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Burkina Faso vs. Benin

Demographics

Burkina FasoBenin
Population
20,835,401 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

12,864,634 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 43.58% (male 4,606,350/female 4,473,951)
15-24 years: 20.33% (male 2,121,012/female 2,114,213)
25-54 years: 29.36% (male 2,850,621/female 3,265,926)
55-64 years: 3.57% (male 321,417/female 423,016)
65 years and over: 3.16% (male 284,838/female 374,057) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 45.56% (male 2,955,396/female 2,906,079)
15-24 years: 20.36% (male 1,300,453/female 1,318,880)
25-54 years: 28.54% (male 1,735,229/female 1,935,839)
55-64 years: 3.15% (male 193,548/female 211,427)
65 years and over: 2.39% (male 140,513/female 167,270) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 17.9 years
male: 17 years
female: 18.7 years (2020 est.)
total: 17 years
male: 16.4 years
female: 17.6 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.66% (2020 est.)
3.4% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
35.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
42.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 95.6 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 96.7 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 56.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 58.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 63.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 62.7 years
male: 60.9 years
female: 64.5 years (2020 est.)
total population: 61.4 years
male: 59.6 years
female: 63.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.51 children born/woman (2020 est.)
5.53 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.8% (2019 est.)
1% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe
noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective: Beninese
Ethnic groups
Mossi 52%, Fulani 8.4%, Gurma 7%, Bobo 4.9%, Gurunsi 4.6%, Senufo 4.5%, Bissa 3.7%, Lobi 2.4%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Bella 1.9%, Dioula 0.8%, unspecified/no answer 0.3%, other 7.2% (2010 est.)
Fon and related 38.4%, Adja and related 15.1%, Yoruba and related 12%, Bariba and related 9.6%, Fulani and related 8.6%, Ottamari and related 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa and related 4.3%, Dendi and related 2.9%, other 0.9%, foreigner 1.9% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
100,000 (2019 est.)
75,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 61.5%, Roman Catholic 23.3%, traditional/animist 7.8%, Protestant 6.5%, other/no answer 0.2%, none 0.7% (2010 est.)
Muslim 27.7%, Roman Catholic 25.5%, Protestant 13.5% (Celestial 6.7%, Methodist 3.4%, other Protestant 3.4%), Vodoun 11.6%, other Christian 9.5%, other traditional religions 2.6%, other 2.6%, none 5.8% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
3,100 (2019 est.)
2,300 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 41.2%
male: 50.1%
female: 32.7% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.4%
male: 54%
female: 31.1% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2019)
total: 13 years
male: 14 years
female: 11 years (2016)
Education expenditures
4.2% of GDP (2015)
4% of GDP (2016)
Urbanization
urban population: 30.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 48.4% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.89% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 94.9% of population
rural: 67.9% of population
total: 75.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 32.1% of population
total: 24.4% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 81.2% of population
rural: 72.2% of population
total: 76.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 18.8% of population
rural: 27.8% of population
total: 23.6% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 88.2% of population
rural: 30.2% of population
total: 46.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 11.8% of population
rural: 69.8% of population
total: 53.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 58.7% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 36% of population
unimproved: urban: 41.3% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 64% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
2.780 million OUAGADOUGOU (capital), 972,000 Bobo-Dioulasso (2020)
285,000 PORTO-NOVO (capital) (2018); 1.056 million Abomey-Calavi, 692,000 COTONOU (seat of government) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
320 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
397 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
17.7% (2018)
16.8% (2018)
Health expenditures
6.9% (2017)
3.7% (2017)
Physicians density
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
5.6% (2016)
9.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.4 years (2010 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

20.4 years (2017/18 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Burkina Faso has a young age structure – the result of declining mortality combined with steady high fertility – and continues to experience rapid population growth, which is putting increasing pressure on the country’s limited arable land. More than 65% of the population is under the age of 25, and the population is growing at 3% annually. Mortality rates, especially those of infants and children, have decreased because of improved health care, hygiene, and sanitation, but women continue to have an average of almost 6 children. Even if fertility were substantially reduced, today’s large cohort entering their reproductive years would sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future. Only about a third of the population is literate and unemployment is widespread, dampening the economic prospects of Burkina Faso’s large working-age population.

Migration has traditionally been a way of life for Burkinabe, with seasonal migration being replaced by stints of up to two years abroad. Cote d’Ivoire remains the top destination, although it has experienced periods of internal conflict. Under French colonization, Burkina Faso became a main labor source for agricultural and factory work in Cote d’Ivoire. Burkinabe also migrated to Ghana, Mali, and Senegal for work between the world wars. Burkina Faso attracts migrants from Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Mali, who often share common ethnic backgrounds with the Burkinabe. Despite its food shortages and high poverty rate, Burkina Faso has become a destination for refugees in recent years and hosts about 33,500 Malians as of May 2017.

(2018)

Benin has a youthful age structure – almost 65% of the population is under the age of 25 – which is bolstered by high fertility and population growth rates. Benin’s total fertility has been falling over time but remains high, declining from almost 7 children per women in 1990 to 4.8 in 2016. Benin’s low contraceptive use and high unmet need for contraception contribute to the sustained high fertility rate. Although the majority of Beninese women use skilled health care personnel for antenatal care and delivery, the high rate of maternal mortality indicates the need for more access to high quality obstetric care.

Poverty, unemployment, increased living costs, and dwindling resources increasingly drive the Beninese to migrate. An estimated 4.4 million, more than 40%, of Beninese live abroad. Virtually all Beninese emigrants move to West African countries, particularly Nigeria and Cote d’Ivoire. Of the less than 1% of Beninese emigrants who settle in Europe, the vast majority live in France, Benin’s former colonial ruler.

With about 40% of the population living below the poverty line, many desperate parents resort to sending their children to work in wealthy households as domestic servants (a common practice known as vidomegon), mines, quarries, or agriculture domestically or in Nigeria and other neighboring countries, often under brutal conditions. Unlike in other West African countries, where rural people move to the coast, farmers from Benin’s densely populated southern and northwestern regions move to the historically sparsely populated central region to pursue agriculture. Immigrants from West African countries came to Benin in increasing numbers between 1992 and 2002 because of its political stability and porous borders.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
32.5% (2018/19)
15.5% (2017/18)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 87.9
youth dependency ratio: 83.4
elderly dependency ratio: 4.5
potential support ratio: 22.1 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 82.6
youth dependency ratio: 76.6
elderly dependency ratio: 6
potential support ratio: 16.7 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook