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Central African Republic vs. Cameroon

Demographics

Central African RepublicCameroon
Population
5,990,855 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

27,744,989 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 39.49% (male 1,188,682/female 1,176,958)
15-24 years: 19.89% (male 598,567/female 593,075)
25-54 years: 32.95% (male 988,077/female 986,019)
55-64 years: 4.32% (male 123,895/female 134,829)
65 years and over: 3.35% (male 78,017/female 122,736) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 42.34% (male 5,927,640/female 5,820,226)
15-24 years: 20.04% (male 2,782,376/female 2,776,873)
25-54 years: 30.64% (male 4,191,151/female 4,309,483)
55-64 years: 3.87% (male 520,771/female 552,801)
65 years and over: 3.11% (male 403,420/female 460,248) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 20 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 18.5 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 18.8 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.09% (2020 est.)
2.78% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
33.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
36.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
12.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 98.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 99.3 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 80.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 87.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 73.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 51.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 56.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 46.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 54.2 years
male: 52.7 years
female: 55.7 years (2020 est.)
total population: 62.3 years
male: 60.6 years
female: 64 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.14 children born/woman (2020 est.)
4.66 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
3.6% (2019 est.)
3.2% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Central African(s)
adjective: Central African
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian
Ethnic groups
Baya 28.8%, Banda 22.9%, Mandjia 9.9%, Sara 7.9%, M'Baka-Bantu 7.9%, Arab-Fulani (Peul) 6%, Mbum 6%, Ngbanki 5.5%, Zande-Nzakara 3%, other Central African Republic ethnic groups 2%, non-Central African Republic ethnic groups .1%
Bamileke-Bamu 24.3%, Beti/Bassa, Mbam 21.6%, Biu-Mandara 14.6%, Arab-Choa/Hausa/Kanuri 11%, Adamawa-Ubangi, 9.8%, Grassfields 7.7%, Kako, Meka/Pygmy 3.3%, Cotier/Ngoe/Oroko 2.7%, Southwestern Bantu 0.7%, foreign/other ethnic group 4.5% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
100,000 (2019 est.)
510,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Christian 89.5%, Muslim 8.5%, folk 1%, unaffiliated 1% (2010 est.)

note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority

Roman Catholic 38.3%, Protestant 25.5%, other Christian 6.9%, Muslim 24.4%, animist 2.2%, other 0.5%, none 2.2% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
3,800 (2019 est.)
14,000 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), tribal languages
24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37.4%
male: 49.5%
female: 25.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 77.1%
male: 82.6%
female: 71.6% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 7 years
male: 8 years
female: 6 years (2012)
total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 11 years (2016)
Education expenditures
1.2% of GDP (2011)
3.1% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 42.2% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.52% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 57.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 89.6% of population
rural: 54.4% of population
total: 68.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 10.4% of population
rural: 45.6% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 94% of population
rural: 54.6% of population
total: 76.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 6% of population
rural: 45.3% of population
total: 23.5% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 43.6% of population
rural: 7.2% of population
total: 21.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 56.4% of population
rural: 92.8% of population
total: 78.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 83.3% of population
rural: 25.6% of population
total: 57.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 16.7% of population
rural: 74.4% of population
total: 42.3% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
889,000 BANGUI (capital) (2020)
3.922 million YAOUNDE (capital), 3.663 million Douala (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
829 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
529 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
20.8% (2018)
11% (2018)
Health expenditures
5.8% (2017)
4.7% (2017)
Physicians density
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density
1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
7.5% (2016)
11.4% (2016)
Demographic profile

The Central African Republic’s (CAR) humanitarian crisis has worsened since a coup in March 2013. CAR’s high mortality rate and low life expectancy are attributed to elevated rates of preventable and treatable diseases (including malaria and malnutrition), an inadequate health care system, precarious food security, and armed conflict. Some of the worst mortality rates are in western CAR’s diamond mining region, which is impoverished because of government attempts to control the diamond trade and the fall in industrial diamond prices. To make matters worse, the government and international donors have reduced health funding in recent years. The CAR’s weak educational system and low literacy rate have also suffered as a result of the country’s ongoing conflict. Schools are closed, qualified teachers are scarce, infrastructure, funding, and supplies are lacking and subject to looting, and many students and teachers are displaced by violence.

Rampant poverty, human rights violations, unemployment, poor infrastructure, and a lack of security and stability have led to forced displacement internally and externally. Since the political crisis that resulted in CAR’s March 2013 coup began in December 2012, approximately 600,000 people have fled to Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and other neighboring countries, while another estimated 600,000 are displaced internally as of October 2019. The UN has urged countries to refrain from repatriating CAR refugees amid the heightened lawlessness.

(2019)

Cameroon has a large youth population, with more than 60% of the populace under the age of 25. Fertility is falling but remains at a high level, especially among poor, rural, and uneducated women, in part because of inadequate access to contraception. Life expectancy remains low at about 55 years due to the prevalence of HIV and AIDs and an elevated maternal mortality rate, which has remained high since 1990. Cameroon, particularly the northern region, is vulnerable to food insecurity largely because of government mismanagement, corruption, high production costs, inadequate infrastructure, and natural disasters. Despite economic growth in some regions, poverty is on the rise, and is most prevalent in rural areas, which are especially affected by a shortage of jobs, declining incomes, poor school and health care infrastructure, and a lack of clean water and sanitation. Underinvestment in social safety nets and ineffective public financial management also contribute to Cameroon’s high rate of poverty.

International migration has been driven by unemployment (including fewer government jobs), poverty, the search for educational opportunities, and corruption. The US and Europe are preferred destinations, but, with tighter immigration restrictions in these countries, young Cameroonians are increasingly turning to neighboring states, such as Gabon and Nigeria, South Africa, other parts of Africa, and the Near and Far East. Cameroon’s limited resources make it dependent on UN support to host more than 420,000 refugees and asylum seekers as of September 2020. These refugees and asylum seekers are primarily from the Central African Republic and Nigeria.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
15.2% (2010/11)
19.3% (2018)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 86.4
youth dependency ratio: 81.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2
potential support ratio: 19.2 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 81.1
youth dependency ratio: 76.2
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.3 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook