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Democratic Republic of the Congo vs. Rwanda

Demographics

Democratic Republic of the CongoRwanda
Population83,301,151
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
11,901,484
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.74% (male 17,525,063/female 17,241,929)
15-24 years: 21.46% (male 8,969,922/female 8,909,903)
25-54 years: 30.53% (male 12,691,612/female 12,738,316)
55-64 years: 3.6% (male 1,421,619/female 1,579,034)
65 years and over: 2.67% (male 941,926/female 1,281,827) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 41.38% (male 2,485,386/female 2,439,101)
15-24 years: 19.34% (male 1,151,657/female 1,149,928)
25-54 years: 32.77% (male 1,845,501/female 2,054,410)
55-64 years: 4.09% (male 216,725/female 269,972)
65 years and over: 2.43% (male 113,822/female 174,982) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.6 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 18.8 years (2017 est.)
total: 19 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 19.8 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate2.37% (2017 est.)
2.45% (2017 est.)
Birth rate33.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
30.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 68.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 71.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 64.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 29.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 57.7 years
male: 56.1 years
female: 59.3 years (2017 est.)
total population: 64.3 years
male: 62.3 years
female: 66.3 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate4.39 children born/woman (2017 est.)
3.87 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.7% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan
Ethnic groupsover 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Hutu (Bantu), Tutsi (Hamitic), Twa (Pygmy)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS370,000 (2016 est.)
220,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%
Protestant 50.2% (includes Adventist 12% and other Protestant 38.2%), Roman Catholic 44.3%, Muslim 2%, other 0.9% (includes traditionalist/animist), none 2.5%, unspecified <.1 (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths19,000 (2016 est.)
3,300 (2016 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Kinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, French (official) <.1, English (official) <.1, Swahili (or Kiswahili, used in commercial centers) <.1, more than one language, other 6.3%, unspecified 0.3% (2002 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba
total population: 77%
male: 88.5%
female: 66.5% (2016 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.5%
male: 73.2%
female: 68% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2013)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2013)
Education expenditures2.2% of GDP (2013)
5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 43.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.83% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 30.7% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 81.1% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.9% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 71.9% of population
total: 76.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 28.1% of population
total: 23.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 28.7% of population
total: 28.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 71.3% of population
total: 71.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 58.5% of population
rural: 62.9% of population
total: 61.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 41.5% of population
rural: 37.1% of population
total: 38.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKINSHASA (capital) 11.587 million; Lubumbashi 2.015 million; Mbuji-Mayi 2.007 million; Kananga 1.169 million; Kisangani 1.04 million; Bukavu 832,000 (2015)
KIGALI (capital) 1.257 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate693 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
290 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight23.4% (2013)
9.3% (2015)
Health expenditures4.3% of GDP (2014)
7.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density9 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density0.8 beds/1,000 population (2006)
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2007)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.7% (2016)
5.8% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
23 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
Demographic profileDespite a wealth of fertile soil, hydroelectric power potential, and mineral resources, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) struggles with many socioeconomic problems, including high infant and maternal mortality rates, malnutrition, poor vaccination coverage, lack of access to improved water sources and sanitation, and frequent and early fertility. Ongoing conflict, mismanagement of resources, and a lack of investment have resulted in food insecurity; almost 30 percent of children under the age of 5 are malnourished. The overall coverage of basic public services – education, health, sanitation, and potable water – is very limited and piecemeal, with substantial regional and rural/urban disparities. Fertility remains high at almost 5 children per woman and is likely to remain high because of the low use of contraception and the cultural preference for larger families.
The DRC is a source and host country for refugees. Between 2012 and 2014, more than 119,000 Congolese refugees returned from the Republic of Congo to the relative stability of northwest DRC, but more than 540,000 Congolese refugees remained abroad as of year-end 2015. In addition, an estimated 3.9 million Congolese were internally displaced as of October 2017, the vast majority fleeing violence between rebel group and Congolese armed forces. Thousands of refugees have come to the DRC from neighboring countries, including Rwanda, the Central African Republic, and Burundi.
Rwanda’s fertility rate declined sharply during the last decade, as a result of the government’s commitment to family planning, the increased use of contraceptives, and a downward trend in ideal family size. Increases in educational attainment, particularly among girls, and exposure to social media also contributed to the reduction in the birth rate. The average number of births per woman decreased from a 5.6 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2016. Despite these significant strides in reducing fertility, Rwanda’s birth rate remains very high and will continue to for an extended period of time because of its large population entering reproductive age. Because Rwanda is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, its persistent high population growth and increasingly small agricultural landholdings will put additional strain on families’ ability to raise foodstuffs and access potable water. These conditions will also hinder the government’s efforts to reduce poverty and prevent environmental degradation.
The UNHCR recommended that effective 30 June 2013 countries invoke a cessation of refugee status for those Rwandans who fled their homeland between 1959 and 1998, including the 1994 genocide, on the grounds that the conditions that drove them to seek protection abroad no longer exist. The UNHCR’s decision is controversial because many Rwandan refugees still fear persecution if they return home, concerns that are supported by the number of Rwandans granted asylum since 1998 and by the number exempted from the cessation. Rwandan refugees can still seek an exemption or local integration, but host countries are anxious to send the refugees back to Rwanda and are likely to avoid options that enable them to stay. Conversely, Rwanda itself hosts almost 160,000 refugees as of 2017; virtually all of them fleeing conflict in neighboring Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Contraceptive prevalence rate20.4% (2013/14)
53.2% (2014/15)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 97.5
youth dependency ratio: 91.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6
potential support ratio: 16.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 77.3
youth dependency ratio: 72.4
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 20.1 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook