Home

China vs. Macau

Introduction

ChinaMacau
BackgroundFor centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communist Party of China under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically but political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.
"Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China on 20 December 1999. In this agreement, China promised that, under its ""one country, two systems"" formula, China's political and economic system would not be imposed on Macau, and that Macau would enjoy a ""high degree of autonomy"" in all matters except foreign affairs and defense for the subsequent 50 years.
"

Geography

ChinaMacau
LocationEastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Geographic coordinates35 00 N, 105 00 E
22 10 N, 113 33 E
Map referencesAsia
Southeast Asia
Areatotal: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
total: 28.2 sq km
land: 28.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the US
less than one-sixth the size of Washington, DC
Land boundariestotal: 22,457 km
border countries (14): Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,133 km, Russia (northwest) 46 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
regional border(s) (2): Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
total: 3 km
regional border(s) (1): China 3 km
Coastline14,500 km
41 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
not specified
Climateextremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Terrainmostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
generally flat
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,840 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Alto Coloane 172 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest), arable land
NEGL
Land useagricultural land: 54.7%
arable land 11.3%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 41.8%
forest: 22.3%
other: 23% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 0%
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 0%
other: 100% (urban area) (2011 est.)
Irrigated land690,070 sq km (2012)
0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsfrequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
typhoons
Environment - current issuesair pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; coastal destruction due to land reclamation, industrial development, and aquaculture; deforestation and habitat destruction; poor land management leads to soil erosion, landslides, floods, droughts, dust storms and desertification; trade in endangered species
air pollution; coastal waters pollution; insufficient policies in reducing and recycling solid wastes; increasing population density worsening noise pollution
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)
Geography - noteworld's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak above sea level
essentially urban; an area of land reclaimed from the sea measuring 5.2 sq km and known as Cotai now connects the islands of Coloane and Taipa; the island area is connected to the mainland peninsula by three bridges
Population distributionoverwhelming majority of the population is found in the eastern half of the country; the west, with its vast mountainous and desert areas, remains sparsely populated; though ranked first in the world in total population, overall density is less than that of many other countries in Asia and Europe; high population density is found along the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys, the Xi Jiang River delta, the Sichuan Basin (around Chengdu), in and around Beijing, and the industrial area around Shenyang
population fairly equally distributed

Demographics

ChinaMacau
Population1,379,302,771 (July 2017 est.)
601,969 (July 2017 est.)
note: Macau's statistical agency estimated the total population to be approximately 648,55 as of September 2017
Age structure0-14 years: 17.15% (male 127,484,177/female 109,113,241)
15-24 years: 12.78% (male 94,215,607/female 82,050,623)
25-54 years: 48.51% (male 341,466,438/female 327,661,460)
55-64 years: 10.75% (male 74,771,050/female 73,441,177)
65 years and over: 10.81% (male 71,103,029/female 77,995,969) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 14.1% (male 44,133/female 40,764)
15-24 years: 11.73% (male 37,194/female 33,418)
25-54 years: 50.1% (male 134,244/female 167,318)
55-64 years: 13.5% (male 40,837/female 40,423)
65 years and over: 10.57% (male 29,764/female 33,874) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 37.4 years
male: 36.5 years
female: 38.4 years (2017 est.)
total: 39.3 years
male: 39.5 years
female: 39.1 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.41% (2017 est.)
0.74% (2017 est.)
Birth rate12.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
8.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
4.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.8 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.7 years
male: 73.6 years
female: 78 years (2017 est.)
total population: 84.6 years
male: 81.6 years
female: 87.7 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.6 children born/woman (2017 est.)
0.95 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
noun: Chinese
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groupsHan Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai, and other nationalities) 7.1%
note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
Chinese 88.7%, Portuguese 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, other 9.2% (includes Macanese - mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsBuddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none or other 35% (1997 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesStandard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Cantonese 80.1%, Mandarin 5.5%, other Chinese dialects 5.3%, Tagalog 3%, English 2.8%, Portuguese 0.6%, other 2.8%
note: Chinese and Portuguese are official languages (2016 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.5%
male: 98.2%
female: 95% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expendituresNA
2% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 57.9% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
note: data do not include Hong Kong and Macau
urban population: 100% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.39% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Physicians density1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
3.11 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 37.7
youth dependency ratio: 24.3
elderly dependency ratio: 13.3
potential support ratio: 7.5
data do not include Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 26.6
youth dependency ratio: 15.7
elderly dependency ratio: 10.9
potential support ratio: 9.2 (2015 est.)

Government

ChinaMacau
Country name"conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
etymology: English name derives from the Qin (Chin) rulers of the 3rd century B.C., who comprised the first imperial dynasty of ancient China; the Chinese name Zhongguo translates as ""Central Nation""
"
"conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region
conventional short form: Macau
official long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)
official short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)
etymology: name is thought to derive from the A-Ma Temple - built in 1488 and dedicated to Mazu, the goddess of seafarers and fishermen - which is referred to locally as ""Maa Gok"" - and in Portuguese became ""Macau""; the Chinese name Aomen means ""inlet gates""
"
Government typecommunist party-led state
presidential limited democracy; a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China
Administrative divisions23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
none (special administrative region of the People's Republic of China)
Independence1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
none (special administrative region of China)
National holidayNational Day (anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949)
National Day (anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December (1999) is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Constitutionseveral previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
previous 1976 (Organic Statute of Macau, under Portuguese authority); latest adopted 31 March 1993, effective 20 December 1999 (Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China serves as Macau's constitution); amended 2005, 2012 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - in early 2017, the National People's Congress took the first step in adopting a new civil code by passing the General Provisions of the Civil Law
civil law system based on the Portuguese model
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
"18 years of age in direct elections for some legislative positions, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past 7 years; note - indirect elections are limited to organizations registered as ""corporate voters"" and an election committee for the chief executive drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, central government bodies, and elected Macau officials
"
Executive branchchief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013), LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 ; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
chief of state: President of China XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Chief Executive Fernando CHUI Sai On (since 20 December 2009)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the chief executive
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018);chief executive chosen by a 400-member Election Committee for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 August 2014 (next to be held in 2019); note - the Legislative Assembly in August 2012 voted to expand the Election Committee to 400 from 300 seats for the 2014 election
election results: Fernando CHUI Sai On reelected chief executive; Election Committee vote count - 380 of 396
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms); note - in practice, only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - 2,987
description: unicameral Legislative Council or Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (33 seats; 14 members directly elected by proportional representation vote, 12 indirectly elected by an electoral college of professional and commercial interest groups, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 September 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote - UMG 10%, UPD 9.7%, ACUM 8.6%, NE 8.3%, UPP 7.2, ANMD 6.6%, NUDM 6.1%, ACDM 5.9%, APMD 5.8%, Civic Watch 5.6%, ABL 5.5%, ANPM 5.3%, other 15.4%; seats by political group - UMG 2, UPD 2, ABL 1, ACDM 1, ACUM 1, ANMD 1, ANPM 1, APMD 1, Civic Watch 1, NE 1, NUDM 1, UPP 1; 12 seats filled by professional and business groups; 7 members appointed by the chief executive
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases); note - in late December 2016, the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth circuit courts of the Supreme People's Court began operation
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress (NPC); limited to 2 consecutive 5-year-terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the NPC; term of other justices and judges determined by the NPC
subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
note: in late 2014, China unveiled planned judicial reforms
"highest court(s): Court of Final Appeal of Macau Special Administrative Region (consists of the court president and 2 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the Macau chief executive upon the recommendation of an independent commission of judges, lawyers, and ""eminent"" persons; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Court of Second Instance; Court of First instance; Lower Court; Administrative Court
"
Political parties and leadersChinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
note: China has 8 nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Alliance for Change or APM [Melinda CHAN Mei-yi]
Alliance for a Happy Home or ABL [WONG Kit-cheng] (an electoral list of UPP)
Civic Watch or Civico [Agnes LAM Iok-fong]
Macau-Guangdong Union or UMG [MAK Soi-kun]
Macau Citizens' Development Association or ACDM [Becky SONG Pek-kei] (an electoral list of ACUM)
New Democratic Macau Association or ANMD [AU Kam-san]
New Hope or NE [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]
New Macau Association or AMN [Sulu SOU Ka-hou]
New Union for Macau's Development or NUDM [Angela LEONG On-kei]
Prosperous Democratic Macau Association or APMD (an electoral list of the AMN)
Union for Development or UPD [Ella LEI Cheng-I]
Union for Promoting Progress or UPP [HO Ion-sang]
United Citizens Association of Macau or ACUM [CHAN Meng-kam]
note: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
Political pressure groups and leadersno substantial political opposition groups exist
Bar-Bending Workers' Association [WONG Wai-Man]
Democratic Action [LEE Kin-yun]
Macau New Chinese Youth Association (Associacao de Nova Juventude Chinesa de Macau) or ANJCM [LEONG Sin-man]
Macau Workers' Union [HO Heng-kuok]
New Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]
Workers' Self-Help Union [CHEONG Weng-fat]
International organization participationADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ICC (national committees), IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
none (Special Administrative Region of China)
Diplomatic representation from the US"chief of mission: Ambassador Terry BRANSTAD (since 12 July 2017)Charge d""Affaires Johnathan FRITZ (acting)(since 5 June 2017)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
"
the US has no offices in Macau; US Consulate General in Hong Kong is accredited to Macau
Flag descriptionred with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of China
green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in the center of the arc and two smaller on either side; the lotus is the floral emblem of Macau, the three petals represent the peninsula and two islands that make up Macau; the five stars echo those on the flag of China
National anthem"name: ""Yiyongjun Jinxingqu"" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as ""Zhongguo Guoge"" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, ""Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm""
"
"note: as a Special Administrative Region of China, ""Yiyongjun Jinxingqu"" is the official anthem (see China)
"
National symbol(s)dragon, giant panda; national colors: red, yellow
lotus blossom; national colors: green, white, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified
see China

Economy

ChinaMacau
Economy - overview"Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion, resulting in efficiency gains that have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Reforms began with the phaseout of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China continues to pursue an industrial policy, state support of key sectors, and a restrictive investment regime. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2016 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. China became the world's largest exporter in 2010, and the largest trading nation in 2013. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average.

After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008, the renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the US dollar, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing announced it would allow a resumption of gradual liberalization. From 2013 until early2015, the renminbi (RMB) appreciated roughly 2% against the dollar, but the exchange rate fell 13% from mid-2015 until end-2016 amid strong capital outflows in part stemming from the August 2015 official devaluation; in 2017 the RMB resumed appreciating against the dollar – roughly 7% from end-of-2016 to end-of-2017. From 2013 to 2017, China had one of the fastest growing economies in the world, averaging slightly more than 7% real growth per year. In 2015, the People’s Bank of China announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi, after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket. However, since late 2015 the Chinese Government has strengthened capital controls and oversight of overseas investments to better manage the exchange rate and maintain financial stability.

The Chinese Government faces numerous economic challenges including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic household consumption; (b) managing its high corporate debt burden to maintain financial stability; (c) controlling off-balance sheet local government debt used to finance infrastructure stimulus; (d) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and college graduates, while maintaining competitiveness; (e) dampening speculative investment in the real estate sector without sharply slowing the economy; (f) reducing industrial overcapacity; and (g) raising productivity growth rates through the more efficient allocation of capital and state-support for innovation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2016 more than 169.3 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of China’s population control policy known as the “one-child policy” - which was relaxed in 2016 to permit all families to have two children - is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and urbanization. The Chinese Government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on natural gas, nuclear, and clean energy development. In 2016, China ratified the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement to combat climate change, and committed to peak its carbon dioxide emissions between 2025 and 2030.

The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in March 2016, emphasizes the need to increase innovation and boost domestic consumption to make the economy less dependent on government investment, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made more progress on subsidizing innovation than rebalancing the economy. Beijing has committed to giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources, but the Chinese Government’s policies continue to favor state-owned enterprises and emphasize stability. Chinese leaders in 2010 pledged to double China’s GDP by 2020, and the 13th Five Year Plan includes annual economic growth targets of at least 6.5% through 2020 to achieve that goal. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to ""economic security,"" explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. Chinese leaders also have undermined some market-oriented reforms by reaffirming the “dominant” role of the state in the economy, a stance that threatens to discourage private initiative and make the economy less efficient over time. The slight acceleration in economic growth in 2017—the first such uptick since 2010—gives Beijing more latitude to pursue its economic reforms, focusing on financial sector deleveraging and its Supply-Side Structural Reform agenda, first announced in late 2015.
"
Since opening up its locally-controlled casino industry to foreign competition in 2001, Macau has attracted tens of billions of dollars in foreign investment, transforming the territory into one of the world's largest gaming centers. Macau's gaming and tourism businesses were fueled by China's decision to relax travel restrictions on Chinese citizens wishing to visit Macau. In 2016, Macau's gaming-related taxes accounted for more than 76% of total government revenue.

Macau's economy slowed dramatically in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown, but strong growth resumed in the 2010-13 period, largely on the back of tourism from mainland China and the gaming sectors. In 2015, this city of 646,800 hosted nearly 30.7 million visitors. Almost 67% came from mainland China. Macau's traditional manufacturing industry has slowed greatly since the termination of the Multi-Fiber Agreement in 2005. Services export — primarily gaming — increasingly has driven Macau’s economic performance. Mainland China’s anti-corruption campaign brought Macau’s gambling boom to a halt in 2014, with spending in casinos contracting 34.3% in 2015. As a result, Macau's inflation-adjusted GDP contracted 21.5% in 2015 and another 2.1% in 2016 - down from double-digit expansion rates in the period 2010-13 - but the economy recovered handsomely in 2017.

Macau continues to face the challenges of managing its growing casino industry, risks from money-laundering activities, and the need to diversify the economy away from heavy dependence on gaming revenues. Macau's currency, the pataca, is closely tied to the Hong Kong dollar, which is also freely accepted in the territory.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$23.12 trillion (2017 est.)
$21.66 trillion (2016 est.)
$20.3 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$73.58 billion (2017 est.)
$64.86 billion (2016 est.)
$66.28 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.8% (2017 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
13.4% (2017 est.)
-2.1% (2016 est.)
-21.5% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$16,600 (2017 est.)
$15,700 (2016 est.)
$14,800 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$114,400 (2017 est.)
$100,600 (2016 est.)
$102,400 (2015 est.)
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.2%
industry: 39.5%
services: 52.2%
(2017 est.)
agriculture: 0%
industry: 11.3%
services: 88.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line3.3%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400)
(2016 est.)
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 31.4%
note: data are for urban households only (2012)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.8% (2017 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2017 est.)
2.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force806.7 million
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2017 est.)
400,000 (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 28.3%
industry: 29.3%
services: 42.4%
(2015 est.)
manufacturing: 2.5%
construction: 9.8%
transport and communications: 4.4%
wholesale and retail trade: 12.4%
restaurants and hotels: 15%
gambling: 25.9%
public sector: 7.1%
financial services: 2.6%
other services: 20.3% (2013)
Unemployment rate4% (2017 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
2% (2017 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46.5 (2016 est.)
46.2 (2015 est.)
35 (2013)
38 (2008)
Budgetrevenues: $2.672 trillion
expenditures: $3.146 trillion (2017 est.)
revenues: $14.24 billion
expenditures: $10.55 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesworld leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizer; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, railcars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys
Industrial production growth rate6.2% (2017 est.)
2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsworld leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, apples, cotton, pork, mutton, eggs; fish, shrimp
only 2% of land area is cultivated, mainly by vegetable growers; fishing, mostly for crustaceans, is important; some of the catch is exported to Hong Kong
Exports$2.157 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.99 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.137 billion (2013 est.)
$1.959 billion (2015 est.)
note: includes reexports
Exports - commoditieselectrical and other machinery, including computers and telecommunications equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles
clothing, textiles, footwear, toys, electronics, machinery and parts
Exports - partnersUS 18.2%, Hong Kong 13.8%, Japan 6.1%, South Korea 4.5% (2016)
Hong Kong 64.1%, China 20.2% (2016)
Imports$1.731 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.495 trillion (2016 est.)
$0 (2014 est.)
$13.52 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditieselectrical and other machinery, including integrated circuits and other computer components, oil and mineral fuels; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
raw materials and semi-manufactured goods, consumer goods (foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, garments and footwear, motor vehicles), capital goods, mineral fuels and oils
Imports - partnersSouth Korea 10%, Japan 9.2%, US 8.5%, Germany 5.4%, Australia 4.4% (2016)
China 36.7%, Hong Kong 8.6%, Italy 7.9%, Switzerland 7.6%, France 7.4%, Japan 6.3%, US 5.8% (2016)
Debt - external$1.649 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.467 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$0 (31 December 2013)
$0 (31 December 2012)
Exchange ratesRenminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.7588 (2017 est.)
6.6445 (2016 est.)
6.2275 (2015 est.)
6.1434 (2014 est.)
6.1958 (2013 est.)
patacas (MOP) per US dollar -
8 (2017 est.)
7.9951 (2016 est.)
7.9951 (2015 est.)
7.985 (2014 est.)
7.9871 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt18.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, including debt officially recognized by China's National Audit Office report in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, and China Asset Management Company debt
0% of GDP (2016 est.)
0% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.194 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.098 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: the Fiscal Reserves Act that came into force on 1 January 2012 requires the fiscal reserves to be separated from the foreign exchange reserves and to be managed separately; the transfer of assets took place in February 2012
Current Account Balance$162.5 billion (2017 est.)
$196.4 billion (2016 est.)
$16.86 billion (2017 est.)
$12.31 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$11.94 trillion (2016 est.)
note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries
$51.16 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.514 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.391 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.91 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$14.91 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$1.342 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.227 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.166 billion (2012 est.)
$667.8 million (2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$7.321 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.188 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.005 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$85.5 billion (2 March 2012 est.)
$46.1 billion (31 February 2011 est.)
$2.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$26.87 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.02 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.18 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$17.16 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$8.16 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.001 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.993 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.783 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$25.24 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.3 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$77.31 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$66.57 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues22.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4% of GDP (2017 est.)
7.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 39.1%
government consumption: 14.6%
investment in fixed capital: 43.3%
investment in inventories: 1.1%
exports of goods and services: 19.6%
imports of goods and services: -17.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 24.5%
government consumption: 9.4%
investment in fixed capital: 17.7%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 79.3%
imports of goods and services: -30.8% (2017 est.)

Energy

ChinaMacau
Electricity - production6.142 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
904 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption5.92 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
4.834 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports18.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports6.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
4.306 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production3.981 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports6.167 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports32,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves25.62 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.194 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production138.4 billion cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption210.3 billion cu m (2016 est.)
355,000 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports3.243 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports75.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
371,000 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.646 billion kW (2016 est.)
472,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels64% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants20.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources13.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production10.85 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption11.75 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
12,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports709,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports971,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
10,760 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy9.135 billion Mt (2014 est.)
1.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 99.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.8% (2016)
population without electricity: 59,742
electrification - total population: 91%
electrification - urban areas: 91%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2012)

Telecommunications

ChinaMacau
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 206.624 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2016 est.)
total: 142,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 1,364.934 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (July 2016 est.)
total: 1.896 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 320 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic and international services are available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services (2016)
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users now over 50% of the population; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place (2016)
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services
domestic: termination of monopoly over mobile-cellular telephone services in 2001 spurred sharp increase in subscriptions with mobile-cellular teledensity exceeding 300 per 100 persons; fixed-line subscribership appears to have peaked and is now in decline
international: country code - 853; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.cn
.mo
Internet userstotal: 730,723,960
percent of population: 53.2% (July 2016 est.)
total: 460,000
percent of population: 77.6% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediaall broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast; increasingly, Chinese turn to online television to access Chinese and international films and television shows (2017)
local government dominates broadcast media; 2 television stations operated by the government with one broadcasting in Portuguese and the other in Cantonese and Mandarin; 1 cable TV and 4 satellite TV services available; 3 radio stations broadcasting, of which 2 are government-operated (2015)

Transportation

ChinaMacau
Roadwaystotal: 4,577,300 km
paved: 4,046,300 km (includes 123,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 531,000 km (2015)
total: 424 km
paved: 424 km (2014)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dalian, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin
river port(s): Guangzhou (Pearl)
container port(s) (TEUs): Dalian (9,591,000), Guangzhou (17,097,000), Ningbo (20,636,000), Qingdao (17,323,000), Shanghai (36,516,000), Shenzhen (24,142,000), Tianjin (13,881,000)(2015)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shanghai, Tangshan, Zhejiang
major seaport(s): Macau
Merchant marinetotal: 4,287
by type: bulk carrier 1,069, container ship 198, general cargo 697, oil tanker 480, other 1,843, (2017)
total: 1
by type: other 1
Airports507 (2013)
1 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2017)
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
Heliports47 (2013)
2 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 56
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2,890
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 436,183,969
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 19.806 billion mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 1 (registered in China)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 17 (registered in China)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,276,436
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 25.435 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixB (2016)
B-M (2016)

Military

ChinaMacau
Military branchesPeople's Liberation Army (PLA): Army, Navy (PLAN, includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF, includes airborne forces), Rocket Force (strategic missile force), and Strategic Support Force (space and cyber forces); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2016)
no regular indigenous military forces

Transnational Issues

ChinaMacau
Disputes - internationalcontinuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China's Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands;
China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen Rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests
Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop
none
Illicit drugsmajor transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic consumption of synthetic drugs, and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia; source country for methamphetamine and heroin chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry; more people believed to be convicted and executed for drug offences than anywhere else in the world, according to NGOs
transshipment point for drugs going into mainland China; consumer of opiates and amphetamines

Source: CIA Factbook