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Brazil vs. Uruguay

Introduction

BrazilUruguay
Background

Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world's strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country's rise. However, from about 2013 to 2016, Brazil was plagued by a sagging economy, high unemployment, and high inflation, only emerging from recession in 2017. Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF (2011-2016) was removed from office in 2016 by Congress for having committed impeachable acts against Brazil's budgetary laws, and her vice president, Michel TEMER, served the remainder of her second term. In October 2018, Jair BOLSONARO won the presidency with 55 percent of the vote and assumed office on 1 January 2019.

Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century launched widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was restored in 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and National (Blanco) parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.

Geography

BrazilUruguay
LocationEastern South America, bordering the Atlantic OceanSouthern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 55 00 W33 00 S, 56 00 W
Map referencesSouth AmericaSouth America
Areatotal: 8,515,770 sq km

land: 8,358,140 sq km

water: 157,630 sq km

note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
total: 176,215 sq km

land: 175,015 sq km

water: 1,200 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the USabout the size of Virginia and West Virginia combined; slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Land boundariestotal: 16,145 km

border countries (10): Argentina 1263 km, Bolivia 3403 km, Colombia 1790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1308 km, Paraguay 1371 km, Peru 2659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1050 km, Venezuela 2137 km
total: 1,591 km

border countries (2): Argentina 541 km, Brazil 1050 km
Coastline7,491 km660 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or the edge of continental margin
Climatemostly tropical, but temperate in southwarm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrainmostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal beltmostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Elevation extremeshighest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 320 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 109 m
Natural resourcesalumina, bauxite, beryllium, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, niobium, phosphates, platinum, tantalum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timberarable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fish
Land useagricultural land: 32.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 23.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 61.9% (2018 est.)

other: 5.2% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 87.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 10.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 76.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 10.2% (2018 est.)

other: 2.6% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land54,000 sq km (2012)2,380 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in southseasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Environment - current issuesdeforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; illegal wildlife trade; illegal poaching; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spillswater pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; heavy metal pollution; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal; deforestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping-London Protocol
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notenote 1: largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina

note 2: cassava (manioc) the sixth most important food crop in the world - after maize, rice, wheat, potatoes, and soybeans - seems to have originated in the west-central part of Brazil; pineapples are probably indigenous to the southern Brazil-Paraguay region
second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
Total renewable water resources8.647 trillion cubic meters (2017 est.)172.2 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionthe vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiromost of the country's population resides in the southern half of the country; approximately 80% of the populace is urban, living in towns or cities; nearly half of the population lives in and around the capital of Montevideo

Demographics

BrazilUruguay
Population213,445,417 (July 2021 est.)3,398,239 (July 2021 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 21.11% (male 22,790,634/female 21,907,018)

15-24 years: 16.06% (male 17,254,363/female 16,750,581)

25-54 years: 43.83% (male 46,070,240/female 46,729,640)

55-64 years: 9.78% (male 9,802,995/female 10,911,140)

65 years and over: 9.21% (male 8,323,344/female 11,176,018) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 19.51% (male 336,336/female 324,563)

15-24 years: 15.14% (male 259,904/female 252,945)

25-54 years: 39.86% (male 670,295/female 679,850)

55-64 years: 10.79% (male 172,313/female 193,045)

65 years and over: 14.71% (male 200,516/female 297,838) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 33.2 years

male: 32.3 years

female: 34.1 years (2020 est.)
total: 35.5 years

male: 33.8 years

female: 37.3 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate0.65% (2021 est.)0.26% (2021 est.)
Birth rate13.44 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)12.75 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)9.24 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-0.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.37 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.72 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 8.48 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.98 years

male: 71.49 years

female: 78.65 years (2021 est.)
total population: 78.19 years

male: 75.06 years

female: 81.42 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate1.73 children born/woman (2021 est.)1.76 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.6% (2020 est.)0.4% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian
noun: Uruguayan(s)

adjective: Uruguayan
Ethnic groupsWhite 47.7%, Mulatto (mixed White and Black) 43.1%, Black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, Indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)White 87.7%, Black 4.6%, Indigenous 2.4%, other 0.3%, none or unspecified 5% (2011 est.)

note: data represent primary ethnic identity
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS930,000 (2020 est.)12,000 (2020 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths13,000 (2020 est.)<200 (2020 est.)
LanguagesPortuguese (official and most widely spoken language); note - less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

major-language sample(s):
O Livro de Fatos Mundiais, a fonte indispensável para informação básica. (Brazilian Portuguese)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Spanish (official)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.2%

male: 93%

female: 93.4% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.7%

male: 98.4%

female: 99% (2018)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2011)
total: 17 years

male: NA

female: NA (2017)
Education expenditures6.3% of GDP (2017)5% of GDP (2018)
Urbanizationurban population: 87.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 95.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 91.6% of population

total: 98.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 8.4% of population

total: 1.6% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 93.9% of population

total: 99.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 95% of population

total: 100% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 92.8% of population

rural: 60.1% of population

total: 88.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.2% of population

rural: 39.9% of population

total: 11.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 99% of population

rural: 98.3% of population

total: 98.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 1% of population

rural: 1.7% of population

total: 2.1% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population22.237 million Sao Paulo, 13.544 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.140 million Belo Horizonte, 4.728 million BRASILIA (capital), 4.175 million Recife, 4.161 million Porto Alegre (2021)1.760 million MONTEVIDEO (capital) (2021)
Maternal mortality rate60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures9.5% (2018)9.2% (2018)
Physicians density2.16 physicians/1,000 population (2018)5.08 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)2.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.1% (2016)27.9% (2016)
Demographic profile

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).

Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.

Uruguay rates high for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems. It is one of the few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment. However, the emigration of human capital has diminished the state's return on its investment in education. Remittances from the roughly 18% of Uruguayans abroad amount to less than 1 percent of national GDP. The emigration of young adults and a low birth rate are causing Uruguay's population to age rapidly.

In the 1960s, Uruguayans for the first time emigrated en masse - primarily to Argentina and Brazil - because of economic decline and the onset of more than a decade of military dictatorship. Economic crises in the early 1980s and 2002 also triggered waves of emigration, but since 2002 more than 70% of Uruguayan emigrants have selected the US and Spain as destinations because of better job prospects. Uruguay had a tiny population upon its independence in 1828 and welcomed thousands of predominantly Italian and Spanish immigrants, but the country has not experienced large influxes of new arrivals since the aftermath of World War II. More recent immigrants include Peruvians and Arabs.

Contraceptive prevalence rate80.2% (2013)

note: percent of women aged 18-49
79.6% (2015)

note: percent of women aged 15-44
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.5

youth dependency ratio: 29.7

elderly dependency ratio: 13.8

potential support ratio: 7.3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 54.9

youth dependency ratio: 31.5

elderly dependency ratio: 23.4

potential support ratio: 4.3 (2020 est.)

Government

BrazilUruguay
Country nameconventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil

conventional short form: Brazil

local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil

local short form: Brasil

etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

conventional short form: Uruguay

local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay

local short form: Uruguay

former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province

etymology: name derives from the Spanish pronunciation of the Guarani Indian designation of the Uruguay River, which makes up the western border of the country and whose name later came to be applied to the entire country
Government typefederal presidential republicpresidential republic
Capitalname: Brasilia

geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Brazil has four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

etymology:
name bestowed on the new capital of Brazil upon its inauguration in 1960; previous Brazilian capitals had been Salvador from 1549 to 1763 and Rio de Janeiro from 1763 to 1960


name: Montevideo

geographic coordinates: 34 51 S, 56 10 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name "Montevidi" was originally applied to the hill that overlooked the bay upon which the city of Montevideo was founded; the earliest meaning may have been "[the place where we] saw the hill"
Administrative divisions26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence7 September 1822 (from Portugal)25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
National holidayIndependence Day, 7 September (1822)Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988

amendments: proposed by at least one third of either house of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by simple majority vote by more than half of the state legislative assemblies; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote by both houses in each of two readings; constitutional provisions affecting the federal form of government, separation of powers, suffrage, or individual rights and guarantees cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2020 (2021)
history: several previous; latest approved by plebiscite 27 November 1966, effective 15 February 1967

amendments: initiated by public petition of at least 10% of qualified voters, proposed by agreement of at least two fifths of the General Assembly membership, or by existing "constitutional laws" sanctioned by at least two thirds of the membership in both houses of the Assembly; proposals can also be submitted by senators, representatives, or by the executive power and require the formation of and approval in a national constituent convention; final passage by either method requires approval by absolute majority of votes cast in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2009
Legal systemcivil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 codecivil law system based on the Spanish civil code
Suffragevoluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and if illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2018 with runoff on 28 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)

election results:
2018:  Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%

2014:  Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%; note - on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER served as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term, which ended 1 January 2019
chief of state: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 27 October 2019 with a runoff election on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in October 2024, and a runoff if needed in November 2024)

election results:
2019: Luis Alberto LACALLE POU elected president - results of the first round of presidential elections: percent of vote - Daniel MARTINEZ (FA) 40.7%, Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (Blanco) 29.7%, Ernesto TALVI (Colorado Party) 12.8%, and Guido MANINI RIOS (Open Cabildo) 11.3%, other 5.5%; results of the second round: percent of vote - Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (Blanco) 50.6%, Daniel MARTINEZ (FA) 49.4%

2014: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president in second round; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ (Socialist Party) 56.5%, Luis Alberto LACALLE Pou (Blanco) 43.4%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of:
Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections:
Federal Senate - last held on 7 October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held in October 2022 for one-third of the Senate)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)

election results:
Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 7, PP 5, REDE 5, DEM 4, PSDB 4, PSDC 4, PSL 4, PT 4, PDT 2, PHS 2, PPS 2, PSB 2, PTB 2, Podemos 1, PR 1, PRB 1, PROS 1, PRP 1, PSC 1, SD 1; composition - men 70, women 11, percent of women 13.6%    
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 56, PSL 52, PP 37, PMDB 34, PSDC 34, PR 33, PSB 32, PRB 30, DEM 29, PSDB 29, PDT 28, SD 13, Podemos 11, PSOL 10, PTB 10, PCdoB 9, NOVO 8, PPS 8, PROS 8, PSC 8, Avante 7, PHS 6, Patriota 5, PRP 4, PV 4, PMN 3, PTC 2, DC 1, PPL 1, REDE 1; composition - men 462, women 51, percent of women 9.9%; total National Congress percent of women 10.4%
description: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of:
Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (31 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; the vice-president serves as the presiding ex-officio member; elected members serve 5-year terms)
Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections:
Chamber of Senators - last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2024)
Chamber of Representatives - last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2024)

election results:
Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 13, National Party 10, Colorado Party 4, Open Cabildo 3; composition - men 21, women 10, percent of women 32.3%

Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 42, National Party 30, Colorado Party 13, Open Cabildo 11, Independent Party 1, other 2; composition - men 75, women 24, percent of women 24.2%; note - total General Assembly percent of women 26.2%
Judicial branchhighest courts: Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 5 judges)

judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and appointed in joint conference of the General Assembly; judges serve 10-year terms, with reelection possible after a lapse of 5 years following the previous term

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; District Courts (Juzgados Letrados); Peace Courts (Juzgados de Paz); Rural Courts (Juzgados Rurales)
Political parties and leadersAvante [Luis TIBE] (formerly Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB) 
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Tasso JEREISSATI]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Democracy or DC [Jose Maria EYMAEL] (formerly Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC)
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
New Party or NOVO [Moises JARDIM]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Patriota [Adilson BARROSO Oliveira] (formerly National Ecologic Party or PEN)
Podemos [Renata ABREU] (formerly National Labor Party or PTN) 
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
Sustainability Network or REDE [Marina SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Gleisi HOFFMAN]
Broad Front or FA (Frente Amplio) [Javier MIRANDA] - (a broad governing coalition that includes Uruguay Assembly [Danilo ASTORI], Progressive Alliance [Rodolfo NIN NOVOA], New Space [Rafael MICHELINI], Socialist Party [Monica XAVIER], Vertiente Artiguista [Enrique RUBIO], Christian Democratic Party [Jorge RODRIGUEZ], For the People’s Victory [Luis PUIG], Popular Participation Movement (MPP) [Jose MUJICA], Broad Front Commitment [Raul SENDIC], Big House [Constanza MOREIRA], Communist Party [Marcos CARAMBULA], The Federal League [Dario PEREZ]
Colorado Party (including Vamos Uruguay (or Let's Go Uruguay), Open Space [Tabare VIERA], and Open Batllism [Ope PASQUET])
Independent Party [Pablo MIERES]
National Party or Blanco (including Everyone [Luis LACALLE POU] and National Alliance [Jorge LARRANAGA])
Popular Unity [Gonzalo ABELLA]
Open Cabildo [Guido MANINI RIOS]
International organization participationAfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOCAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Nestor Jose FORSTER, Jr. (since 23 December 2020)

chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827

email address and website:
http://washington.itamaraty.gov.br/en-us/Main.xml

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
chief of mission: Ambassador Andres Augusto DURAN HAREAU (since 23 December 2020)

chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313

FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142

email address and website:
urueeuu@mrree.gub.uy

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Douglas A. KONEFF (since July 2021)

embassy: SES - Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, 70403-900 - Brasilia, DF

mailing address: 7500 Brasilia Place, Washington DC  20521-7500

telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000

FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136

email address and website:
BrasilliaACS@state.gov

https://br.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Recife, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo

branch office(s): Belo Horizonte
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jennifer SAVAGE (since 20 January 2021)

embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200

mailing address: 3360 Montevideo Place, Washington DC  20521-3360

telephone: (+598) 1770-2000

FAX: [+598] 1770-2128

email address and website:
MontevideoACS@state.gov

https://uy.usembassy.gov/
Flag descriptiongreen with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face (delineated in black) known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy; the stripes represent the nine original departments of Uruguay; the sun symbol evokes the legend of the sun breaking through the clouds on 25 May 1810 as independence was first declared from Spain (Uruguay subsequently won its independence from Brazil); the sun features are said to represent those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun

note: the banner was inspired by the national colors of Argentina and by the design of the US flag
National anthemname: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA

note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
name: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem of Uruguay)

lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/Francisco Jose DEBALI

note: adopted 1848; the anthem is also known as "Orientales, la Patria o la tumba!" ("Uruguayans, the Fatherland or Death!"); it is the world's longest national anthem in terms of music (105 bars; almost five minutes); generally only the first verse and chorus are sung
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blueSun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: blue, white, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years

Economy

BrazilUruguay
Economy - overview

Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. In 2017, Brazil`s GDP grew 1%, inflation fell to historic lows of 2.9%, and the Central Bank lowered benchmark interest rates from 13.75% in 2016 to 7%.

The economy has been negatively affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials, including the impeachment and conviction of Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF in August 2016. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — have limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors but creating opportunities for foreign companies to step into what had been a closed market.

The succeeding TEMER administration has implemented a series of fiscal and structural reforms to restore credibility to government finances. Congress approved legislation in December 2016 to cap public spending. Government spending growth had pushed public debt to 73.7% of GDP at the end of 2017, up from over 50% in 2012. The government also boosted infrastructure projects, such as oil and natural gas auctions, in part to raise revenues. Other economic reforms, proposed in 2016, aim to reduce barriers to foreign investment, and to improve labor conditions. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, have boosted employment, but at the expense of investment.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc that includes Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay - Venezuela’s membership in the organization was suspended In August 2017. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to volatile foreign markets and it currently is negotiating Free Trade Agreements with the European Union and Canada.

Uruguay has a free market economy characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending. Uruguay has sought to expand trade within the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) and with non-Mercosur members, and President VAZQUEZ has maintained his predecessor's mix of pro-market policies and a strong social safety net. 

Following financial difficulties in the late 1990s and early 2000s, Uruguay's economic growth averaged 8% annually during the 2004-08 period. The 2008-09 global financial crisis put a brake on Uruguay's vigorous growth, which decelerated to 2.6% in 2009. Nevertheless, the country avoided a recession and kept growth rates positive, mainly through higher public expenditure and investment; GDP growth reached 8.9% in 2010 but slowed markedly in the 2012-16 period as a result of a renewed slowdown in the global economy and in Uruguay's main trade partners and Mercosur counterparts, Argentina and Brazil. Reforms in those countries should give Uruguay an economic boost. Growth picked up in 2017.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$3,092,216,000,000 (2019 est.)

$3,057,465,000,000 (2018 est.)

$3,017,715,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$74.638 billion (2019 est.)

$74.473 billion (2018 est.)

$73.285 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.13% (2019 est.)

1.2% (2018 est.)

1.62% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2017 est.)

1.7% (2016 est.)

0.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,652 (2019 est.)

$14,596 (2018 est.)

$14,520 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$21,561 (2019 est.)

$21,591 (2018 est.)

$21,325 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.7% (2017 est.)

services: 72.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 6.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 24.1% (2017 est.)

services: 69.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line4.2% (2016 est.)

note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line
8.8% (2019 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 0.8%

highest 10%: 43.4% (2016 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.7% (2019 est.)

3.6% (2018 est.)

3.4% (2017 est.)
7.8% (2019 est.)

7.5% (2018 est.)

6.2% (2017 est.)
Labor force86.621 million (2020 est.)1.748 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 9.4%

industry: 32.1%

services: 58.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 13%

industry: 14%

services: 73% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate11.93% (2019 est.)

12.26% (2018 est.)
7.6% (2017 est.)

7.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index53.9 (2018 est.)

54 (2004)
39.7 (2018 est.)

41.9 (2013)
Budgetrevenues: 733.7 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 756.3 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 17.66 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 19.72 billion (2017 est.)
Industriestextiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipmentfood processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Industrial production growth rate0% (2017 est.)-3.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productssugar cane, soybeans, maize, milk, cassava, oranges, poultry, rice, beef, cottonsoybeans, milk, rice, maize, wheat, barley, beef, sugar cane, sorghum, oranges
Exports$291.452 billion (2019 est.)

$298.565 billion (2018 est.)

$286.935 billion (2017 est.)
$11.41 billion (2017 est.)

$8.387 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiessoybeans, crude petroleum, iron, corn, wood pulp products (2019)sulfate wood pulp, beef, soybeans, concentrated milk, rice (2019)
Exports - partnersChina 28%, United States 13% (2019)China 29%, Brazil 12%, United States 5%, Netherlands 5%, Argentina 5% (2019)
Imports$271.257 billion (2019 est.)

$268.237 billion (2018 est.)

$248.961 billion (2017 est.)
$8.607 billion (2017 est.)

$8.463 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesrefined petroleum, vehicle parts, crude petroleum, integrated circuits, pesticides (2019)crude petroleum, packaged medicines, cars, broadcasting equipment, delivery trucks (2019)
Imports - partnersChina 21%, United States 18%, Germany 6%, Argentina 6% (2019)Brazil 25%, China 15%, United States 11%, Argentina 11% (2019)
Debt - external$681.336 billion (2019 est.)

$660.693 billion (2018 est.)
$43.705 billion (2019 est.)

$42.861 billion (2018 est.)
Exchange ratesreals (BRL) per US dollar -

5.12745 (2020 est.)

4.14915 (2019 est.)

3.862 (2018 est.)

3.3315 (2014 est.)

2.3535 (2013 est.)
Uruguayan pesos (UYU) per US dollar -

42.645 (2020 est.)

37.735 (2019 est.)

32.2 (2018 est.)

27.52 (2014 est.)

23.25 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt84% of GDP (2017 est.)

78.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
65.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

61.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$374 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$367.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$13.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$50.927 billion (2019 est.)

-$41.54 billion (2018 est.)
$879 million (2017 est.)

$410 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1,877,942,000,000 (2019 est.)$56.108 billion (2019 est.)
Taxes and other revenues35.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)29.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)-3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 27.8%

male: 24.1%

female: 32.6% (2019 est.)
total: 28.7%

male: 24.8%

female: 33.9% (2019 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 63.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 15.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 12.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -11.6% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 66.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 21.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -18.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving12.2% of GDP (2019 est.)

12.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

13.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
13% of GDP (2019 est.)

12% of GDP (2018 est.)

12.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

Energy

BrazilUruguay
Electricity - production567.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)13.13 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption509.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)10.77 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports219 million kWh (2015 est.)1.321 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports41.31 billion kWh (2016 est.)24 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production2.587 million bbl/day (2018 est.)0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports297,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)40,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports736,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves12.63 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves377.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption34.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)70.79 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports134.5 million cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports10.51 billion cu m (2017 est.)70.79 million cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity150.8 million kW (2016 est.)4.808 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels17% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)29% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants64% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)29% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources18% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production2.811 million bbl/day (2015 est.)42,220 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption2.956 million bbl/day (2016 est.)53,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports279,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports490,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)9,591 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2020)electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

BrazilUruguay
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 33,712,877

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16.01 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,165,373

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34.47 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 202,009,290

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95.92 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 4,779,787

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 141.39 (2019 est.)
Internet country code.br.uy
Internet userstotal: 140,908,998

percent of population: 67.47% (July 2018 est.)
total: 2,300,557

percent of population: 68.28% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

Brazil is one of the largest mobile and broadband markets in Latin America with healthy competition and pricing; 5G launched on limited basis; large fixed-line broadband market with focus on fiber; landing point for submarine cables and investment into terrestrial fiber cables to neighboring countries; Internet penetration has increased, access varies along geographic and socio-economic lines; government provides free WiFi in urban public spaces; pioneer in the region for M-commerce; major importer of integrated circuits from South Korea and China, and broadcasting equipment from China (2021)

 

(2020)

domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 16 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major impetus broadening telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 99 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 55; landing points for a number of submarine cables, including Malbec, ARBR, Tamnat, SAC, SAm-1, Atlantis -2, Seabras-1, Monet, EllaLink, BRUSA, GlobeNet, AMX-1, Brazilian Festoon, Bicentenario, Unisur, Junior, Americas -II, SAE x1, SAIL, SACS and SABR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station; satellites is a major communication platform, as it is almost impossible to lay fiber optic cable in the thick vegetation (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment:

Uruguay has an advanced telecom market, with excellent infrastructure and one of the highest broadband penetration rates in Latin America; fully digitized; high computer use and fixed-line/mobile penetrations; deployment of fiber infrastructure will encourage economic growth and stimulate e-commerce; state-owned monopoly on fixed-line market and dominance of mobile market; nationwide 3G coverage and LTE networks; limited 5G commercial reach; strong focus on fiber infrastructure with high percentage of residential fixed-broadband connections and near total business connections; importer of broadcasting equipment from China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line 34 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 138 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 598; landing points for the Unisor, Tannat, and Bicentenario submarine cable system providing direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; Bicentenario 2012 and Tannat 2017 cables helped end-users with Internet bandwidth; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2020)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 32,914,496

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15.63 (2019 est.)
total: 1,012,410

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29.95 (2019 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentratedmixture of privately owned and state-run broadcast media; more than 100 commercial radio stations and about 20 TV channels; cable TV is available; many community radio and TV stations; adopted the hybrid Japanese/Brazilian HDTV standard (ISDB-T) in December 2010 (2019)

Transportation

BrazilUruguay
Railwaystotal: 29,850 km (2014)

standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)

narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)

broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified) (2014)

dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 1,673 km (operational; government claims overall length is 2,961 km) (2016)

standard gauge: 1,673 km 1.435-m gauge (2016)
Roadwaystotal: 2 million km (2018)

paved: 246,000 km (2018)

unpaved: 1.754 million km (2018)
total: 77,732 km (2010)

paved: 7,743 km (2010)

unpaved: 69,989 km (2010)
Waterways50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)1,600 km (2011)
Pipelines5959 km refined petroleum product (1,165 km distribution, 4,794 km transport), 11696 km natural gas (2,274 km distribution, 9,422 km transport), 1985 km crude oil (distribution), 77 km ethanol/petrochemical (37 km distribution, 40 km transport) (2016)257 km gas, 160 km oil (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Belem, Itajai, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao

oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Itajai (1,223,262), Paranagua (865,110), Santos (4,165,248) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero

river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)

dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
major seaport(s): Montevideo
Merchant marinetotal: 875

by type: bulk carrier 12, container ship 18, general cargo 45, oil tanker 38, other 762 (2020)
total: 60

by type:  container ship 1, general cargo 5, oil tanker 3, other 51 (2020)
Airportstotal: 4,093 (2013)total: 133 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 698 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 7 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 179 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 436 (2017)

under 914 m: 49 (2017)
total: 11 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)

under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3,395 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 92 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 1,619 (2013)

under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
total: 122 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 40 (2013)

under 914 m: 79 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 9 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,109,977 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,845,650,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixPPCX

Military

BrazilUruguay
Military branchesBrazilian Armed Forces: Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Aviation and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB); Public Security Forces (2021)Armed Forces of Uruguay (Fuerzas Armadas del Uruguay): National Army (Ejercito Nacional), National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Maritime National Prefecture (Coast Guard)), Uruguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea); Guardia Nacional Republicana (paramilitary regiment of the National Police) (2021)
Military service age and obligation18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2019)18-30 years of age (18-22 years of age for Navy) for male or female voluntary military service; up to 40 years of age for specialists; enlistment is voluntary in peacetime, but the government has the authority to conscript in emergencies (2021)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.5% of GDP (2019)

1.5% of GDP (2018)

1.4% of GDP (2017)

1.3% of GDP (2016)

1.4% of GDP (2015)
2% of GDP (2019)

2.1% of GDP (2018)

2% of GDP (2017)

1.9% of GDP (2016)

1.8% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

BrazilUruguay
Disputes - international

uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela

in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border

Illicit drugssecond-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Areasmall-scale transit country for drugs mainly bound for Europe, often through sea-borne containers; law enforcement corruption; money laundering because of strict banking secrecy laws; weak border control along Brazilian frontier; increasing consumption of cocaine base and synthetic drugs
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 261,441 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or received alternative legal stay) (2020)

stateless persons: 14 (2020)
refugees (country of origin): 15,200 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2021)

Source: CIA Factbook