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Cote d'Ivoire vs. Guinea

Introduction

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
BackgroundClose ties to France following independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment all made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and an election brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivoirian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002 that developed into a rebellion and then a civil war. In 2003, a cease-fire resulted in the country being divided with the rebels holding the north, the government the south, and peacekeeping forces a buffer zone between the two. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former New Forces rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. Difficulties in preparing electoral registers delayed balloting until 2010. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election over GBAGBO, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in a five-month resumption of violent conflict. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters with the help of UN and French forces. The UN peacekeeping mission departed in June 2017. OUATTARA is focused on rebuilding the country's economy and infrastructure while rebuilding the security forces. GBAGBO is in The Hague on trial for crimes against humanity.
Guinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though all the polls were rigged. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that peaked in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people. In early December 2009, CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy. The country held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively, and in October 2015 held a second consecutive presidential election. Alpha CONDE was reelected to a second five-year term as president in 2015, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's first cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. The country held a successful political dialogue in August and September 2016 that brought together the government and opposition to address long-standing tensions.

Geography

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 5 00 W
11 00 N, 10 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 322,463 sq km
land: 318,003 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km
total: 245,857 sq km
land: 245,717 sq km
water: 140 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than New Mexico
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 3,458 km
border countries (5): Burkina Faso 545 km, Ghana 720 km, Guinea 816 km, Liberia 778 km, Mali 599 km
total: 4,046 km
border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1,062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km
Coastline515 km
320 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrainmostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 250 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
highest point: Monts Nimba 1,752 m
mean elevation: 472 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
Land useagricultural land: 64.8%
arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 14.2%; permanent pasture 41.5%
forest: 32.7%
other: 2.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 58.1%
arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 2.8%; permanent pasture 43.5%
forest: 26.5%
other: 15.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land730 sq km (2012)
950 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardscoast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
Environment - current issuesdeforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents
deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notemost of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated
the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands
Population distributionthe population is primarily located in the forested south, with the highest concentration of people residing in and around the cities on the Atlantic coast; most of the northern savanna remains sparsely populated with higher concentrations located along transportation corridors
areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated

Demographics

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
Population24,184,810
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
12,413,867 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 36.97% (male 4,508,541/female 4,431,979)
15-24 years: 20.91% (male 2,549,588/female 2,508,317)
25-54 years: 34.58% (male 4,272,294/female 4,090,997)
55-64 years: 4.04% (male 490,918/female 486,702)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 403,757/female 441,717) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 41.52% (male 2,603,506/female 2,550,714)
15-24 years: 19.73% (male 1,236,092/female 1,212,936)
25-54 years: 30.59% (male 1,905,249/female 1,892,638)
55-64 years: 4.48% (male 266,848/female 289,697)
65 years and over: 3.67% (male 201,598/female 254,589) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 20.9 years
male: 21 years
female: 20.9 years (2017 est.)
total: 18.9 years
male: 18.7 years
female: 19.1 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.84% (2017 est.)
2.61% (2017 est.)
Birth rate27.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
35.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 55.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 61.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 49.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 50 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 52.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 59 years
male: 57.8 years
female: 60.2 years (2017 est.)
total population: 61 years
male: 59.5 years
female: 62.6 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate3.38 children born/woman (2017 est.)
4.77 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.7% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ivoirian(s)
adjective: Ivoirian
noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
Ethnic groupsAkan 28.8%, Voltaique or Gur 16.1%, Northern Mande 14.5%, Kru 8.5%, Southern Mande 6.9%, unspecified 0.9%, non-Ivoirian 42.3% (2014 est.)
Fulani (Peul) 32.1%, Malinke 29.8%, Susu 19.8%, Guerze 6.2%, Kissi 4.7%, Toma 2.8%, other/no answer 4.6% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS460,000 (2016 est.)
120,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 42.9%, Catholic 17.2%, Evangelical 11.8%, Methodist 1.7%, other Christian 3.2%, animist 3.6%, other religion 0.5%, none 19.1%
note: the majority of foreign migrant workers are Muslim (72.7%) and Christian (17.7%) (2014 est.)
Muslim 86.2%, Christian 9.7%, animist/other/none 4.1% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths25,000 (2016 est.)
5,800 (2016 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken
French (official)
note: each ethnic group has its own language
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.1%
male: 53.1%
female: 32.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 30.4%
male: 38.1%
female: 22.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2015)
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
3.2% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 55.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.39% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 38.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 81.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 18.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 92.7% of population
rural: 67.4% of population
total: 76.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.3% of population
rural: 32.6% of population
total: 23.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 10.3% of population
total: 22.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 89.7% of population
total: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 34.1% of population
rural: 11.8% of population
total: 20.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 65.9% of population
rural: 88.2% of population
total: 79.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationYAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) 259,000 (2014); ABIDJAN (seat of government) 4.86 million; Bouake 762,000 (2015)
CONAKRY (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate645 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
679 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight15.7% (2012)
18.7% (2012)
Health expenditures5.7% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate10.3% (2016)
7.7% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,796,802
percentage: 35% (2006 est.)
total number: 571,774
percentage: 25% (2003 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011/12 est.)
18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Demographic profileCote d’Ivoire’s population is likely to continue growing for the foreseeable future because almost 60% of the populace is younger than 25, the total fertility rate is holding steady at about 3.5 children per woman, and contraceptive use is under 20%. The country will need to improve education, health care, and gender equality in order to turn its large and growing youth cohort into human capital. Even prior to 2010 unrest that shuttered schools for months, access to education was poor, especially for women. As of 2015, only 53% of men and 33% of women were literate. The lack of educational attainment contributes to Cote d’Ivoire’s high rates of unskilled labor, adolescent pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS prevalence.
Following its independence in 1960, Cote d’Ivoire’s stability and the blossoming of its labor-intensive cocoa and coffee industries in the southwest made it an attractive destination for migrants from other parts of the country and its neighbors, particularly Burkina Faso. The HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY administration continued the French colonial policy of encouraging labor immigration by offering liberal land ownership laws. Foreigners from West Africa, Europe (mainly France), and Lebanon composed about 25% of the population by 1998.
Ongoing economic decline since the 1980s and the power struggle after HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY’s death in 1993 ushered in the politics of “Ivoirite,” institutionalizing an Ivoirian identity that further marginalized northern Ivoirians and scapegoated immigrants. The hostile Muslim north-Christian south divide snowballed into a 2002 civil war, pushing tens of thousands of foreign migrants, Liberian refugees, and Ivoirians to flee to war-torn Liberia or other regional countries and more than a million people to be internally displaced. Subsequently, violence following the contested 2010 presidential election prompted some 250,000 people to seek refuge in Liberia and other neighboring countries and again internally displaced as many as a million people. By July 2012, the majority had returned home, but ongoing inter-communal tension and armed conflict continue to force people from their homes.
Guinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.
Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile “Parrot’s Beak” region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence.
Contraceptive prevalence rate18.2% (2011/12)
5.6% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 83.8
youth dependency ratio: 78.5
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3
potential support ratio: 18.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 84.2
youth dependency ratio: 78.6
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 17.8 (2015 est.)

Government

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
note: pronounced coat-div-whar
former: Ivory Coast
etymology: name reflects the intense ivory trade that took place in the region from the 15th to 17th centuries
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Yamoussoukro (legislative capital), Abidjan (administrative capital); note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the administrative capital as well as the officially designated commercial capital; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 16 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions12 districts and 2 autonomous districts*; Abidjan*, Bas-Sassandra, Comoe, Denguele, Goh-Djiboua, Lacs, Lagunes, Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoue, Savanes, Vallee du Bandama, Woroba, Yamoussoukro*, Zanzan
7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore
Independence7 August 1960 (from France)
2 October 1958 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 7 August (1960)
Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1960, 2000; latest draft completed 24 September 2016, approved by the National Assembly 11 October 2016, approved by referendum 30 October 2016, promulgated 8 November 2016
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by Parliament; consideration of drafts or proposals requires an absolute majority vote by the parliamentary membership; passage of amendments affecting presidential elections, presidential term of office and vacancies, and amendment procedures requires approval by absolute majority in a referendum; passage of other proposals by the president requires at least four-fifths majority vote by Parliament; constitutional articles on the sovereignty of the state and its republican and secular form of government cannot be amended (2017)
history: previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; consideration of proposals requires approval by simple majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval in referendum; the president can opt to submit amendments directly to the Assembly, in which case approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review of legislation held in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
civil law system based on the French model
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010); Vice President Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 16 January 2017); note - the constitution of 2016 calls for the position of a vice-president
head of government: Prime Minister Amadou Gon COULIBALY (since 11 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president; note - the 2016 constitution limits the presidential tenure to 2 terms beginning with the 2020 election; the vice president is named by the president
election results: Alassane OUATTARA reelected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 83.7%, Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN (FPI) 9.3%, Konan Bertin KOUADIO (independent) 3.9%, other 3.1%
chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Mamady YOULA (since 26 December 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 October 2015 (next scheduled for 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha CONDE reelected president; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 57.8%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 31.4%, other 10.8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (255 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the new constitution of November 2016 calls for a bicameral legislature with the addition of a Senate, with one-third of members appointed by the president and two-thirds indirectly appointed by municipal and regional councils
elections: last held on 18 December 2016 (next to be held on December 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - RHDP 50.3%, FPI 5.8%, UDPCI 3.0%, UPCI 1.0%, independent 38.5%, other 1.39%; seats by party - RHDP 167, UDPCI 6, FPI 3, UPCI 3, independent 76
description: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; 76 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 38 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, PEDN 2, UPG 2, other parties 10
Judicial branch"highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Judicial, Audit, Constitutional, and Administrative Chambers; consists of the court president, 3 vice-presidents for the Judicial, Audit, and Administrative chambers, and 9 associate justices or magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, a 7-member body consisting of the national president (chairman), 3 ""bench"" judges, and 3 public prosecutors; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (organized into civil, criminal, and social chambers); first instance courts; peace courts
"
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, at least 4 councillors, the solicitor general, and NA deputies); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve until age 65; Constitutional Court member appointments - 2 by the National Assembly and the president of the republic, 3 experienced judges designated by their peers, 1 experienced lawyer, 1 university professor with expertise in public law designated by peers, and 2 experienced representatives of the Independent National Institution of Human Rights; members serve single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: includes Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]
Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN]
Liberty and Democracy for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY]
Movement of the Future Forces or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY KOBENA]
Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Henriette DIABATE]
Union for Cote d'Ivoire or UPCI [Gnamien KONAN]
Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Albert Toikeusse MABRI]
other: more than 144 smaller registered parties
Bloc Liberal or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Political pressure groups and leadersFederation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Fulgene ASSI]
National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]
Panafrican Congress for Justice and Peoples Equality or COJEP [Roselin BLY]
National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance
Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Daouda DIABATE (since 11 February 2011)
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444
chief of mission: Ambassador Mamady CONDE (since 14 July 2014)
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Katherine BRUCKER (since 28 August 2017)
embassy: Cocody Riviera Golf 01, Abidjan
mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
telephone: [225] 22 49 40 00
FAX: [225] 22 49 43 23
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis B. HANKINS (since December 2015)
embassy: Koloma, Conakry, across from the Radio Television de Guinee
mailing address: P.O. Box 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
telephone: [224] 655-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 655-10-42-97
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; orange symbolizes the land (savannah) of the north and fertility, white stands for peace and unity, green represents the forests of the south and the hope for a bright future
note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal
National anthem"name: ""L'Abidjanaise"" (Song of Abidjan)
lyrics/music: Mathieu EKRA, Joachim BONY, and Pierre Marie COTY/Pierre Marie COTY and Pierre Michel PANGO
note: adopted 1960; although the nation's capital city moved from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro in 1983, the anthem still owes its name to the former capital
"
"name: ""Liberte"" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA
note: adopted 1958
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)elephant; national colors: orange, white, green
elephant; national colors: red, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cote d'Ivoire
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: na

Economy

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
Economy - overviewCote d'Ivoire is heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly two-thirds of the population. Cote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products and to climatic conditions. Cocoa, oil, and coffee are the country's top export revenue earners, but the country has targeted agricultural processing of cocoa, cashews, mangoes, and other commodities as a high priority. Mining gold and exporting electricity are growing industries outside agriculture.

Following the end of more than a decade of civil conflict in 2011, Cote d’Ivoire has experienced a boom in foreign investment and economic growth. In June 2012, the IMF and the World Bank announced $4.4 billion in debt relief for Cote d'Ivoire under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. For the last 5 years Cote d'Ivoire's growth rate has been among the highest in the world.
Guinea is a poor country of approximately 12.9 million people in 2016 that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves, as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main exports. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth.

Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in 2008 and the coup that followed, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea. However, the IMF approved a 3-year Extended Credit Facility arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013, the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014, Guinea also complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts and was found to be compliant. Guinea completed its program with the IMF in October 2016 even though some targeted reforms have been delayed. Currently Guinea is negotiating a new IMF program which will be based on Guinea’s new five-year economic plan, focusing on the development of higher value-added products, including from the agro-business sector and development of the rural economy.

The biggest threats to Guinea’s economy are political instability, a reintroduction of the Ebola virus epidemic, and low international commodity prices. Economic recovery will be a long process while the government adjusts to lower inflows of international donor aid following the surge of Ebola-related emergency support. Ebola stalled promising economic growth in the 2014-15 period and impeded several projects, such as offshore oil exploration and the Simandou iron ore project. The economy, however, grew by 6.6% in 2016 and 6.7% in 2017, mainly due to growth from bauxite mining and thermal energy generation as well as the resiliency of the agricultural sector. The 240-megawatt Kaleta Dam, inaugurated in September 2015, has expanded access to electricity for residents of Conakry. An enduring legacy of corruption, inefficiency, and lack of government transparency, combined with fears of Ebola virus, continue to undermine Guinea's economic viability.

Guinea’s iron ore industry took a hit in 2016 when investors in the Simandou iron ore project announced plans to divest from the project. In 2017, agriculture output and public investment boosted economic growth, while the mining sector continued to play a prominent role in economic performance.

Successive governments have failed to address the country's crumbling infrastructure. Guinea suffers from chronic electricity shortages; poor roads, rail lines and bridges; and a lack of access to clean water - all of which continue to plague economic development. The present government, led by President Alpha CONDE, is working to create an environment to attract foreign investment and hopes to have greater participation from western countries and firms in Guinea's economic development.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$96.27 billion (2017 est.)
$89.44 billion (2016 est.)
$83.04 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$26.45 billion (2017 est.)
$24.8 billion (2016 est.)
$23.26 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate7.6% (2017 est.)
7.7% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
6.7% (2017 est.)
6.6% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,900 (2017 est.)
$3,700 (2016 est.)
$3,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$2,000 (2017 est.)
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$1,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 17.4%
industry: 28.8%
services: 53.8% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 19.5%
industry: 38.4%
services: 42.1% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line46.3% (2015 est.)
47% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 31.8% (2008)
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2017 est.)
8.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force8.747 million (2017 est.)
5.558 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 68%
industry and services: NA% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 76%
industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate9.4% (2013 est.)
2.8% (2017 est.)
2.4% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index41.5 (2008)
36.7 (1995)
39.4 (2007)
40.3 (1994)
Budgetrevenues: $7.121 billion
expenditures: $8.886 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $1.559 billion
expenditures: $1.868 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesfoodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, gold mining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity
bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing
Industrial production growth rate7% (2017 est.)
8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber
rice, coffee, pineapples, mangoes, palm kernels, cocoa, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, potatoes, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
Exports$11.08 billion (2017 est.)
$11.77 billion (2016 est.)
$2.115 billion (2017 est.)
$1.954 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiescocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish
bauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
Exports - partnersNetherlands 11.3%, US 7.4%, France 6.8%, Belgium 6.1%, Germany 5.2%, India 5.1%, Burkina Faso 4.6%, Mali 4.5%, Switzerland 4.1% (2016)
China 24.6%, Ghana 17.9%, Switzerland 10.1%, UAE 7.7%, France 5.2%, Spain 4.3%, India 4.1% (2016)
Imports$8.789 billion (2017 est.)
$8.524 billion (2016 est.)
$2.475 billion (2017 est.)
$2.109 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
Imports - partnersFrance 13.5%, Nigeria 13.3%, China 11.8%, US 4.2% (2016)
Netherlands 14.6%, China 13.5%, India 12.4%, Belgium 8.6%, France 6.9%, UAE 5.4%, Singapore 4.9% (2016)
Debt - external$12.38 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$11.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.462 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
594.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
9,230 (2017 est.)
9,085 (2016 est.)
9,085 (2015 est.)
7,485.5 (2014 est.)
7,014.1 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt51.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
56% of GDP (2016 est.)
54.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$4.688 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.935 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$416.1 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$383.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.161 billion (2017 est.)
-$397 million (2016 est.)
-$2.297 billion (2017 est.)
-$2.706 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$39.91 billion (2016 est.)
$9.183 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$69.91 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$69.19 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$12.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$11.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate4.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
22.25% (31 December 2005)
Commercial bank prime lending rate5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
21.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
21.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$13.72 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.808 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.931 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$11.36 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.438 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.771 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$16.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.88 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.315 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.12 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
17% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-3.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 61.7%
government consumption: 14.9%
investment in fixed capital: 22.4%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 30.8%
imports of goods and services: -30.1% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 106.1%
government consumption: 7.6%
investment in fixed capital: 13.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 33.3%
imports of goods and services: -60.6% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving16.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
-1.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
-6.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-8.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
Electricity - production8.262 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption5.669 billion kWh (2015 est.)
930 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports872 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports23 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production30,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports65,540 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports34,720 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves100 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production2.063 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption2.897 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.9 million kW (2016 est.)
740,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels66.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
50% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants33.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
49.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production67,260 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption43,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
16,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports31,550 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports5,975 bbl/day (2014 est.)
16,130 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy8.995 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 42%
electrification - rural areas: 8% (2013)
population without electricity: 8,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 53%
electrification - rural areas: 11% (2013)

Telecommunications

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 289,108
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 0
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 27,451,250
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (July 2016 est.)
total: 10.8 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed lines have increased since that time with 2 fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized
domestic: with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to about 115 per 100 persons
international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
general assessment: huge improvement over the last 10 years; the capital and the regional administrative centers have 3G access
domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and now approaches 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Internet country code.ci
.gn
Internet userstotal: 6,297,676
percent of population: 26.5% (July 2016 est.)
total: 1,185,148
percent of population: 9.8% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media2 state-owned TV stations; no private terrestrial TV stations, but satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned radio stations; some private radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)

Transportation

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
Railwaystotal: 660 km
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-m gauge
note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso (2008)
total: 1,086 km
standard gauge: 279 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 81,996 km
paved: 6,502 km
unpaved: 75,494 km
note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2007)
total: 44,348 km
paved: 4,342 km
unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)
Waterways980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons) (2011)
1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Abidjan, San-Pedro
oil terminal(s): Espoir Offshore Terminal
major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar
Merchant marinetotal: 9
by type: oil tanker 2, other 1 (2017)
total: 1
by type: other 1 (2017)
Airports27 (2013)
16 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixTU (2016)
3X (2016)

Military

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
Military branchesArmed Forces of Cote d'Ivoire (Force Armee de Cote d'Ivoire, FACI): Army, Navy, Cote d'Ivoire Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Cote d'Ivoire) (2017)
National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service; conscription is not enforced; voluntary recruitment of former rebels into the new national army is restricted to ages 22-29 (2012)
no compulsory military service (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.18% of GDP (2016)
1.74% of GDP (2015)
1.48% of GDP (2014)
1.38% of GDP (2013)
1.51% of GDP (2012)
2.49% of GDP (2016)
3.31% of GDP (2015)
2.97% of GDP (2014)
3.16% of GDP (2013)
2.98% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Cote d'IvoireGuinea
Disputes - internationaldisputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana
Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998

Source: CIA Factbook