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Chile vs. Bolivia

Demographics

ChileBolivia
Population
18,186,770 (July 2020 est.)
11,639,909 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 19.79% (male 1,836,240/female 1,763,124)
15-24 years: 13.84% (male 1,283,710/female 1,233,238)
25-54 years: 42.58% (male 3,882,405/female 3,860,700)
55-64 years: 11.98% (male 1,034,049/female 1,145,022)
65 years and over: 11.81% (male 902,392/female 1,245,890) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 30.34% (male 1,799,925/female 1,731,565)
15-24 years: 19.21% (male 1,133,120/female 1,103,063)
25-54 years: 38.68% (male 2,212,096/female 2,289,888)
55-64 years: 6.06% (male 323,210/female 382,139)
65 years and over: 5.71% (male 291,368/female 373,535) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 35.5 years
male: 34.3 years
female: 36.7 years (2020 est.)
total: 25.3 years
male: 24.5 years
female: 26 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
0.71% (2020 est.)
1.44% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
13.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
20.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 96.7 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 79.4 years
male: 76.3 years
female: 82.5 years (2020 est.)
total population: 70.4 years
male: 67.6 years
female: 73.4 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.77 children born/woman (2020 est.)
2.48 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.5% (2019 est.)
0.2% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian
Ethnic groups
white and non-indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.)
mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara (2009 est.)

note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide "mestizo" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of "mestizo" and "cholo" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchangeably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
74,000 (201 est.)
19,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 66.7%, Evangelical or Protestant 16.4%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, other 3.4%, none 11.5%, unspecified 1.1% (2012 est.)
Roman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<1000 (2018)
<200 (2019 est.)
Languages
Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)

note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census

Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, foreign languages 2.4%, none 0.1% (2001 est.)

note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including a few that are extinct

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 96.3%
female: 96.3% (2017)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 96.5%
female: 88.6% (2015)
Education expenditures
5.4% of GDP (2017)
7.3% of GDP (2014)
Urbanization
urban population: 87.7% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 70.1% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.97% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 78.1% of population
total: 92.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 21.9% of population
total: 7.1% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 94.1% of population
rural: 42.2% of population
total: 78% of population
unimproved: urban: 5.9% of population
rural: 57.8% of population
total: 22% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
6.767 million SANTIAGO (capital), 984,000 Valparaiso, 881,000 Concepcion (2020)
278,000 Sucre (constitutional capital) (2018); 1.858 million LA PAZ (capital), 1.713 million Santa Cruz, 1.304 million Cochabamba (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
13 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
155 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
0.5% (2014)
3.4% (2016)
Health expenditures
9% (2017)
6.4% (2017)
Physicians density
2.44 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
1.59 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
28% (2016)
20.2% (2016)
Demographic profile

Chile is in the advanced stages of demographic transition and is becoming an aging society - with fertility below replacement level, low mortality rates, and life expectancy on par with developed countries. Nevertheless, with its dependency ratio nearing its low point, Chile could benefit from its favorable age structure. It will need to keep its large working-age population productively employed, while preparing to provide for the needs of its growing proportion of elderly people, especially as women - the traditional caregivers - increasingly enter the workforce. Over the last two decades, Chile has made great strides in reducing its poverty rate, which is now lower than most Latin American countries. However, its severe income inequality ranks as the worst among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unequal access to quality education perpetuates this uneven income distribution.

Chile has historically been a country of emigration but has slowly become more attractive to immigrants since transitioning to democracy in 1990 and improving its economic stability (other regional destinations have concurrently experienced deteriorating economic and political conditions). Most of Chile's small but growing foreign-born population consists of transplants from other Latin American countries, especially Peru.

Bolivia ranks at or near the bottom among Latin American countries in several areas of health and development, including poverty, education, fertility, malnutrition, mortality, and life expectancy. On the positive side, more children are being vaccinated and more pregnant women are getting prenatal care and having skilled health practitioners attend their births.

Bolivia’s income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia’s high fertility rate—approximately three children per woman. Bolivia’s lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.

Between 7% and 16% of Bolivia’s population lives abroad (estimates vary in part because of illegal migration). Emigrants primarily seek jobs and better wages in Argentina (the principal destination), the US, and Spain. In recent years, more restrictive immigration policies in Europe and the US have increased the flow of Bolivian emigrants to neighboring countries. Fewer Bolivians migrated to Brazil in 2015 and 2016 because of its recession; increasing numbers have been going to Chile, mainly to work as miners.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
76.3% (2015/16)
66.5% (2016)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 45.9
youth dependency ratio: 28.1
elderly dependency ratio: 17.9
potential support ratio: 5.6 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 60.5
youth dependency ratio: 48.5
elderly dependency ratio: 12
potential support ratio: 8.3 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook