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Democratic Republic of the Congo vs. Uganda

Demographics

Democratic Republic of the CongoUganda
Population83,301,151
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
39,570,125
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.74% (male 17,525,063/female 17,241,929)
15-24 years: 21.46% (male 8,969,922/female 8,909,903)
25-54 years: 30.53% (male 12,691,612/female 12,738,316)
55-64 years: 3.6% (male 1,421,619/female 1,579,034)
65 years and over: 2.67% (male 941,926/female 1,281,827) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 48.05% (male 9,486,324/female 9,526,713)
15-24 years: 21.1% (male 4,130,357/female 4,217,681)
25-54 years: 26.3% (male 5,208,817/female 5,199,556)
55-64 years: 2.57% (male 491,397/female 525,064)
65 years and over: 1.98% (male 343,805/female 440,411) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.6 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 18.8 years (2017 est.)
total: 15.8 years
male: 15.7 years
female: 15.9 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate2.37% (2017 est.)
3.2% (2017 est.)
Birth rate33.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
42.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 68.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 71.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 64.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 56.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 57.7 years
male: 56.1 years
female: 59.3 years (2017 est.)
total population: 55.9 years
male: 54.4 years
female: 57.3 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate4.39 children born/woman (2017 est.)
5.71 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.7% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groupsover 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS370,000 (2016 est.)
1.4 million (2016 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%
Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths19,000 (2016 est.)
28,000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba
total population: 77%
male: 88.5%
female: 66.5% (2016 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.4%
male: 85.3%
female: 71.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2013)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
Education expenditures2.2% of GDP (2013)
1.7% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 43.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.83% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 16.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 81.1% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.9% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 79% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 21% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 28.7% of population
total: 28.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 71.3% of population
total: 71.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 17.3% of population
total: 19.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 82.7% of population
total: 80.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKINSHASA (capital) 11.587 million; Lubumbashi 2.015 million; Mbuji-Mayi 2.007 million; Kananga 1.169 million; Kisangani 1.04 million; Bukavu 832,000 (2015)
KAMPALA (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate693 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
343 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight23.4% (2013)
12% (2012)
Health expenditures4.3% of GDP (2014)
7.2% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.8 beds/1,000 population (2006)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.7% (2016)
5.3% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 8,284,395
percentage: 42% (2010 est.)
total number: 117,266
percentage: 25%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2010 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Demographic profileDespite a wealth of fertile soil, hydroelectric power potential, and mineral resources, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) struggles with many socioeconomic problems, including high infant and maternal mortality rates, malnutrition, poor vaccination coverage, lack of access to improved water sources and sanitation, and frequent and early fertility. Ongoing conflict, mismanagement of resources, and a lack of investment have resulted in food insecurity; almost 30 percent of children under the age of 5 are malnourished. The overall coverage of basic public services – education, health, sanitation, and potable water – is very limited and piecemeal, with substantial regional and rural/urban disparities. Fertility remains high at almost 5 children per woman and is likely to remain high because of the low use of contraception and the cultural preference for larger families.
The DRC is a source and host country for refugees. Between 2012 and 2014, more than 119,000 Congolese refugees returned from the Republic of Congo to the relative stability of northwest DRC, but more than 540,000 Congolese refugees remained abroad as of year-end 2015. In addition, an estimated 3.9 million Congolese were internally displaced as of October 2017, the vast majority fleeing violence between rebel group and Congolese armed forces. Thousands of refugees have come to the DRC from neighboring countries, including Rwanda, the Central African Republic, and Burundi.
Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.
Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.
Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s business people and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.
Contraceptive prevalence rate20.4% (2013/14)
36.9% (2016)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 97.5
youth dependency ratio: 91.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6
potential support ratio: 16.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 101.6
youth dependency ratio: 97.2
elderly dependency ratio: 4.4
potential support ratio: 22.8 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook