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Chile vs. Peru

Demographics

ChilePeru
Population
18,186,770 (July 2020 est.)
31,914,989 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 19.79% (male 1,836,240/female 1,763,124)
15-24 years: 13.84% (male 1,283,710/female 1,233,238)
25-54 years: 42.58% (male 3,882,405/female 3,860,700)
55-64 years: 11.98% (male 1,034,049/female 1,145,022)
65 years and over: 11.81% (male 902,392/female 1,245,890) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 25.43% (male 4,131,985/female 3,984,546)
15-24 years: 17.21% (male 2,756,024/female 2,736,394)
25-54 years: 41.03% (male 6,279,595/female 6,815,159)
55-64 years: 8.28% (male 1,266,595/female 1,375,708)
65 years and over: 8.05% (male 1,207,707/female 1,361,276) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 35.5 years
male: 34.3 years
female: 36.7 years (2020 est.)
total: 29.1 years
male: 28.3 years
female: 29.9 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
0.71% (2020 est.)
0.92% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
13.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
17 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 96.7 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 96.1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 79.4 years
male: 76.3 years
female: 82.5 years (2020 est.)
total population: 74.7 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 76.9 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.77 children born/woman (2020 est.)
2.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.5% (2019 est.)
0.4% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups
white and non-indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.)
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 60.2%, Amerindian 25.8%, white 5.9%, African descent 3.6%, other (includes Chinese and Japanese descent) 1.2%, unspecified 3.3% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
74,000 (201 est.)
87,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 66.7%, Evangelical or Protestant 16.4%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, other 3.4%, none 11.5%, unspecified 1.1% (2012 est.)
Roman Catholic 60%, Christian 14.6% (includes evangelical 11.1%, other 3.5%), other .3%, none 4%, unspecified 21.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<1000 (2018)
<1000 (2019 est.)
Languages
Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)

note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census

Spanish (official) 82.9%, Quechua (official) 13.6%, Aymara (official) 1.6%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.8%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%, none .1%, unspecified .7% (2017 est.)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 96.3%
female: 96.3% (2017)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.4%
male: 97.1%
female: 91.7% (2018)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2018)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2017)
Education expenditures
5.4% of GDP (2017)
3.9% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 87.7% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 78.3% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.44% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 95.6% of population
rural: 77.4% of population
total: 92.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 4.4% of population
rural: 22.6% of population
total: 7.9% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 60.8% of population
total: 85.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 14.8% of population (2017 est.)
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
6.767 million SANTIAGO (capital), 984,000 Valparaiso, 881,000 Concepcion (2020)
10.719 million LIMA (capital), 923,000 Arequipa, 865,000 Trujillo (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
13 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
88 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
0.5% (2014)
2.6% (2018)
Health expenditures
9% (2017)
5% (2017)
Physicians density
2.44 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
1.3 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
28% (2016)
19.7% (2016)
Demographic profile

Chile is in the advanced stages of demographic transition and is becoming an aging society - with fertility below replacement level, low mortality rates, and life expectancy on par with developed countries. Nevertheless, with its dependency ratio nearing its low point, Chile could benefit from its favorable age structure. It will need to keep its large working-age population productively employed, while preparing to provide for the needs of its growing proportion of elderly people, especially as women - the traditional caregivers - increasingly enter the workforce. Over the last two decades, Chile has made great strides in reducing its poverty rate, which is now lower than most Latin American countries. However, its severe income inequality ranks as the worst among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unequal access to quality education perpetuates this uneven income distribution.

Chile has historically been a country of emigration but has slowly become more attractive to immigrants since transitioning to democracy in 1990 and improving its economic stability (other regional destinations have concurrently experienced deteriorating economic and political conditions). Most of Chile's small but growing foreign-born population consists of transplants from other Latin American countries, especially Peru.

Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.

Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
76.3% (2015/16)
76.3% (2018)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 45.9
youth dependency ratio: 28.1
elderly dependency ratio: 17.9
potential support ratio: 5.6 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.2
youth dependency ratio: 37.1
elderly dependency ratio: 13.1
potential support ratio: 7.6 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook