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Democratic Republic of the Congo vs. Angola

Introduction

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Background

The Kingdom of Kongo ruled the area around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. To the center and east, the Kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century. in the 1870s, European exploration of the Congo Basin, sponsored by King Leopold II of Belgium, eventually allowed the ruler to acquire rights to the Congo territory and to make it his private property under the name of the Congo Free State. During the Free State, the king's colonial military forced the local population to produce rubber. From 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese people died as a result of disease and exploitation. International condemnation finally forced Leopold to cede the land to Belgium, creating the Belgian Congo.

The Republic of the Congo gained its independence from Belgium in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from conflict in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. KABILA renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001, KABILA was assassinated and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. Presidential, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006, with Joseph KABILA elected to office.

National elections were held in November 2011 and disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be reelected to the presidency. While the DRC constitution barred President KABILA from running for a third term, the DRC Government delayed national elections originally slated for November 2016, to 30 December 2018. This failure to hold elections as scheduled fueled significant civil and political unrest, with sporadic street protests by KABILA’s opponents and exacerbation of tensions in the tumultuous eastern DRC regions. Presidential, legislative, and provincial elections were held in late December 2018 and early 2019 across most of the country. The DRC Government canceled presidential elections in the cities of Beni and Butembo (citing concerns over an ongoing Ebola outbreak in the region) as well as Yumbi (which had recently experienced heavy violence).

Opposition candidate Felix TSHISEKEDI was announced the election winner on 10 January 2019 and inaugurated two weeks later. This was the first transfer of power to an opposition candidate without significant violence or a coup since the DRC's independence. 

The DRC, particularly in the East, continues to experience violence perpetrated by more than 100 armed groups active in the region, including the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), and assorted Mai Mai militias. The UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO) has operated in the region since 1999 and is the largest and most expensive UN peacekeeping mission in the world.

 

From the late 14th to the mid 19th century a Kingdom of Kongo stretched across central Africa from present-day northern Angola into the current Congo republics. It traded heavily with the Portuguese who, beginning in the 16th century, established coastal colonies and trading posts and introduced Christianity. By the 19th century, Portuguese settlement had spread to the interior; in 1914, Portugal abolished the last vestiges of the Kongo Kingdom and Angola became a Portuguese colony.

Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS stepped down from the presidency in 2017, having led the country since 1979. He pushed through a new constitution in 2010. Joao LOURENCO was elected president in August 2017 and became president of the MPLA in September 2018.

Geography

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
LocationCentral Africa, northeast of AngolaSouthern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates0 00 N, 25 00 E12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map referencesAfricaAfrica
Areatotal: 2,344,858 sq km

land: 2,267,048 sq km

water: 77,810 sq km
total: 1,246,700 sq km

land: 1,246,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than one-fourth the size of the USabout eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 11,027 km

border countries (9): Angola 2646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 236 km, Central African Republic 1747 km, Republic of the Congo 1775 km, Rwanda 221 km, South Sudan 714 km, Tanzania 479 km, Uganda 877 km, Zambia 2332 km
total: 5,369 km

border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1427 km, Zambia 1065 km
Coastline37 km1,600 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: since 2011, the DRC has had a Common Interest Zone agreement with Angola for the mutual development of off-shore resources
territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrainvast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in eastnarrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremeshighest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 726 m
highest point: Moca 2,620 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 1,112 m
Natural resourcescobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timberpetroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land useagricultural land: 11.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8% (2018 est.)

forest: 67.9% (2018 est.)

other: 20.7% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 45.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 54.3% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land110 sq km (2012)860 sq km (2014)
Natural hazards

periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); active volcanoes in the east along the Great Rift Valley

volcanism: Nyiragongo (3,470 m), which erupted in 2002 and is experiencing ongoing activity, poses a major threat to the city of Goma, home to a quarter million people; the volcano produces unusually fast-moving lava, known to travel up to 100 km /hr; Nyiragongo has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; its neighbor, Nyamuragira, which erupted in 2010, is Africa's most active volcano; Visoke is the only other historically active volcano

locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issuespoaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation (forests endangered by fires set to clean the land for agricultural purposes; forests also used as a source of fuel); soil erosion; mining (diamonds, gold, coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors for electronic devices) causing environmental damageoveruse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note

note 1: second largest country in Africa (after Algeria) and largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa; straddles the equator; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands; the narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River is the DRC's only outlet to the South Atlantic Ocean

note 2: because of its speed, cataracts, rapids, and turbulence the Congo River, most of which flows through the DRC, has never been accurately measured along much of its length; nonetheless, it is conceded to be the deepest river in the world; estimates of its greatest depth vary between 220 and 250 meters

the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Total renewable water resources1.283 trillion cubic meters (2017 est.)148.4 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionurban clusters are spread throughout the country, particularly in the northeast along the boarder with Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi; the largest city is the capital, Kinshasha, located in the west along the Congo River; the south is least densely populated as shown in this population distribution mapmost people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly the capital of Luanda as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Population105,044,646 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
33,642,646 (July 2021 est.)

note: Angola's national statistical agency projected the country's 2017 population to be 28.4 million
Age structure0-14 years: 46.38% (male 23,757,297/female 23,449,057)

15-24 years: 19.42% (male 9,908,686/female 9,856,841)

25-54 years: 28.38% (male 14,459,453/female 14,422,912)

55-64 years: 3.36% (male 1,647,267/female 1,769,429)

65 years and over: 2.47% (male 1,085,539/female 1,423,782) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 47.83% (male 7,758,636/female 7,797,869)

15-24 years: 18.64% (male 2,950,999/female 3,109,741)

25-54 years: 27.8% (male 4,301,618/female 4,740,463)

55-64 years: 3.43% (male 523,517/female 591,249)

65 years and over: 2.3% (male 312,197/female 436,050) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.7 years

male: 16.5 years

female: 16.8 years (2020 est.)
total: 15.9 years

male: 15.4 years

female: 16.4 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate3.16% (2021 est.)3.38% (2021 est.)
Birth rate40.53 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)42.22 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate8.15 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)8.24 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 62.63 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 68.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 56.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 60.58 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 65.91 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 55.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 61.43 years

male: 59.66 years

female: 63.25 years (2021 est.)
total population: 61.71 years

male: 59.66 years

female: 63.81 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate5.7 children born/woman (2021 est.)5.9 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.7% (2020 est.)1.8% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Congolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Congolese or Congo
noun: Angolan(s)

adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groupsmore than 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) - make up about 45% of the populationOvimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS510,000 (2020 est.)340,000 (2020 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 29.9%, Protestant 26.7%, other Christian 36.5%, Kimbanguist 2.8%, Muslim 1.3%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 1.2%, none 1.3%, unspecified .2% (2014 est.)Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths17,000 (2020 est.)16,000 (2020 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba

major-language sample(s):
Buku oyo ya bosembo ya Mokili Mobimba Ezali na Makanisi ya Liboso Mpenza. (Lingala)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%; note - data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba

total population: 77%

male: 88.5%

female: 66.5% (2016)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 71.1%

male: 82%

female: 60.7% (2015)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-gambiense (African sleeping sickness)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

note: on 7 February 2021, the Ministry of Health declared the 12th outbreak of Ebola in Democratic Republic of the Congo; on 12 March 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice recommending travelers avoid non-essential travel for an Ebola outbreak in the North Kivu (Kivu Nord) province in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; travelers to this area could be infected with Ebola if they come into contact with an infected person’s blood or other body fluids; travelers should seek medical care immediately if they develop fever, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, weakness, vomiting, stomach pain, or unexplained bleeding or bruising during or after travel
degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years

male: 10 years

female: 9 years (2013)
total: 10 years

male: 12 years

female: 7 years (2011)
Education expenditures1.5% of GDP (2017)3.4% of GDP (2010)
Urbanizationurban population: 46.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.33% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 67.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.04% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 84.3% of population

rural: 32.4% of population

total: 55.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 15.7% of population

rural: 67.6% of population

total: 44.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 81.7% of population

rural: 36.6% of population

total: 65.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.3% of population

rural: 63.4% of population

total: 34.2% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 54.7% of population

rural: 29.8% of population

total: 40.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 44.5% of population

rural: 70.2% of population

total: 59.3% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 92.2% of population

rural: 29.2% of population

total: 70.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.8% of population

rural: 70.8% of population

total: 29.9% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population14.970 million KINSHASA (capital), 2.643 million Mbuji-Mayi, 2.584 million Lubumbashi, 1.524 million Kananga, 1.321 million Kisangani, 1.133 million Bukavu (2021)8.632 million LUANDA (capital), 871,000 Lubango, 819,000 Cabinda (2021)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight23.1% (2017/18)19% (2015/16)
Health expenditures3.3% (2018)2.6% (2018)
Physicians density0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2016)0.22 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.7% (2016)8.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.9 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 20-49
19.4 years (2015/16 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 20-49
Demographic profile

Despite a wealth of fertile soil, hydroelectric power potential, and mineral resources, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) struggles with many socioeconomic problems, including high infant and maternal mortality rates, malnutrition, poor vaccination coverage, lack of access to improved water sources and sanitation, and frequent and early fertility. Ongoing conflict, mismanagement of resources, and a lack of investment have resulted in food insecurity; almost 30 percent of children under the age of 5 are malnourished. The overall coverage of basic public services – education, health, sanitation, and potable water – is very limited and piecemeal, with substantial regional and rural/urban disparities. Fertility remains high at almost 5 children per woman and is likely to remain high because of the low use of contraception and the cultural preference for larger families.

The DRC is a source and host country for refugees. Between 2012 and 2014, more than 119,000 Congolese refugees returned from the Republic of Congo to the relative stability of northwest DRC, but more than 540,000 Congolese refugees remained abroad as of year-end 2015. In addition, an estimated 3.9 million Congolese were internally displaced as of October 2017, the vast majority fleeing violence between rebel group and Congolese armed forces. Thousands of refugees have come to the DRC from neighboring countries, including Rwanda, the Central African Republic, and Burundi.

More than a decade after the end of Angola's 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country's rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, about 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population - about 45% are under the age of 15 - is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more than 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola's high maternal mortality rate.

Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries.

Contraceptive prevalence rate28.1% (2017/18)13.7% (2015/16)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 95.4

youth dependency ratio: 89.5

elderly dependency ratio: 5.9

potential support ratio: 17 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 94.5

youth dependency ratio: 90.2

elderly dependency ratio: 4.3

potential support ratio: 23.5 (2020 est.)

Government

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Country nameconventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo

conventional short form: DRC

local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo

local short form: RDC

former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire

abbreviation: DRC (or DROC)

etymology: named for the Congo River, most of which lies within the DRC; the river name derives from Kongo, a Bantu kingdom that occupied its mouth at the time of Portuguese discovery in the late 15th century and whose name stems from its people the Bakongo, meaning "hunters"
conventional long form: Republic of Angola

conventional short form: Angola

local long form: Republica de Angola

local short form: Angola

former: People's Republic of Angola

etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
Government typesemi-presidential republicpresidential republic
Capitalname: Kinshasa

geographic coordinates: 4 19 S, 15 18 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: the DRC has two time zones

etymology:
founded as a trading post in 1881 and named Leopoldville in honor of King Leopold II of the Belgians, who controlled the Congo Free State, the vast central African territory that became the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1960; in 1966, Leopoldville was renamed Kinshasa, after a village of that name that once stood near the site


name: Luanda

geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time

etymology: originally named "Sao Paulo da Assuncao de Loanda" (Saint Paul of the Assumption of Loanda), which over time was shortened and corrupted to just Luanda
Administrative divisions26 provinces (provinces, singular - province); Bas-Uele (Lower Uele), Equateur, Haut-Katanga (Upper Katanga), Haut-Lomami (Upper Lomami), Haut-Uele (Upper Uele), Ituri, Kasai, Kasai-Central, Kasai-Oriental (East Kasai), Kinshasa, Kongo Central, Kwango, Kwilu, Lomami, Lualaba, Mai-Ndombe, Maniema, Mongala, Nord-Kivu (North Kivu), Nord-Ubangi (North Ubangi), Sankuru, Sud-Kivu (South Kivu), Sud-Ubangi (South Ubangi), Tanganyika, Tshopo, Tshuapa18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza-Norte, Cuanza-Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda-Norte, Lunda-Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence30 June 1960 (from Belgium)11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 30 June (1960)Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 13 May 2005, approved by referendum 18-19 December 2005, promulgated 18 February 2006

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by either house of Parliament, or by public petition; agreement on the substance of a proposed bill requires absolute majority vote in both houses; passage requires a referendum only if both houses in joint meeting fail to achieve three-fifths majority vote; constitutional articles, including the form of government, universal suffrage, judicial independence, political pluralism, and personal freedoms, cannot be amended; amended 2011
history: previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one third of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly subject to prior Constitutional Court review if requested by the president of the republic
Legal systemcivil law system primarily based on Belgian law, but also customary and tribal lawcivil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Felix TSHISEKEDI (since 24 January 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Michel Sama Lukonde KYENGE (since 15 February 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Jose MAKILA, Leonard She OKITUNDU, Henri MOVA Sankanyi (since February 2018)

cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 December 2018 (next to be held in December 2023); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Felix TSHISEKEDI elected president; percent of vote - Felix TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 38.6%, Martin FAYULU (Lamuka coalition) 34.8%, Emmanuel Ramazani SHADARY (PPRD) 23.9%, other 2.7%; note - election marred by serious voting irregularities
chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: the candidate of the winning party or coalition in the last legislative election becomes the president; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) elected president by the winning party following the 23 August 2017 general election
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate (108 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

National Assembly (500 seats; 439 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 61 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 19 January 2007 (follow-on election has been delayed)
National Assembly - last held on 30 December 2018

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, other 18, independent 26; composition - men 103, women 5, percent of women 4.6%

National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 62, UDPS 41, PPPD 29, MSR 27, MLC 22, PALU 19, UNC 17, ARC 16, AFDC 15, ECT 11, RRC 11, other 214 (includes numerous political parties that won 10 or fewer seats and 2 constituencies where voting was halted), independent 16; composition - men 456, women 44, percent of women  8.8%; total Parliament percent of women 8.1%;note - the November 2011 election was marred by violence including the destruction of ballots in 2 constituencies resulting in the closure of polling sites; election results were delayed 3 months, strongly contested, and continue to be unresolved
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by closed list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 61.1%, UNITA 26.7%, CASA-CE 9.5%, PRS 1.4%, FNLA 0.9%, other 0.5%; seats by party - MPLA 150, UNITA 51, CASA-CE 16, PRS 2, FNLA 1; composition - men 136, women 84, percent of women 38.2%
Judicial branchhighest courts: Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of 26 justices and organized into legislative and judiciary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Service Council, an independent body of public prosecutors and selected judges of the lower courts; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Judicial Service Council, and 3 by the legislature; judges appointed by the president to serve 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: State Security Court; Court of Appeals (organized into administrative and judiciary sections); Tribunal de Grande; magistrates' courts; customary courts
highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms

subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
Political parties and leadersChristian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]
Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]
Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC
Engagement for Citizenship and Development or ECiDe [Martin FAYULU]
Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]
Lamuka coalition [Martin FAYULU] (includes ECiDe, MLC, Together for Change, CNB, and, Nouvel Elan)
Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]
Nouvel Elan [Adolphe MUZITO]
Our Congo or CNB ("Congo Na Biso") [Freddy MATUNGULU]
People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Henri MOVA Sakanyi]
Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]
Together for Change (Ensemble") [Moise KATUMBI]
Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]
Union for the Congolese Nation or UNC [Vital KAMERHE]
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Felix TSHISEKEDI]
Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Andre Mendes de CARVALHO]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - party has two factions; one led by Lucas NGONDA; the other by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Joao LOURENCO]; note - Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS stepped down 8 Sept 2018 ruling party in power since 1975
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Benedito DANIEL]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Francois Nkuna BALUMUENE (since 17 September 2015)

chancery: 1100 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 725, Washington DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690; [1] (202) 234-7691

FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609

email address and website:
https://www.ambardcusa.org/

representative office: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Joaquim do Espirito SANTO (since 16 September 2019)

chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156

FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049

email address and website:
info@angola.org

https://angola.org/

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Michael A. HAMMER (since 22 December 2018)

embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa, Gombe

mailing address: 2220 Kinshasa Place, Washington DC  20521-2220

telephone: [243] 081 556-0151

FAX: [243] 81 556-0175

email address and website:
ACSKinshasa@state.gov

https://cd.usembassy.gov/
chief of mission: Ambassador Nina Maria FITE (since 14 February 2018)

embassy: Rua Houari Boumedienne, #32, Luanda

mailing address: 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550

telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000

FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000

email address and website:
Consularluanda@state.gov

https://ao.usembassy.gov/
Flag descriptionsky blue field divided diagonally from the lower hoist corner to upper fly corner by a red stripe bordered by two narrow yellow stripes; a yellow, five-pointed star appears in the upper hoist corner; blue represents peace and hope, red the blood of the country's martyrs, and yellow the country's wealth and prosperity; the star symbolizes unity and the brilliant future for the countrytwo equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty and black the African continent; the symbols characterize workers and peasants
National anthemname: "Debout Congolaise" (Arise Congolese)

lyrics/music: Joseph LUTUMBA/Simon-Pierre BOKA di Mpasi Londi

note: adopted 1960; replaced when the country was known as Zaire; but readopted in 1997
name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)

lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO

note: adopted 1975
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)leopard; national colors: sky blue, red, yellowPalanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Economy - overview

The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast natural resource wealth - continues to perform poorly. Systemic corruption since independence in 1960, combined with countrywide instability and intermittent conflict that began in the early-90s, has reduced national output and government revenue, and increased external debt. With the installation of a transitional government in 2003 after peace accords, economic conditions slowly began to improve as the government reopened relations with international financial institutions and international donors, and President KABILA began implementing reforms. Progress on implementing substantive economic reforms remains slow because of political instability, bureaucratic inefficiency, corruption, and patronage, which also dampen international investment prospects.

Renewed activity in the mining sector, the source of most export income, boosted Kinshasa's fiscal position and GDP growth until 2015, but low commodity prices have led to slower growth, volatile inflation, currency depreciation, and a growing fiscal deficit. An uncertain legal framework, corruption, and a lack of transparency in government policy are long-term problems for the large mining sector and for the economy as a whole. Much economic activity still occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data.

Poverty remains widespread in DRC, and the country failed to meet any Millennium Development Goals by 2015. DRC also concluded its program with the IMF in 2015. The price of copper – the DRC’s primary export - plummeted in 2015 and remained at record lows during 2016-17, reducing government revenues, expenditures, and foreign exchange reserves, while inflation reached nearly 50% in mid-2017 – its highest level since the early 2000s.

Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports; Angola is an OPEC member and subject to its direction regarding oil production levels. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported.

Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war (1975-2002). However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them.

The global recession that started in 2008 stalled Angola’s economic growth and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued billions in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell. Lower prices for oil and diamonds also resulted in GDP falling 0.7% in 2016. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009 but reinstituted it in April 2016 and maintains an overvalued exchange rate. In late 2016, Angola lost the last of its correspondent relationships with foreign banks, further exacerbating hard currency problems. Since 2013 the central bank has consistently spent down reserves to defend the kwanza, gradually allowing a 40% depreciation since late 2014. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014, before rising again to above 30% from 2015-2017.

Continued low oil prices, the depreciation of the kwanza, and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects, although several major international oil companies remain in Angola. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge that poses an additional threat to the economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$95.291 billion (2019 est.)

$91.289 billion (2018 est.)

$86.267 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$212.285 billion (2019 est.)

$213.619 billion (2018 est.)

$217.987 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.4% (2017 est.)

2.4% (2016 est.)

6.9% (2015 est.)
-2.5% (2017 est.)

-2.6% (2016 est.)

0.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,098 (2019 est.)

$1,086 (2018 est.)

$1,060 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$6,670 (2019 est.)

$6,934 (2018 est.)

$7,311 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 19.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 43.6% (2017 est.)

services: 36.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 10.2% (2011 est.)

industry: 61.4% (2011 est.)

services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line63% (2014 est.)32.3% (2018 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 34.7% (2006)
lowest 10%: 0.6%

highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)41.5% (2017 est.)

18.2% (2016 est.)
17.2% (2019 est.)

20.3% (2018 est.)

32.1% (2017 est.)
Labor force20.692 million (2012 est.)12.51 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: NA

industry: NA

services: NA
agriculture: 85%

industry: 15% (2015 est.)

industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate

NA

6.6% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index42.1 (2012 est.)51.3 (2018 est.)
Budgetrevenues: 4.634 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 5.009 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 37.02 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 45.44 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesmining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes), metal products, processed foods and beverages, timber, cement, commercial ship repairpetroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate1.6% (2017 est.)2.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscassava, plantains, sugar cane, maize, oil palm fruit, rice, roots/tubers nes, bananas, sweet potatoes, groundnutscassava, bananas, maize, sweet potatoes, pineapples, sugar cane, potatoes, citrus fruit, vegetables, cabbage
Exports$21.16 billion (2019 est.)

$20.859 billion (2018 est.)

$18.258 billion (2017 est.)
$33.07 billion (2017 est.)

$31.03 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper, cobalt, crude petroleum, diamonds (2019)crude petroleum, diamonds, natural gas, refined petroleum, ships (2019)
Exports - partnersChina 53%, United Arab Emirates 11%, Saudi Arabia 6%, South Korea 5% (2019)China 62%, India 10%, United Arab Emirates 4%, Portugal 3%, Spain 3% (2019)
Imports$19.5 billion (2019 est.)

$21.302 billion (2018 est.)

$20.338 billion (2017 est.)
$19.5 billion (2017 est.)

$13.04 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiespackaged medicines, refined petroleum, sulfuric acid, stone processing machines, delivery trucks (2019)refined petroleum, scrap vessels, meat, rice, palm oil (2019)
Imports - partnersChina 29%, South Africa 15%, Zambia 12%, Rwanda 5%, Belgium 5%, India 5% (2019)China 22%, Portugal 15%, Nigeria 6%, Belgium 6%, United States 5%, South Africa 5%, Brazil 5% (2019)
Debt - external$4.963 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$5.35 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$27.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesCongolese francs (CDF) per US dollar -

1,546.8 (2017 est.)

1,010.3 (2016 est.)

1,010.3 (2015 est.)

925.99 (2014 est.)

925.23 (2013 est.)
kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -

172.6 (2017 est.)

163.656 (2016 est.)

163.656 (2015 est.)

120.061 (2014 est.)

98.303 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt18.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

19.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
65% of GDP (2017 est.)

75.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$457.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$708.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.29 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$23.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$200 million (2017 est.)

-$1.215 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.254 billion (2017 est.)

-$4.834 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$47.16 billion (2019 est.)$97.261 billion (2019 est.)
Taxes and other revenues11.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)29.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-0.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)-6.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8.7%

male: 11.3%

female: 6.8% (2012 est.)
total: 17.3%

male: 17.9%

female: 16.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 78.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 12.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 15.9% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 25.7% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -32.8% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 80.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 10.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 25.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -30.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving21.3% of GDP (2019 est.)

18.3% of GDP (2018 est.)

21.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2019 est.)

25.2% of GDP (2018 est.)

23.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

Energy

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Electricity - production9.046 billion kWh (2016 est.)10.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption7.43 billion kWh (2016 est.)9.036 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports422 million kWh (2015 est.)0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports20 million kWh (2016 est.)0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production17,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)1.593 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2015 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports20,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)1.782 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves180 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)9.523 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves991.1 million cu m (1 January 2018 est.)308.1 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2017 est.)3.115 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2017 est.)821.2 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2017 est.)3.993 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.587 million kW (2016 est.)2.613 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)34% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants98% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)64% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2017 est.)53,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption21,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)130,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2015 est.)30,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports21,140 bbl/day (2015 est.)111,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 9% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 19% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 0.4% (2019)
electrification - total population: 43% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 61% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 6% (2019)

Telecommunications

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 0 NA

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total subscriptions: 124,726

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 42,166,976

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42.77 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 14,830,154

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47.19 (2019 est.)
Internet country code.cd.ao
Internet userstotal: 8,231,357

percent of population: 8.62% (July 2018 est.)
total: 4,353,033

percent of population: 14.34% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

due to decades of conflict and poor infrastructure, the Democratic Republic of Congo’s telecom system is one of the least developed in the region; government aims to improve loose regulation through legislation; mobile networks are principal providers of telecom; LTE is geographically limited; investment from China and other foreign donors for fiber backbone; international bandwidth through WACS submarine cable; operator licensed to build landing station for submarine cable and tower upgrade that will provide competition in broadband, fixed, and mobile Internet services; operator added fiber link between Brazzaville and Kinshasa (2021)

(2020)

domestic: fixed-line connections less than 1 per 100 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of mobile-cellular services is over 43 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 243; ACE and WACS submarine cables to West and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment:

Angola’s telecom sector shows consistent recovery following political stability, encouraging foreign investment; while the government opened the telecom sector to new competitors, there has been slow progress in LTE network development; only a small proportion of the country is covered by the 3G network infrastructure; Internet and mobile phone penetration remains low, hindered by high costs and poor infrastructure that limits access, especially in rural areas; upgrading telecom will support e-commerce, and rural access to education and health care; AngoSat-2 satellite expected to be ready in 2021; government aims to connect an additional 160,000 people to free Wi-Fi; importer of broadcasting equipment from China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: only about one fixed-line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 47 telephones per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 244; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC, WACS, ACE and SACS fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to other countries in west Africa, Brazil, Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29, Angosat-2 satellite expected by 2021 (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 4,620

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 119,068

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned TV broadcast station with near national coverage; more than a dozen privately owned TV stations - 2 with near national coverage; 2 state-owned radio stations are supplemented by more than 100 private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are availablestate controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half-dozen private radio stations broadcast locally

Transportation

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Railwaystotal: 4,007 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 3,882 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified) (2014)

125 1.000-m gauge
total: 2,852 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

123 km 0.600-m gauge
Roadwaystotal: 152,373 km (2015)

paved: 3,047 km (2015)

unpaved: 149,326 km (2015)

urban: 7,400 km (2015)

non-urban: 144,973 km
total: 26,000 km (2018)

paved: 13,600 km (2018)

unpaved: 12,400 km (2018)
Waterways15,000 km (including the Congo River, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes) (2011)1,300 km (2011)
Pipelines62 km gas, 77 km oil, 756 km refined products (2013)352 km gas, 85 km liquid petroleum gas, 1065 km oil, 5 km oil/gas/water (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Banana

river or lake port(s): Boma, Bumba, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka (Congo)

Kindu (Lualaba) Bukavu, Goma (Lake Kivu) Kalemie (Lake Tanganyika)
major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe

LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo
Merchant marinetotal: 21

by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 2, other 15 (2020)
total: 54

by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 8, other 32 (2020)
Airportstotal: 198 (2013)total: 102 (2020)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 26 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)

under 914 m: 1 (2017)
total: 32 (2020)

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 6
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 172 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 87 (2013)

under 914 m: 65 (2013)
total: 70 (2020)

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 27

under 914 m: 22
Heliports1 (2013)1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 13

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 932,043 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 890,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 55

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,516,628 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 78.16 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix9QD2

Military

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, FARDC): Land Forces, National Navy (La Marine Nationale), Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC); Republican Guard (2020)

note - the Republican Guard is under the direct control of the president
Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army); Rapid Reaction Police (paramilitary) (2021)
Military service age and obligation18-45 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2019)20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.7% of GDP (2019 est.)

0.7% of GDP (2018)

0.7% of GDP (2017)

1.3% of GDP (2016)

1.4% of GDP (2015)
1.7% of GDP (2019)

1.8% of GDP (2018)

2.4% of GDP (2017)

3% of GDP (2016)

3.5% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Disputes - international

heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledged in 2004 to abate tribal, rebel, and militia fighting in the region, including northeast Congo, where the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), organized in 1999, maintains over 16,500 uniformed peacekeepers; members of Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army forces continue to seek refuge in Congo's Garamba National Park as peace talks with the Uganda Government evolve; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area; Uganda and DRC dispute Rukwanzi Island in Lake Albert and other areas on the Semliki River with hydrocarbon potential; boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto; DRC accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Illicit drugstraffickers exploit lax shipping controls to transit pseudoephedrine through the capital; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering centerused as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 213,329 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers), 206,346 (Central African Republic), 55,819 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 42,725 (Burundi) (2021)

IDPs: 5.268 million (fighting between government forces and rebels since mid-1990s; conflict in Kasai region since 2016) (2020)
refugees (country of origin): 37,434 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 9,274 (Guinea), 6,357 (Cote d'Ivoire), 5,725 (Mauritania)  (2021)

Source: CIA Factbook