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China vs. Bhutan

Introduction

ChinaBhutan
BackgroundFor centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communist Party of China under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically but political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.
"Following Britain’s victory in the 1865 Duar War, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding land to British India. Ugyen WANGCHUCK - who had served as the de facto ruler of an increasingly unified Bhutan and had improved relations with the British toward the end of the 19th century - was named king in 1907. Three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs, and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. Bhutan negotiated a similar arrangement with independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned to Bhutan a small piece of the territory annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. Under a succession of modernizing monarchs beginning in the 1950s, Bhutan joined the UN in 1971 and slowly continued its engagement beyond its borders.
In March 2005, King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK unveiled the government's draft constitution - which introduced major democratic reforms - and held a national referendum for its approval. In December 2006, the King abdicated the throne in favor of his son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK. In early 2007, India and Bhutan renegotiated their treaty, eliminating the clause that stated that Bhutan would be ""guided by"" India in conducting its foreign policy, although Thimphu continues to coordinate closely with New Delhi. Elections for seating the country's first parliament were completed in March 2008; the king ratified the country's first constitution in July 2008. Bhutan experienced a peaceful turnover of power following parliamentary elections in 2013, which resulted in the defeat of the incumbent party. The disposition of some 8,500 refugees of the more than 100,000 who fled or were forced out of Bhutan in the 1990s - and who are housed in two UN refugee camps in Nepal - remains unresolved.
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Geography

ChinaBhutan
LocationEastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Southern Asia, between China and India
Geographic coordinates35 00 N, 105 00 E
27 30 N, 90 30 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
total: 38,394 sq km
land: 38,394 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the US
slightly larger than Maryland; about one-half the size of Indiana
Land boundariestotal: 22,457 km
border countries (14): Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,133 km, Russia (northwest) 46 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
regional border(s) (2): Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
total: 1,136 km
border countries (2): China 477 km, India 659 km
Coastline14,500 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
none (landlocked)
Climateextremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrainmostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,840 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
mean elevation: 2,220 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Drangeme Chhu 97 m
highest point: Gangkar Puensum 7,570 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest), arable land
timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate
Land useagricultural land: 54.7%
arable land 11.3%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 41.8%
forest: 22.3%
other: 23% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 13.6%
arable land 2.6%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 85.5%
other: 0.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land690,070 sq km (2012)
320 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsfrequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's Bhutanese name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Environment - current issuesair pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; coastal destruction due to land reclamation, industrial development, and aquaculture; deforestation and habitat destruction; poor land management leads to soil erosion, landslides, floods, droughts, dust storms and desertification; trade in endangered species
soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - noteworld's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak above sea level
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

Demographics

ChinaBhutan
Population1,379,302,771 (July 2017 est.)
758,288 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 17.15% (male 127,484,177/female 109,113,241)
15-24 years: 12.78% (male 94,215,607/female 82,050,623)
25-54 years: 48.51% (male 341,466,438/female 327,661,460)
55-64 years: 10.75% (male 74,771,050/female 73,441,177)
65 years and over: 10.81% (male 71,103,029/female 77,995,969) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 25.8% (male 99,977/female 95,652)
15-24 years: 18.81% (male 72,634/female 70,018)
25-54 years: 43.07% (male 173,310/female 153,314)
55-64 years: 6.03% (male 24,482/female 21,206)
65 years and over: 6.29% (male 24,874/female 22,821) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 37.4 years
male: 36.5 years
female: 38.4 years (2017 est.)
total: 27.6 years
male: 28.2 years
female: 27.1 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.41% (2017 est.)
1.07% (2017 est.)
Birth rate12.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
17.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female
total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 32.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.7 years
male: 73.6 years
female: 78 years (2017 est.)
total population: 70.6 years
male: 69.6 years
female: 71.7 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.6 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.9 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Bhutanese
Ethnic groupsHan Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai, and other nationalities) 7.1%
note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
Ngalop (also known as Bhote) 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsBuddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
Lamaistic Buddhist 75.3%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 22.1%, other 2.6% (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesStandard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Sharchhopka 28%, Dzongkha (official) 24%, Lhotshamkha 22%, other 26% (includes foreign languages) (2005 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.9%
male: 73.1%
female: 55% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis
soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2015)
total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2013)
Education expendituresNA
7.4% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 57.9% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
note: data do not include Hong Kong and Macau
urban population: 40.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.89% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 95.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 63.7% of population
total: 76.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 36.3% of population
total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 77.9% of population
rural: 33.1% of population
total: 50.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 66.9% of population
total: 49.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationShanghai 23.741 million; BEIJING (capital) 20.384 million; Chongqing 13.332 million; Guangdong 12.458 million; Tianjin 11.21 million; Shenzhen 10.749 million (2015)
THIMPHU (capital) 152,000 (2014)
Maternal mortality rate27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
148 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.4% (2010)
12.8% (2010)
Health expenditures5.5% of GDP (2014)
3.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
0.26 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.2% (2016)
6.4% (2016)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 37.7
youth dependency ratio: 24.3
elderly dependency ratio: 13.3
potential support ratio: 7.5
data do not include Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 47.3
youth dependency ratio: 40.4
elderly dependency ratio: 6.9
potential support ratio: 14.5 (2015 est.)

Government

ChinaBhutan
Country name"conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
etymology: English name derives from the Qin (Chin) rulers of the 3rd century B.C., who comprised the first imperial dynasty of ancient China; the Chinese name Zhongguo translates as ""Central Nation""
"
"conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form: Bhutan
local long form: Druk Gyalkhap
local short form: Druk Yul
etymology: named after the Bhotia, the ethnic Tibetans who migrated from Tibet to Bhutan; ""Bod"" is the Tibetan name for their land; the Bhutanese name ""Druk Yul"" means ""Land of the Thunder Dragon""
"
Government typecommunist party-led state
constitutional monarchy
Capital"name: Beijing
geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial ""Xinjiang time zone"" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
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name: Thimphu
geographic coordinates: 27 28 N, 89 38 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
20 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Gasa, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Tashi Yangtse, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Independence1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
17 December 1907 (became a unified kingdom under its first hereditary king)
National holidayNational Day (anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949)
National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
history: previous governing documents were various royal decrees; first constitution drafted November 2001 - March 2005, ratified 18 July 2008
amendments: proposed as a motion by simple majority vote in a joint session of Parliament; passage requires at least a three-fourths majority vote in a joint session of the next Parliament and assented to by the king; amended 2011 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - in early 2017, the National People's Congress took the first step in adopting a new civil code by passing the General Provisions of the Civil Law
civil law based on Buddhist religious law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013), LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 ; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
chief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 December 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 December 2006 to his son
head of government: Prime Minister Tshering TOBGAY (since 27 July 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers or Lhengye Zhungtshog members nominated by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister and approved by the National Assembly; members serve 5-year terms
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary but can be removed by a two-third vote of Parliament; leader of the majority party in Parliament is nominated as the prime minister, appointed by the monarch
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms); note - in practice, only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - 2,987
description: bicameral Parliament or Chi Tshog consists of the non-partisan National Council or Gyelyong Tshogde (25 seats; 20 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 members appointed by the king; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Tshogdu (47 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council election last held on 23 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); National Assembly election first round held on 31 May 2013 and second round on 13 July 2013 ((next to be held in 2018)
election results: National Council - seats by party - independent 20 (all candidates required to run as independents); National Assembly - percent of vote by party in first round - DPT 44.5%; PDP 32.5%; DNT 17.0%; DCT 5.9%; percent of vote in second round - PDP 54.9%, DPT 45.1%; seats by party - PDP 32, DPT 15
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases); note - in late December 2016, the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth circuit courts of the Supreme People's Court began operation
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress (NPC); limited to 2 consecutive 5-year-terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the NPC; term of other justices and judges determined by the NPC
subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
note: in late 2014, China unveiled planned judicial reforms
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 justices including the chief justice); note - the Supreme Court has sole jurisdiction in constitutional matters
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the monarch upon the advice of the National Judicial Commission, a 4-member body to include the Legislative Committee of the National Assembly, the attorney general, the Chief Justice of Bhutan and the senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court; other judges (drangpons) appointed by the monarch from among the High Court judges selected by the National Judicial Commission; chief justice serves a 5-year term or until reaching age 65 years, whichever is earlier; the 4 other judges serve 10-year terms or until age 65, whichever is earlier
subordinate courts: High Court (first appellate court); District or Dzongkhag Courts; sub-district or Dungkhag Courts
Political parties and leadersChinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
note: China has 8 nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Bhutan Kuen-Nyam Party or BKP [Dasho Neten ZANGMO]
Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party (Druk Phuensum Tshogpa) or DPT [Pema GYAMTSHO]
Druk Chirwang Tshogpa or DCT [Lily WANGCHUK]
Druk Nymarup Tshogpa or DNT [Tandin DORJI]
People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tshering TOBGAY]
Political pressure groups and leadersno substantial political opposition groups exist
Druk National Congress or DNC [Gedun CHOEPHEL] (group in exile)
United Front for Democracy or UFD (group in exile)
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD [Jatuporn PROMPAN, chairman]
other: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepali-Bhutanese organizations (exiled)
International organization participationADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
none; note - the Permanent Mission to the UN for Bhutan has consular jurisdiction in the US; the permanent representative to the UN is Kunzang C. NAMGYEL (since February 2014); address: 343 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 682-2268; FAX [1] (212) 661-0551
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US"chief of mission: Ambassador Terry BRANSTAD (since 12 July 2017)Charge d""Affaires Johnathan FRITZ (acting)(since 5 June 2017)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
"
the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although frequent informal contact is maintained via the US embassy in New Delhi (India) and Bhutan's Permanent Mission to the UN
Flag descriptionred with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of China
divided diagonally from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side; the dragon, called the Druk (Thunder Dragon), is the emblem of the nation; its white color stands for purity and the jewels in its claws symbolize wealth; the background colors represent spiritual and secular powers within Bhutan: the orange is associated with Buddhism, while the yellow denotes the ruling dynasty
National anthem"name: ""Yiyongjun Jinxingqu"" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as ""Zhongguo Guoge"" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, ""Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm""
"
"name: ""Druk tsendhen"" (The Thunder Dragon Kingdom)
lyrics/music: Gyaldun Dasho Thinley DORJI/Aku TONGMI
note: adopted 1953
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)dragon, giant panda; national colors: red, yellow
thunder dragon known as Druk Gyalpo; national colors: orange, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bhutan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

ChinaBhutan
Economy - overview"Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion, resulting in efficiency gains that have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Reforms began with the phaseout of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China continues to pursue an industrial policy, state support of key sectors, and a restrictive investment regime. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2016 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. China became the world's largest exporter in 2010, and the largest trading nation in 2013. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average.

After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008, the renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the US dollar, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing announced it would allow a resumption of gradual liberalization. From 2013 until early2015, the renminbi (RMB) appreciated roughly 2% against the dollar, but the exchange rate fell 13% from mid-2015 until end-2016 amid strong capital outflows in part stemming from the August 2015 official devaluation; in 2017 the RMB resumed appreciating against the dollar – roughly 7% from end-of-2016 to end-of-2017. From 2013 to 2017, China had one of the fastest growing economies in the world, averaging slightly more than 7% real growth per year. In 2015, the People’s Bank of China announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi, after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket. However, since late 2015 the Chinese Government has strengthened capital controls and oversight of overseas investments to better manage the exchange rate and maintain financial stability.

The Chinese Government faces numerous economic challenges including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic household consumption; (b) managing its high corporate debt burden to maintain financial stability; (c) controlling off-balance sheet local government debt used to finance infrastructure stimulus; (d) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and college graduates, while maintaining competitiveness; (e) dampening speculative investment in the real estate sector without sharply slowing the economy; (f) reducing industrial overcapacity; and (g) raising productivity growth rates through the more efficient allocation of capital and state-support for innovation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2016 more than 169.3 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of China’s population control policy known as the “one-child policy” - which was relaxed in 2016 to permit all families to have two children - is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and urbanization. The Chinese Government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on natural gas, nuclear, and clean energy development. In 2016, China ratified the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement to combat climate change, and committed to peak its carbon dioxide emissions between 2025 and 2030.

The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in March 2016, emphasizes the need to increase innovation and boost domestic consumption to make the economy less dependent on government investment, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made more progress on subsidizing innovation than rebalancing the economy. Beijing has committed to giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources, but the Chinese Government’s policies continue to favor state-owned enterprises and emphasize stability. Chinese leaders in 2010 pledged to double China’s GDP by 2020, and the 13th Five Year Plan includes annual economic growth targets of at least 6.5% through 2020 to achieve that goal. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to ""economic security,"" explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. Chinese leaders also have undermined some market-oriented reforms by reaffirming the “dominant” role of the state in the economy, a stance that threatens to discourage private initiative and make the economy less efficient over time. The slight acceleration in economic growth in 2017—the first such uptick since 2010—gives Beijing more latitude to pursue its economic reforms, focusing on financial sector deleveraging and its Supply-Side Structural Reform agenda, first announced in late 2015.
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Bhutan's small economy is based largely on hydropower, agriculture, and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than half of the population. Because rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive, industrial production is primarily of the cottage industry type. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and is dependent on India for financial assistance and migrant laborers for development projects, especially for road construction. Bhutan inked a pact in December 2014 to expand duty-free trade with Bangladesh.

Multilateral development organizations administer most educational, social, and environment programs, and take into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale, environmentally conscientious tourists. Complicated controls and uncertain policies in areas such as industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

Bhutan’s largest export - hydropower to India - could spur sustainable growth in the coming years if Bhutan resolves chronic delays in construction. Bhutan’s hydropower exports comprise 40% of total exports and 25% of GDP. Bhutan currently taps only 6.5% of its 24,000-megawatt hydropower potential and is behind schedule in building 12 new hydropower dams with a combined capacity of 10,000 megawatts by 2020 in accordance with a deal signed in 2008 with India. The high volume of imported materials to build hydropower plants has expanded Bhutan's trade and current account deficits. Bhutan also is exploring energy exports to Bangladesh.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$23.12 trillion (2017 est.)
$21.66 trillion (2016 est.)
$20.3 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$7.011 billion (2017 est.)
$6.621 billion (2016 est.)
$6.232 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.8% (2017 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
5.9% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$16,600 (2017 est.)
$15,700 (2016 est.)
$14,800 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$8,700 (2017 est.)
$8,400 (2016 est.)
$8,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.2%
industry: 39.5%
services: 52.2%
(2017 est.)
agriculture: 15.7%
industry: 42.6%
services: 41.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line3.3%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400)
(2016 est.)
13.3% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 31.4%
note: data are for urban households only (2012)
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 30.6% (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.8% (2017 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2017 est.)
3.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force806.7 million
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2017 est.)
353,000
note: major shortage of skilled labor (2015 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 28.3%
industry: 29.3%
services: 42.4%
(2015 est.)
agriculture: 58%
industry: 20%
services: 22% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate4% (2017 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
3.2% (2017 est.)
3.2% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46.5 (2016 est.)
46.2 (2015 est.)
38.8 (2012)
38.1 (2007)
Budgetrevenues: $2.672 trillion
expenditures: $3.146 trillion (2017 est.)
revenues: $692.6 million
expenditures: $818.8 million
note: the government of India finances nearly one-quarter of Bhutan's budget expenditures (2017 est.)
Industriesworld leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizer; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, railcars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide, tourism
Industrial production growth rate6.2% (2017 est.)
8.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsworld leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, apples, cotton, pork, mutton, eggs; fish, shrimp
rice, corn, root crops, citrus; dairy products, eggs
Exports$2.157 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.99 trillion (2016 est.)
$580 million (2017 est.)
$495.3 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditieselectrical and other machinery, including computers and telecommunications equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles
electricity (to India), ferrosilicon, cement, cardamom, calcium carbide, steel rods/bars, dolomite, gypsum
Exports - partnersUS 18.2%, Hong Kong 13.8%, Japan 6.1%, South Korea 4.5% (2016)
India 95.7% (2016)
Imports$1.731 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.495 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.1 billion (2017 est.)
$1.033 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditieselectrical and other machinery, including integrated circuits and other computer components, oil and mineral fuels; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
fuel and lubricants, airplanes, machinery and parts, rice, motor vehicles
Imports - partnersSouth Korea 10%, Japan 9.2%, US 8.5%, Germany 5.4%, Australia 4.4% (2016)
India 91.1% (2016)
Debt - external$1.649 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.467 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.71 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesRenminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.7588 (2017 est.)
6.6445 (2016 est.)
6.2275 (2015 est.)
6.1434 (2014 est.)
6.1958 (2013 est.)
ngultrum (BTN) per US dollar -
64.97 (2017 est.)
67.2 (2016 est.)
67.2 (2015 est.)
64.15 (2014 est.)
61.03 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 July - 30 June
Public debt18.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, including debt officially recognized by China's National Audit Office report in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, and China Asset Management Company debt
93.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
106.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$162.5 billion (2017 est.)
$196.4 billion (2016 est.)
-$682 million (2017 est.)
-$618 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$11.94 trillion (2016 est.)
note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries
$2.321 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.514 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.391 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$185.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$168.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$7.321 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.188 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.005 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$355.3 million (31 December 2015)
$283.4 million (31 December 2012)
Central bank discount rate2.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.15% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$26.87 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.02 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.434 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$8.16 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.001 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$963.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$769 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$25.24 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.3 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.69 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.379 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues22.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-5.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 39.1%
government consumption: 14.6%
investment in fixed capital: 43.3%
investment in inventories: 1.1%
exports of goods and services: 19.6%
imports of goods and services: -17.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 50.1%
government consumption: 15.9%
investment in fixed capital: 49.4%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 25.9%
imports of goods and services: -41.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving45.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
45.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
47.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
34.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
32% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

ChinaBhutan
Electricity - production6.142 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
7.732 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption5.92 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
2.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports18.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
5.308 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports6.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
200 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production3.981 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports6.167 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports32,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves25.62 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.194 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - production138.4 billion cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption210.3 billion cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports3.243 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports75.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.646 billion kW (2016 est.)
1.631 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels64% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants20.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
99% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources13.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production10.85 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption11.75 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
3,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports709,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports971,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3,135 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy9.135 billion Mt (2014 est.)
260,300 Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 99.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.8% (2016)
population without electricity: 187,531
electrification - total population: 76%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 53% (2012)

Telecommunications

ChinaBhutan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 206.624 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 21,081
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 1,364.934 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (July 2016 est.)
total: 698,373
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 93 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic and international services are available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services (2016)
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users now over 50% of the population; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place (2016)
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
general assessment: urban towns and district headquarters have telecommunications services
domestic: domestic service inadequate, especially in rural areas; mobile-cellular service, begun in 2003, is now widely available; Internet services widely available
international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (2016)
Internet country code.cn
.bt
Internet userstotal: 730,723,960
percent of population: 53.2% (July 2016 est.)
total: 313,347
percent of population: 41.8% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediaall broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast; increasingly, Chinese turn to online television to access Chinese and international films and television shows (2017)
state-owned TV station established in 1999; cable TV service offers dozens of Indian and other international channels; first radio station, privately launched in 1973, is now state-owned; 5 private radio stations are currently broadcasting (2012)

Transportation

ChinaBhutan
Roadwaystotal: 4,577,300 km
paved: 4,046,300 km (includes 123,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 531,000 km (2015)
total: 10,578 km
paved: 2,975 km (includes 2,180 km of national highways)
unpaved: 7,603 km (2013)
note: a more recent figure for 2015 lists 11,177 km for total roadway length, but no breakdown of paved or unpaved
Airports507 (2013)
2 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2017)
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 44
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2012)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 56
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2,890
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 436,183,969
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 19.806 billion mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 162,864
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 538,041 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixB (2016)
A5 (2016)

Military

ChinaBhutan
Military branchesPeople's Liberation Army (PLA): Army, Navy (PLAN, includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF, includes airborne forces), Rocket Force (strategic missile force), and Strategic Support Force (space and cyber forces); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2016)
Royal Bhutan Army (includes Royal Bodyguard and Royal Bhutan Police) (2009)
Military service age and obligation18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; militia training is compulsory for males aged 20-25, over a 3-year period (2012)

Transnational Issues

ChinaBhutan
Disputes - internationalcontinuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China's Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands;
China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen Rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests
Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop
lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China’s Chumbi salient

Source: CIA Factbook