE 15.4%, India 11.2%, Egypt 10.4%, Saudi Arabia 9.2%, Turkey 8.9%, Japan 5% (2016)
Debt - external$76.31 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$62.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$53.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$51.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesEgyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
18.05 (2017 est.)
10.07 (2016 est.)
10.07 (2015 est.)
7.7133 (2014 est.)
7.08 (2013 est.)
Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
6.72 (2017 est.)
6.14 (2016 est.)
6.14 (2015 est.)
6.03 (2014 est.)
5.74 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
calendar year
Public debt104.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
111.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover central government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
54.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
65.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$34.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$504.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$168.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$19.83 billion (2017 est.)
-$19.83 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.317 billion (2017 est.)
-$5.126 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$332.3 billion (2016 est.)
$119 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$103.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$97.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$55.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$70.08 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$61.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Stock of domestic credit$194.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$178.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.63 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$21.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$43.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$34.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.64 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$196.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$146.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$19.53 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
6.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-9.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 31.3%
male: 28.4%
female: 37.6% (2015 est.)
total: 20%
male: 16%
female: 32% (2009 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 79.2%
government consumption: 12.2%
investment in fixed capital: 17.3%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 13.5%
imports of goods and services: -23.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 77.3%
government consumption: 6.1%
investment in fixed capital: 18.5%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 8.9%
imports of goods and services: -11.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving9.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
9.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
11.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook