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Central African Republic vs. Chad

Demographics

Central African RepublicChad
Population
5,990,855 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

16,877,357 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 39.49% (male 1,188,682/female 1,176,958)
15-24 years: 19.89% (male 598,567/female 593,075)
25-54 years: 32.95% (male 988,077/female 986,019)
55-64 years: 4.32% (male 123,895/female 134,829)
65 years and over: 3.35% (male 78,017/female 122,736) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 47.43% (male 4,050,505/female 3,954,413)
15-24 years: 19.77% (male 1,676,495/female 1,660,417)
25-54 years: 27.14% (male 2,208,181/female 2,371,490)
55-64 years: 3.24% (male 239,634/female 306,477)
65 years and over: 2.43% (male 176,658/female 233,087) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 20 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 16.1 years
male: 15.6 years
female: 16.5 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.09% (2020 est.)
3.18% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
33.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
41.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
12.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
10 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 98.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 80.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 87.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 73.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 68.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 74.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 62.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 54.2 years
male: 52.7 years
female: 55.7 years (2020 est.)
total population: 58.3 years
male: 56.5 years
female: 60.1 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.14 children born/woman (2020 est.)
5.68 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
3.6% (2019 est.)
1.2% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Central African(s)
adjective: Central African
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups
Baya 28.8%, Banda 22.9%, Mandjia 9.9%, Sara 7.9%, M'Baka-Bantu 7.9%, Arab-Fulani (Peul) 6%, Mbum 6%, Ngbanki 5.5%, Zande-Nzakara 3%, other Central African Republic ethnic groups 2%, non-Central African Republic ethnic groups .1%
Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 30.5%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.8%, Arab 9.7%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.7%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.5%, Mundang 2.7%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.5%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.4%, Tupuri/Kera 2%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.8%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.2%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.4%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.3%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
100,000 (2019 est.)
120,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Christian 89.5%, Muslim 8.5%, folk 1%, unaffiliated 1% (2010 est.)

note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority

Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Roman Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
3,800 (2019 est.)
3,200 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), tribal languages
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37.4%
male: 49.5%
female: 25.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 22.3%
male: 31.3%
female: 14% (2016)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 7 years
male: 8 years
female: 6 years (2012)
total: 7 years
male: 9 years
female: 6 years (2015)
Education expenditures
1.2% of GDP (2011)
2.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanization
urban population: 42.2% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.52% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 23.5% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.88% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 89.6% of population
rural: 54.4% of population
total: 68.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 10.4% of population
rural: 45.6% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 86.7% of population
rural: 46.6% of population
total: 55.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 13.3% of population
rural: 53.4% of population
total: 44.3% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 43.6% of population
rural: 7.2% of population
total: 21.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 56.4% of population
rural: 92.8% of population
total: 78.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 56.5% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 15.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 43.5% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 84.7% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
889,000 BANGUI (capital) (2020)
1.423 million N'DJAMENA (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
829 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
1,140 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
20.8% (2018)
29.4% (2015)
Health expenditures
5.8% (2017)
4.5% (2017)
Physicians density
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
7.5% (2016)
6.1% (2016)
Demographic profile

The Central African Republic’s (CAR) humanitarian crisis has worsened since a coup in March 2013. CAR’s high mortality rate and low life expectancy are attributed to elevated rates of preventable and treatable diseases (including malaria and malnutrition), an inadequate health care system, precarious food security, and armed conflict. Some of the worst mortality rates are in western CAR’s diamond mining region, which is impoverished because of government attempts to control the diamond trade and the fall in industrial diamond prices. To make matters worse, the government and international donors have reduced health funding in recent years. The CAR’s weak educational system and low literacy rate have also suffered as a result of the country’s ongoing conflict. Schools are closed, qualified teachers are scarce, infrastructure, funding, and supplies are lacking and subject to looting, and many students and teachers are displaced by violence.

Rampant poverty, human rights violations, unemployment, poor infrastructure, and a lack of security and stability have led to forced displacement internally and externally. Since the political crisis that resulted in CAR’s March 2013 coup began in December 2012, approximately 600,000 people have fled to Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and other neighboring countries, while another estimated 600,000 are displaced internally as of October 2019. The UN has urged countries to refrain from repatriating CAR refugees amid the heightened lawlessness.

(2019)

Despite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting.

As of October 2017, more than 320,000 refugees from Sudan and more than 75,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
15.2% (2010/11)
5.7% (2014/15)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 86.4
youth dependency ratio: 81.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2
potential support ratio: 19.2 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 96
youth dependency ratio: 91.1
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.4 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook