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Denmark vs. Germany

Introduction

DenmarkGermany
BackgroundOnce the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the EU's Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union, European defense cooperation, and issues concerning certain justice and home affairs.
As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.

Geography

DenmarkGermany
LocationNorthern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes several major islands (Sjaelland, Fyn, and Bornholm)
Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Geographic coordinates56 00 N, 10 00 E
51 00 N, 9 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 43,094 sq km
land: 42,434 sq km
water: 660 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
total: 357,022 sq km
land: 348,672 sq km
water: 8,350 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts
three times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundariestotal: 140 km
border countries (1): Germany 140 km
total: 3,714 km
border countries (9): Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 467 km, Switzerland 348 km
Coastline7,314 km
2,389 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Terrainlow and flat to gently rolling plains
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 34 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Mollehoj/Ejer Bavnehoj 171 m
mean elevation: 263 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.5 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, fish, arable land, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand
coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 63.4%
arable land 58.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 4.4%
forest: 12.9%
other: 23.7%
note: highest percentage of arable land for any country in the world (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 48%
arable land 34.1%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 13.3%
forest: 31.8%
other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land4,350 sq km (2012)
6,500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
flooding
Environment - current issuesair pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides
emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notecontrols Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen
strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea; most major rivers in Germany - the Rhine, Weser, Oder, Elbe - flow northward; the Danube, which originates in the Black Forest, flows eastward
Population distributionwith excellent access to the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Baltic Sea, population centers tend to be along coastal areas, particularly in Copenhagen and the eastern side of the country's mainland
most populous country in Europe; a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations, particularly in the far western part of the industrial state of North Rhine-Westphalia

Demographics

DenmarkGermany
Population5,605,948 (July 2017 est.)
80,594,017 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 16.41% (male 472,106/female 447,997)
15-24 years: 13.08% (male 374,379/female 358,927)
25-54 years: 38.76% (male 1,080,118/female 1,092,503)
55-64 years: 12.52% (male 349,091/female 352,903)
65 years and over: 19.23% (male 483,519/female 594,405) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 12.82% (male 5,304,341/female 5,028,776)
15-24 years: 10.09% (male 4,145,486/female 3,986,302)
25-54 years: 40.45% (male 16,467,975/female 16,133,964)
55-64 years: 14.58% (male 5,834,179/female 5,913,322)
65 years and over: 22.06% (male 7,822,221/female 9,957,451) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 42.2 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 43.2 years (2017 est.)
total: 47.1 years
male: 46 years
female: 48.2 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.22% (2017 est.)
-0.16% (2017 est.)
Birth rate10.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
8.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
11.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 79.5 years
male: 77.1 years
female: 82.1 years (2017 est.)
total population: 80.8 years
male: 78.5 years
female: 83.3 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.73 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.45 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish
noun: German(s)
adjective: German
Ethnic groupsDanish (includes Greenlandic (who are predominantly Inuit) and Faroese) 86.7%, Turkish 1.1%, other 12.2% (largest groups are Polish, Syrian, German, Iraqi, and Romanian)
note: data represent population by ancestry (2017 est.)
German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Polish, Italian, Romanian, Syrian, and Greek)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA (2016 est.)
ReligionsEvangelical Lutheran (official) 76%, Muslim 4%, other (denominations of less than 1% each, includes Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Serbian Orthodox Christian, Jewish, Baptist, and Buddhist) 20% (2017 est.)
Roman Catholic 29%, Protestant 27%, Muslim 4.4%, Orthodox Christian 1.9%, other 1.7%, none or members of unrecorded religious groups 36% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesDanish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language
German (official)
note: Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 19 years
male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2014)
total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2015)
Education expenditures8.6% of GDP (2013)
4.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 88% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.58% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 75.7% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.12% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationCOPENHAGEN (capital) 1.268 million (2015)
BERLIN (capital) 3.563 million; Hamburg 1.831 million; Munich 1.438 million; Cologne 1.037 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures10.8% of GDP (2014)
11.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.65 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
4.13 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
8.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate19.7% (2016)
22.3% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth29.1 years (2015 est.)
29.4 years (2015 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 56
youth dependency ratio: 26.3
elderly dependency ratio: 29.7
potential support ratio: 3.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.1
youth dependency ratio: 19.9
elderly dependency ratio: 32.1
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)

Government

DenmarkGermany
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark
etymology: the name derives from the words ""Dane(s)"" and ""mark""; the latter referring to a march (borderland) or forest
"
"conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Reich
etymology: the Gauls (Celts) of Western Europe may have referred to the newly arriving Germanic tribes who settled in neighboring areas east of the Rhine during the first centuries B.C. as ""Germani,"" a term the Romans adopted as ""Germania""; the native designation ""Deutsch"" comes from the Old High German ""diutisc"" meaning ""of the people""
"
Government typeparliamentary constitutional monarchy
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Copenhagen
geographic coordinates: 55 40 N, 12 35 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: applies to continental Denmark only, not to its North Atlantic components
name: Berlin
geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisionsmetropolitan Denmark - 5 regions (regioner, singular - region); Hovedstaden (Capital), Midtjylland (Central Jutland), Nordjylland (North Jutland), Sjaelland (Zealand), Syddanmark (Southern Denmark)
note: an extensive local government reform merged 271 municipalities into 98 and 13 counties into five regions, effective 1 January 2007
16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat), while Hamburg prides itself on being a Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt)
Independenceca. 965 (unified and Christianized under HARALD I Gormson); 5 June 1849 (became a parliamentary constitutional monarchy)
18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)
National holidayConstitution Day, 5 June (1849); note - closest equivalent to a national holiday
German Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 5 June 1953
amendments: proposed by the Folketing with consent of the government; passage requires approval by the next Folketing following a general election, approval by simple majority vote of at least 40% of voters in a referendum, and assent by the chief of state; changed several times, last in 2009 (Danish Act of Succession) (2016)
history: previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage and enactment into law require two-thirds majority vote by both the Bundesrat (upper house) and the Bundestag (lower house) of Parliament; articles including those on basic human rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law; judicial review of legislative acts
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal; age 16 for some state and municipal elections
Executive branchchief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born on 26 May 1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Lars LOKKE RASMUSSEN (since 28 June 2015)
cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
chief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017; inaugurated 22 March 2017)
head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 12 February 2017 (next to be held February 2022); chancellor appointed by the president following indirect election - by the Federal Parliament - for a 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 17 December 2013 (next to be held following the general election, 24 September 2017)
election results: Frank-Walter STEINMEIER elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 931, Christopher BUTTERWEGGE (The Left) 128, Albrecht GLASER (Alternative for Germany AfD) 42, Alexander HOLD (BVB/FW) 25, Engelbert SONNEBORN (Pirates) 10; Angela MERKEL (CDU) reelected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 462 for, 150 against, 49 abstentions
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral People's Assembly or Folketing (179 seats, including 2 representing Greenland and 2 representing the Faroe Islands; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms unless the Folketing is dissolved earlier)
elections: last held on 18 June 2015 (next to be held by June 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 26.3%, DF 21.1%, V 19.5%, EL 7.8%, LA 7.5%, AP 4.8%, SLP 4.6%, SF 4.2%, C 3.4%, other 0.9%; seats by party - SDP 47, DF 37, V 34, EL 14, LA 13, AP 9, SLP 8, SF 7, C 6; note - does not include each of the 2 seats from Greenland and the Faroe Islands
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments) and the Federal Diet or Bundestag (709 seats - total seats can vary each electoral term; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: Bundestag - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held in 2021); most postwar German governments have been coalitions; note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
election results: Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 32.9%, SPD 20.5%, AfD 12.6%, FDP 10.8%, The Left 9.2%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.9%, other 5%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 246, SPD 153, FDP 80, The Left 69, Alliance '90/Greens 67
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 18 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Minister of Justice with the advice of the Judicial Appointments Council, a 6-member independent body of judges and lawyers; judges appointed for life with retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Special Court of Indictment and Revision; 2 High Courts; Maritime and Commercial Court; county courts
highest court(s): Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges including the court president, vice-presidents, presiding judges, and other judges, and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels; Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated States and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president of Germany; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68
subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 German states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts
Political parties and leadersThe Alternative A or AP [Uffe ELBAEK]
Conservative People's Party or DKF or C [Soren PAPE POULSEN]
Danish People's Party or DF or O [Kristian THULESEN DAHL]
Liberal Alliance or LA [Anders SAMUELSEN]
Liberal Party (Venstre) or V [Lars LOKKE RASMUSSEN]
Red-Green Alliance (Unity List) or EL [collective leadership, spokesperson Pernille SKIPPER]
Social Democrats or A [Mette FREDERIKSEN]
Social Liberal Party or B [Morten OSTERGAARD]
Socialist People's Party or SF [Pia OLSEN DYHR]
Alliance '90/Greens [Cem OEZDEMIR and Simone PETER]
Alternative for Germany or AfD [Alexander GAULAND and Joerg MEUTHEN]
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]
Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]
Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
The Left or Die Linke [Katja KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Martin SCHULZ]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Danish Employers or DA [Jacob HOLBRAAD]
Confederation of Danish Industries or DI [Karsten DYBVAD]
Confederation of Danish Labor Unions or LO [Lizette RISGAARD]
DaneAge Association [Bjarne HASTRUP]
Danish Shipowners' Association [Anne STEFFENSEN]
Danish Bankers Association [Ulrik NODGAARD]
Danish Society for Nature Conservation or DN [Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN]
other: environmental groups; humanitarian relief; development assistance; human rights NGOs
business associations and employers' organizations
trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Lars Gert LOSE (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Hans Peter WITTIG (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Laura LOCHMAN (since 2 January 2017)
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen 0
mailing address: Unit 5280, DPO, AE 09716
telephone: [45] 33 41 71 00
FAX: [45] 35 43 02 23
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kent LOGSDON (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Pariser Platz 2
mailing address: Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin
telephone: [49] (30) 8305-0
FAX: [49] (30) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Flag descriptionred with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side; the banner is referred to as the Dannebrog (Danish flag) and is one of the oldest national flags in the world; traditions as to the origin of the flag design vary, but the best known is a legend that the banner fell from the sky during an early-13th century battle; caught up by the Danish king before it ever touched the earth, this heavenly talisman inspired the royal army to victory; in actuality, the flag may derive from a crusade banner or ensign
note: the shifted cross design element was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field
National anthem"name: ""Der er et yndigt land"" (There is a Lovely Land); ""Kong Christian"" (King Christian)
lyrics/music: Adam Gottlob OEHLENSCHLAGER/Hans Ernst KROYER; Johannes EWALD/unknown
note: Denmark has two national anthems with equal status; ""Der er et yndigt land,"" adopted 1844, is a national anthem, while ""Kong Christian,"" adopted 1780, serves as both a national and royal anthem; ""Kong Christian"" is also known as ""Kong Christian stod ved hojen mast"" (King Christian Stood by the Lofty Mast) and ""Kongesangen"" (The King's Anthem); within Denmark, the royal anthem is played only when royalty is present and is usually followed by the national anthem; when royalty is not present, only the national anthem is performed; outside Denmark, the royal anthem is played, unless the national anthem is requested
"
"name: ""Das Lied der Deutschen"" (Song of the Germans)
lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN
note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as ""Deutschlandlied"" (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, ""Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles"" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion, mute swan; national colors: red, white
eagle; national colors: black, red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Denmark
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Economy

DenmarkGermany
Economy - overviewThis thoroughly modern market economy features a high-tech agricultural sector, advanced industry with world-leading firms in pharmaceuticals, maritime shipping, and in renewable energy, and a high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food, oil, and gas and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus, but depends on imports of raw materials for the manufacturing sector. Danes enjoy a high standard of living, and the Danish economy is characterized by extensive government welfare measures and an equitable distribution of income. An aging population will be a long-term issue.

Denmark is a member of the EU; Danish legislation and regulations conform to EU standards on almost all issues. Despite previously meeting the criteria to join the European Economic and Monetary Union, Denmark has negotiated an opt-out with the EU and is not required to adopt the euro. Within the EU, Denmark is among the strongest supporters of trade liberalization.

Denmark is experiencing a modest economic expansion. The economy grew by 1.7% in 2016 and an estimated 1.9% in 2017. The expansion is expected to continue at similar rates in 2018. The labor market has strengthened since 2013, and unemployment stood at 5.8% in 2017, based on the national measure. Productivity growth was significantly below the OECD average from the mid-1990s until 2011, but has increased in recent years. Improvement in productivity is needed to ensure continued growth.

Denmark maintained a healthy budget surplus for many years up to 2008, but the global financial crisis swung the budget balance into deficit. The 2017 deficit was 0.6%. The government projects a lower deficit in 2018, and public debt (EMU debt) as a share of GDP is expected to decline. In 2015, household indebtedness remained relatively high at more than 292% of net disposable income, while household net worth - from private pension schemes and other assets - amounted to 497% of net disposable income.
The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.

Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II. The German Government introduced a minimum wage in 2015 that increased to $9.79 (8.84 euros) in January 2017.

Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2017 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.7%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016, though the target was already reached in 2012.

The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros during 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power largely with renewable energy, which accounted for 29.5% of gross electricity consumption in 2016, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production. Domestic consumption, bolstered by low energy prices and a weak euro, and exports are likely to drive German GDP growth again in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$285.5 billion (2017 est.)
$280.1 billion (2016 est.)
$275.4 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$4.15 trillion (2017 est.)
$4.066 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.992 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.9% (2017 est.)
1.7% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
2.1% (2017 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$49,600 (2017 est.)
$49,100 (2016 est.)
$48,700 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$50,200 (2017 est.)
$49,300 (2016 est.)
$48,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 1.1%
industry: 23.7%
services: 75.2% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 0.6%
industry: 30.1%
services: 69.3%
(2017 est.)
Population below poverty line13.4% (2011 est.)
16.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 28.7% (2007)
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1% (2017 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force2.998 million (2017 est.)
45.9 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 2.4%
industry: 18.3%
services: 79.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 1.4%
industry: 24.2%
services: 74.3% (2016)
Unemployment rate5.8% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2017 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index28.8 (2015 est.)
25.7 (2005 est.)
27 (2006)
30 (1994)
Budgetrevenues: $173.5 billion
expenditures: $175.5 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $1.598 trillion
expenditures: $1.573 trillion (2017 est.)
Industriesiron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Industrial production growth rate2% (2017 est.)
1.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsbarley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish
potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry
Exports$113.2 billion (2017 est.)
$103.6 billion (2016 est.)
$1.401 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.322 trillion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, pharmaceuticals, furniture and design, windmills
motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products
Exports - partnersGermany 16.3%, Sweden 11.9%, US 8.2%, UK 6.5%, Norway 6.1%, Netherlands 5.1%, China 4.4% (2016)
US 8.9%, France 8.4%, UK 7.1%, Netherlands 6.5%, China 6.4%, Italy 5.1%, Austria 5%, Poland 4.5%, Switzerland 4.2% (2016)
Imports$94.61 billion (2017 est.)
$86.39 billion (2016 est.)
$1.104 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.022 trillion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods
machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products
Imports - partnersGermany 21.4%, Sweden 12.2%, Netherlands 8%, China 7.3%, Norway 5.5%, UK 4.2% (2016)
Netherlands 13.3%, China 7.3%, France 7.3%, Belgium 6.1%, Italy 5.5%, Poland 5.2%, Czech Republic 4.7%, US 4.6%, Switzerland 4.4%, Austria 4.4%, UK 4.1% (2016)
Debt - external$484.8 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$519.8 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
$5.326 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$5.21 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesDanish kroner (DKK) per US dollar -
6.586 (2017 est.)
6.7309 (2016 est.)
6.7309 (2015 est.)
6.7236 (2014 est.)
5.6125 (2013 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.906 (2017 est.)
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt35.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
65.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
68.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euro; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$68.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$64.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$185.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$173.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$23.61 billion (2017 est.)
$24.09 billion (2016 est.)
$296 billion (2017 est.)
$290.4 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$324.1 billion (2016 est.)
$3.652 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$145.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$147.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.455 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.391 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$248 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$235.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.074 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.981 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$224.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$179.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$231.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.716 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.739 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.936 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.05% (2016)
0.05% (2015)
0.25% (31 December 2016)
0.3% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate2.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.8% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$739.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$637.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.766 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.433 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$191.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$159.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.312 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.016 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$201.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$173.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.282 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.908 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues53.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-0.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 12%
male: 13.1%
female: 10.9% (2016 est.)
total: 7.2%
male: 7.9%
female: 6.5% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 48%
government consumption: 25.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 54.5%
imports of goods and services: -47.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 53.7%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
investment in inventories: -1%
exports of goods and services: 47.3%
imports of goods and services: -40% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving27.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

DenmarkGermany
Electricity - production27.34 billion kWh (2015 est.)
588.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption31.41 billion kWh (2015 est.)
514.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports9.919 billion kWh (2016 est.)
78.86 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports14.98 billion kWh (2016 est.)
28.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production140,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
46,590 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports77,950 bbl/day (2016 est.)
1.837 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports78,370 bbl/day (2016 est.)
1,987 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves490.6 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
145.4 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves16.88 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
41.99 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production4.618 billion cu m (2015 est.)
8.73 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption4.392 billion cu m (2015 est.)
773.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports2.192 billion cu m (2015 est.)
32.51 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports658 million cu m (2015 est.)
102.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity14.01 million kW (2015 est.)
204.1 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels48.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
42.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
2.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
5.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources53.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
49.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production187,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2.198 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption158,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2.41 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports171,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
474,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports165,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
800,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy42 million Mt (2013 est.)
744 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

DenmarkGermany
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1,557,101
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 44.31 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 6,985,035
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (July 2016 est.)
total: 94,432,800
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: excellent telephone and Internet services
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network; multiple mobile-cellular communications systems
international: country code - 45; a series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East)); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (2015)
general assessment: one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2015)
Internet country code.dk
.de
Internet userstotal: 5,424,169
percent of population: 97.0% (July 2016 est.)
total: 72,365,643
percent of population: 89.6% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastrong public-sector TV presence with state-owned Danmarks Radio (DR) operating 6 channels and publicly owned TV2 operating roughly a half-dozen channels; broadcasts of privately owned stations are available via satellite and cable feed; DR operates 4 nationwide FM radio stations, 10 digital audio broadcasting stations, and 14 web-based radio stations; in 2010, there were 140 commercial and 187 community (non-commercial) radio stations (2012)
a mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008)

Transportation

DenmarkGermany
Railwaystotal: 3,476 km
standard gauge: 3,476 km 1.435-m gauge (1,756 km electrified) (2017)
total: 43,468.3 km
standard gauge: 43,209.3 km 1.435-m gauge (19,973 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 220 km 1.000-m gauge (79 km electrified); 15 km 0.900-m gauge; 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 74,558 km
paved: 74,558 km (includes 1,205 km of expressways) (2017)
total: 645,000 km
paved: 645,000 km (includes 12,800 km of expressways)
note: includes local roads (2010)
Waterways400 km (2010)
7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)
Pipelinesgas 1,536 km; oil 330 km (2015)
condensate 37 km; gas 26,985 km; oil 2,826 km; refined products 4,479 km; water 8 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Aarhus, Copenhagen, Fredericia, Kalundborg; North Sea - Esbjerg,
river port(s): Aalborg (Langerak)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Ensted (coal)
cruise port(s): Copenhagen
major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Rostock; North Sea - Wilhelmshaven
river port(s): Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe); Lubeck (Wakenitz)
oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals
container port(s): Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,547,000), Hamburg (8,821,000) (2015)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg
Merchant marinetotal: 654
by type: bulk carrier 7, container ship 114, general cargo 77, oil tanker 75, other 381 (2017)
total: 614
by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 117, general cargo 87, oil tanker 34, other 375 (2017)
Airports80 (2013)
539 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 28
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 2 (2017)
total: 318
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 49
1,524 to 2,437 m: 60
914 to 1,523 m: 70
under 914 m: 125 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 52
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 47 (2013)
total: 221
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 185 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 10
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 76
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 582,011
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 20
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,113
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,540,886
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,985,007,915 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixOY (2016)
D (2016)

Military

DenmarkGermany
Military branchesDanish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force (2017)
Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Service (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw), Cyber and Information Space Command (Kommando Cyber- und Informationsraum, Kdo CIR) (2017)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from 4 to 12 months according to specialization; former conscripts are assigned to mobilization units; women eligible to volunteer for military service; in addition to full time employment, the Danish Military offers reserve contracts in all three branches (2016)
17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.15% of GDP (2016)
1.12% of GDP (2015)
1.15% of GDP (2014)
1.23% of GDP (2013)
1.35% of GDP (2012)
1.19% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.19% of GDP (2015)
1.19% of GDP (2014)
1.23% of GDP (2013)
1.31% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

DenmarkGermany
Disputes - internationalIceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; sovereignty dispute with Canada over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission
none
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 18,215 (Syria) (2016)
stateless persons: 7,610 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 375,122 (Syria); 86,045 (Iraq); 46,292 (Afghanistan); 30,020 (Eritrea); 22,910 (Iran); 19,136 (Turkey); 9,189 (Serbia and Kosovo); 7,879 (Somalia); 5,255 (Russia); 5,169 (Pakistan) (2016); 10,305 (Ukraine) (2017) note: estimate represents asylum applicants since Ukraine crisis began in 2014 until September 2017
stateless persons: 12,017 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook