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Brazil vs. Suriname

Introduction

BrazilSuriname
Background

Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world's strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country's rise. However, from about 2013 to 2016, Brazil was plagued by a sagging economy, high unemployment, and high inflation, only emerging from recession in 2017. Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF (2011-2016) was removed from office in 2016 by Congress for having committed impeachable acts against Brazil's budgetary laws, and her vice president, Michel TEMER, served the remainder of her second term. In October 2018, Jair BOLSONARO won the presidency with 55 percent of the vote and assumed office on 1 January 2019.

First explored by the Spaniards in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid-17th century, Suriname became a Dutch colony in 1667. With the abolition of African slavery in 1863, workers were brought in from India and Java. The Netherlands granted the colony independence in 1975. Five years later the civilian government was replaced by a military regime that soon declared Suriname a socialist republic. It continued to exert control through a succession of nominally civilian administrations until 1987, when international pressure finally forced a democratic election. In 1990, the military overthrew the civilian leadership, but a democratically elected government - a four-party coalition - returned to power in 1991. The coalition expanded to eight parties in 2005 and ruled until August 2010, when voters returned former military leader Desire BOUTERSE and his opposition coalition to power. President BOUTERSE was reelected unopposed in 2015.

Geography

BrazilSuriname
LocationEastern South America, bordering the Atlantic OceanNorthern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between French Guiana and Guyana
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 55 00 W4 00 N, 56 00 W
Map referencesSouth AmericaSouth America
Areatotal: 8,515,770 sq km

land: 8,358,140 sq km

water: 157,630 sq km

note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
total: 163,820 sq km

land: 156,000 sq km

water: 7,820 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the USslightly larger than Georgia
Land boundariestotal: 16,145 km

border countries (10): Argentina 1263 km, Bolivia 3403 km, Colombia 1790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1308 km, Paraguay 1371 km, Peru 2659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1050 km, Venezuela 2137 km
total: 1,907 km

border countries (3): Brazil 515 km, French Guiana 556 km, Guyana 836 km
Coastline7,491 km386 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatemostly tropical, but temperate in southtropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrainmostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal beltmostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
Elevation extremeshighest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 320 m
highest point: Juliana Top 1,230 m

lowest point: unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m

mean elevation: 246 m
Natural resourcesalumina, bauxite, beryllium, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, niobium, phosphates, platinum, tantalum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timbertimber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite, gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore
Land useagricultural land: 32.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 23.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 61.9% (2018 est.)

other: 5.2% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 0.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 94.6% (2018 est.)

other: 4.9% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land54,000 sq km (2012)570 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in southflooding
Environment - current issuesdeforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; illegal wildlife trade; illegal poaching; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spillsdeforestation as timber is cut for export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping-London Protocol
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notenote 1: largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina

note 2: cassava (manioc) the sixth most important food crop in the world - after maize, rice, wheat, potatoes, and soybeans - seems to have originated in the west-central part of Brazil; pineapples are probably indigenous to the southern Brazil-Paraguay region
smallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast
Total renewable water resources8.647 trillion cubic meters (2017 est.)99 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionthe vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiropopulation concentrated along the nothern coastal strip; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated

Demographics

BrazilSuriname
Population213,445,417 (July 2021 est.)614,749 (July 2021 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 21.11% (male 22,790,634/female 21,907,018)

15-24 years: 16.06% (male 17,254,363/female 16,750,581)

25-54 years: 43.83% (male 46,070,240/female 46,729,640)

55-64 years: 9.78% (male 9,802,995/female 10,911,140)

65 years and over: 9.21% (male 8,323,344/female 11,176,018) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 23.38% (male 72,642/female 69,899)

15-24 years: 17.2% (male 53,427/female 51,438)

25-54 years: 44.09% (male 136,889/female 131,868)

55-64 years: 8.78% (male 26,435/female 27,066)

65 years and over: 6.55% (male 17,437/female 22,468) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 33.2 years

male: 32.3 years

female: 34.1 years (2020 est.)
total: 31 years

male: 30.6 years

female: 31.4 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate0.65% (2021 est.)0.91% (2021 est.)
Birth rate13.44 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)14.7 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.37 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.72 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 31.72 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 21.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.98 years

male: 71.49 years

female: 78.65 years (2021 est.)
total population: 73.57 years

male: 71.09 years

female: 76.16 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate1.73 children born/woman (2021 est.)1.85 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.6% (2020 est.)1.1% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian
noun: Surinamer(s)

adjective: Surinamese
Ethnic groupsWhite 47.7%, Mulatto (mixed White and Black) 43.1%, Black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, Indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)Hindustani (also known locally as "East Indians"; their ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th century) 27.4%, Maroon (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the 17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 21.7%, Creole (mixed White and Black) 15.7%, Javanese 13.7%, mixed 13.4%, other 7.6%, unspecified 0.6% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS930,000 (2020 est.)5,200 (2020 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)Protestant 23.6% (includes Evangelical 11.2%, Moravian 11.2%, Reformed .7%, Lutheran .5%), Hindu 22.3%, Roman Catholic 21.6%, Muslim 13.8%, other Christian 3.2%, Winti 1.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 1.7%, none 7.5%, unspecified 3.2% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths13,000 (2020 est.)<200 (2020 est.)
LanguagesPortuguese (official and most widely spoken language); note - less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

major-language sample(s):
O Livro de Fatos Mundiais, a fonte indispensável para informação básica. (Brazilian Portuguese)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is the native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese

major-language sample(s):
Het Wereld Feitenboek, een omnisbare bron van informatie. (Dutch)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.2%

male: 93%

female: 93.4% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.4%

male: 96.1%

female: 92.7% (2018)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Brazil; as of 20 July 2021, Brazil has reported a total of 19,376,574 cases of COVID-19 or 9,115.84  cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 255.09 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 18 July 2021, 44.26% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine
degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
Education expenditures6.3% of GDP (2017)NA
Urbanizationurban population: 87.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 66.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.88% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 91.6% of population

total: 98.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 8.4% of population

total: 1.6% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 98.2% of population

rural: 92% of population

total: 96.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population

rural: 8% of population

total: 3.4% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 92.8% of population

rural: 60.1% of population

total: 88.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.2% of population

rural: 39.9% of population

total: 11.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 98.5% of population

rural: 88.2% of population

total: 95% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.5% of population

rural: 11.8% of population

total: 5% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population22.237 million Sao Paulo, 13.544 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.140 million Belo Horizonte, 4.728 million BRASILIA (capital), 4.175 million Recife, 4.161 million Porto Alegre (2021)239,000 PARAMARIBO (capital) (2018)
Maternal mortality rate60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)120 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures9.5% (2018)8% (2018)
Physicians density2.16 physicians/1,000 population (2018)1.21 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.1% (2016)26.4% (2016)
Demographic profile

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).

Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.

Suriname is a pluralistic society consisting primarily of Creoles (persons of mixed African and European heritage), the descendants of escaped African slaves known as Maroons, and the descendants of Indian and Javanese (Indonesian) contract workers. The country overall is in full, post-industrial demographic transition, with a low fertility rate, a moderate mortality rate, and a rising life expectancy. However, the Maroon population of the rural interior lags behind because of lower educational attainment and contraceptive use, higher malnutrition, and significantly less access to electricity, potable water, sanitation, infrastructure, and health care.

Some 350,000 people of Surinamese descent live in the Netherlands, Suriname's former colonial ruler. In the 19th century, better-educated, largely Dutch-speaking Surinamese began emigrating to the Netherlands. World War II interrupted the outflow, but it resumed after the war when Dutch labor demands grew - emigrants included all segments of the Creole population. Suriname still is strongly influenced by the Netherlands because most Surinamese have relatives living there and it is the largest supplier of development aid. Other emigration destinations include French Guiana and the United States. Suriname's immigration rules are flexible, and the country is easy to enter illegally because rainforests obscure its borders. Since the mid-1980s, Brazilians have settled in Suriname's capital, Paramaribo, or eastern Suriname, where they mine gold. This immigration is likely to slowly re-orient Suriname toward its Latin American roots.

Contraceptive prevalence rate80.2% (2013)

note: percent of women aged 18-49
39.1% (2018)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.5

youth dependency ratio: 29.7

elderly dependency ratio: 13.8

potential support ratio: 7.3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 51.1

youth dependency ratio: 40.3

elderly dependency ratio: 10.8

potential support ratio: 9.3 (2020 est.)

Government

BrazilSuriname
Country nameconventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil

conventional short form: Brazil

local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil

local short form: Brasil

etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
conventional long form: Republic of Suriname

conventional short form: Suriname

local long form: Republiek Suriname

local short form: Suriname

former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana

etymology: name may derive from the indigenous "Surinen" people who inhabited the area at the time of European contact
Government typefederal presidential republicpresidential republic
Capitalname: Brasilia

geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Brazil has four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

etymology:
name bestowed on the new capital of Brazil upon its inauguration in 1960; previous Brazilian capitals had been Salvador from 1549 to 1763 and Rio de Janeiro from 1763 to 1960


name: Paramaribo

geographic coordinates: 5 50 N, 55 10 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name may be the corruption of a Carib (Kalina) village or tribe named Parmirbo
Administrative divisions26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica
Independence7 September 1822 (from Portugal)25 November 1975 (from the Netherlands)
National holidayIndependence Day, 7 September (1822)Independence Day, 25 November (1975)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988

amendments: proposed by at least one third of either house of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by simple majority vote by more than half of the state legislative assemblies; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote by both houses in each of two readings; constitutional provisions affecting the federal form of government, separation of powers, suffrage, or individual rights and guarantees cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2020 (2021)
history: previous 1975; latest ratified 30 September 1987, effective 30 October 1987

amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total membership; amended 1992
Legal systemcivil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 codecivil law system influenced by Dutch civil law; note - a new criminal code was enacted in 2017
Suffragevoluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and if illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2018 with runoff on 28 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)

election results:
2018:  Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%

2014:  Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%; note - on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER served as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term, which ended 1 January 2019
chief of state: President Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI (since 16 July 2020); Vice President Ronnie BRUNSWIJK (since 16 July 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI (since 16 July 2020); Vice President Ronnie BRUNSWIJK (since 16 July 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly; president and vice president serve a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 13 July 2020 (next to be held in May 2025)

election results: Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI elected president unopposed; National Assembly vote - NA
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of:
Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections:
Federal Senate - last held on 7 October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held in October 2022 for one-third of the Senate)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)

election results:
Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 7, PP 5, REDE 5, DEM 4, PSDB 4, PSDC 4, PSL 4, PT 4, PDT 2, PHS 2, PPS 2, PSB 2, PTB 2, Podemos 1, PR 1, PRB 1, PROS 1, PRP 1, PSC 1, SD 1; composition - men 70, women 11, percent of women 13.6%    
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 56, PSL 52, PP 37, PMDB 34, PSDC 34, PR 33, PSB 32, PRB 30, DEM 29, PSDB 29, PDT 28, SD 13, Podemos 11, PSOL 10, PTB 10, PCdoB 9, NOVO 8, PPS 8, PROS 8, PSC 8, Avante 7, PHS 6, Patriota 5, PRP 4, PV 4, PMN 3, PTC 2, DC 1, PPL 1, REDE 1; composition - men 462, women 51, percent of women 9.9%; total National Congress percent of women 10.4%
description: unicameral National Assembly or Nationale Assemblee (51 seats; members directly elected in 10 multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 25 May 2020 (next to be held in May 2025)

election results: percent of vote by party - VHP 41.1%, NDP 29.4%, ABOP 17.6%, NPS 7.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party - VHP 21, NDP 15, ABOP 9, NPS 4, other 2; composition - men 35, women 16, percent of women 31.4%
Judicial branchhighest courts: Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
highest courts: High Court of Justice of Suriname (consists of the court president, vice president, and 4 judges); note - appeals beyond the High Court are referred to the Caribbean Court of Justice; human rights violations can be appealed to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights with judgments issued by the Inter-American Court on Human Rights

judge selection and term of office: court judges appointed by the national president in consultation with the National Assembly, the State Advisory Council, and the Order of Private Attorneys; judges serve for life

subordinate courts: cantonal courts
Political parties and leadersAvante [Luis TIBE] (formerly Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB) 
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Tasso JEREISSATI]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Democracy or DC [Jose Maria EYMAEL] (formerly Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC)
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
New Party or NOVO [Moises JARDIM]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Patriota [Adilson BARROSO Oliveira] (formerly National Ecologic Party or PEN)
Podemos [Renata ABREU] (formerly National Labor Party or PTN) 
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
Sustainability Network or REDE [Marina SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Gleisi HOFFMAN]
Alternative Combination or A-Com (coalition includes ABOP, KTPI, Party for Democracy and Development)
Brotherhood and Unity in Politics or BEP [Celsius WATERBERG]
Democratic Alternative '91 or DA91 [Angelique DEL CASTILLO]
General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK}
National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire Delano BOUTERSE]
National Party of Suriname or NPS [Gregory RUSLAND]
Party for Democracy and Development in Unity or DOE [Carl BREEVELD]
Party for National Unity and Solidarity or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA]
People's Alliance (Pertjaja Luhur) or PL [Paul SOMOHARDJO]
Progressive Workers' and Farmers' Union or PALU [Jim HOK]
Progressive Reform Party or VHP [Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI]
Reform and Renewal Movement or HVB
Surinamese Labor Party or SPA [Guno CASTELEN]
International organization participationAfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Nestor Jose FORSTER, Jr. (since 23 December 2020)

chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827

email address and website:
http://washington.itamaraty.gov.br/en-us/Main.xml

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
chief of mission: Ambassador Niermala Sakoentala BADRISING (since 21 July 2017)

chancery: 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 629-4302

FAX: [1] (202) 629-4769

email address and website:
amb.vs@gov.sr

https://www.surinameembassy.org/

consulate(s) general: Miami
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Douglas A. KONEFF (since July 2021)

embassy: SES - Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, 70403-900 - Brasilia, DF

mailing address: 7500 Brasilia Place, Washington DC  20521-7500

telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000

FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136

email address and website:
BrasilliaACS@state.gov

https://br.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Recife, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo

branch office(s): Belo Horizonte
chief of mission: Ambassador Karen Lynn WILLIAMS (since 20 November 2018)

embassy: 165 Kristalstraat, Paramaribo

mailing address: 3390 Paramaribo Place, Washington DC  20521-3390

telephone: [597] 556-700

FAX: [597] 551-524

email address and website:
caparamar@state.gov

https://sr.usembassy.gov/
Flag descriptiongreen with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); a large, yellow, five-pointed star is centered in the red band; red stands for progress and love, green symbolizes hope and fertility, white signifies peace, justice, and freedom; the star represents the unity of all ethnic groups; from its yellow light the nation draws strength to bear sacrifices patiently while working toward a golden future
National anthemname: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA

note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
name: "God zij met ons Suriname!" (God Be With Our Suriname)

lyrics/music: Cornelis Atses HOEKSTRA and Henry DE ZIEL/Johannes Corstianus DE PUY

note: adopted 1959; originally adapted from a Sunday school song written in 1893 and contains lyrics in both Dutch and Sranang Tongo
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blueroyal palm, faya lobi (flower); national colors: green, white, red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Suriname

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

BrazilSuriname
Economy - overview

Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. In 2017, Brazil`s GDP grew 1%, inflation fell to historic lows of 2.9%, and the Central Bank lowered benchmark interest rates from 13.75% in 2016 to 7%.

The economy has been negatively affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials, including the impeachment and conviction of Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF in August 2016. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — have limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors but creating opportunities for foreign companies to step into what had been a closed market.

The succeeding TEMER administration has implemented a series of fiscal and structural reforms to restore credibility to government finances. Congress approved legislation in December 2016 to cap public spending. Government spending growth had pushed public debt to 73.7% of GDP at the end of 2017, up from over 50% in 2012. The government also boosted infrastructure projects, such as oil and natural gas auctions, in part to raise revenues. Other economic reforms, proposed in 2016, aim to reduce barriers to foreign investment, and to improve labor conditions. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, have boosted employment, but at the expense of investment.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc that includes Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay - Venezuela’s membership in the organization was suspended In August 2017. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to volatile foreign markets and it currently is negotiating Free Trade Agreements with the European Union and Canada.

Suriname’s economy is dominated by the mining industry, with exports of oil and gold accounting for approximately 85% of exports and 27% of government revenues. This makes the economy highly vulnerable to mineral price volatility. The worldwide drop in international commodity prices and the cessation of alumina mining in Suriname significantly reduced government revenue and national income during the past few years. In November 2015, a major US aluminum company discontinued its mining activities in Suriname after 99 years of operation. Public sector revenues fell, together with exports, international reserves, employment, and private sector investment.

Economic growth declined annually from just under 5% in 2012 to -10.4% in 2016. In January 2011, the government devalued the currency by 20% and raised taxes to reduce the budget deficit. Suriname began instituting macro adjustments between September 2015 and 2016; these included another 20% currency devaluation in November 2015 and foreign currency interventions by the Central Bank until March 2016, after which time the Bank allowed the Surinamese dollar (SRD) to float. By December 2016, the SRD had lost 46% of its value against the dollar. Depreciation of the Surinamese dollar and increases in tariffs on electricity caused domestic prices in Suriname to rise 22.0% year-over-year by December 2017.

Suriname's economic prospects for the medium-term will depend on its commitment to responsible monetary and fiscal policies and on the introduction of structural reforms to liberalize markets and promote competition. The government's over-reliance on revenue from the extractive sector colors Suriname's economic outlook. Following two years of recession, the Fitch Credit Bureau reported a positive growth of 1.2% in 2017 and the World Bank predicted 2.2% growth in 2018. Inflation declined to 9%, down from 55% in 2016 , and increased gold production helped lift exports. Yet continued budget imbalances and a heavy debt and interest burden resulted in a debt-to-GDP ratio of 83% in September 2017. Purchasing power has fallen rapidly due to the devalued local currency. The government has announced its intention to pass legislation to introduce a new value-added tax in 2018. Without this and other measures to strengthen the country’s fiscal position, the government may face liquidity pressures.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$3,092,216,000,000 (2019 est.)

$3,057,465,000,000 (2018 est.)

$3,017,715,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$9.606 billion (2019 est.)

$9.581 billion (2018 est.)

$9.34 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.13% (2019 est.)

1.2% (2018 est.)

1.62% (2017 est.)
1.9% (2017 est.)

-5.1% (2016 est.)

-2.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,652 (2019 est.)

$14,596 (2018 est.)

$14,520 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$16,525 (2019 est.)

$16,634 (2018 est.)

$16,373 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.7% (2017 est.)

services: 72.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 11.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 31.1% (2017 est.)

services: 57.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line4.2% (2016 est.)

note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line
70% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 0.8%

highest 10%: 43.4% (2016 est.)
lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.7% (2019 est.)

3.6% (2018 est.)

3.4% (2017 est.)
22% (2017 est.)

55.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force86.621 million (2020 est.)144,000 (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 9.4%

industry: 32.1%

services: 58.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 11.2%

industry: 19.5%

services: 69.3% (2010)
Unemployment rate11.93% (2019 est.)

12.26% (2018 est.)
8.9% (2017 est.)

9.7% (2016 est.)
Budgetrevenues: 733.7 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 756.3 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 560.7 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: 827.8 million (2017 est.)
Industriestextiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipmentgold mining, oil, lumber, food processing, fishing
Industrial production growth rate0% (2017 est.)1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productssugar cane, soybeans, maize, milk, cassava, oranges, poultry, rice, beef, cottonrice, sugar cane, bananas, oranges, vegetables, plantains, coconuts, poultry, cassava, eggs
Exports$291.452 billion (2019 est.)

$298.565 billion (2018 est.)

$286.935 billion (2017 est.)
$2.028 billion (2017 est.)

$1.449 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiessoybeans, crude petroleum, iron, corn, wood pulp products (2019)gold, lumber, refined petroleum, fish, cigarettes (2019)
Exports - partnersChina 28%, United States 13% (2019)Switzerland 39%, United Arab Emirates 31%, Belgium 10% (2019)
Imports$271.257 billion (2019 est.)

$268.237 billion (2018 est.)

$248.961 billion (2017 est.)
$1.293 billion (2017 est.)

$1.203 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesrefined petroleum, vehicle parts, crude petroleum, integrated circuits, pesticides (2019)refined petroleum, delivery trucks, excavation machinery, cars, construction vehicles (2019)
Imports - partnersChina 21%, United States 18%, Germany 6%, Argentina 6% (2019)United States 22%, Netherlands 14%, China 13%, Trinidad and Tobago 7%, Antigua and Barbuda 5% (2019)
Debt - external$681.336 billion (2019 est.)

$660.693 billion (2018 est.)
$1.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$1.436 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesreals (BRL) per US dollar -

5.12745 (2020 est.)

4.14915 (2019 est.)

3.862 (2018 est.)

3.3315 (2014 est.)

2.3535 (2013 est.)
Surinamese dollars (SRD) per US dollar -

7.53 (2017 est.)

6.229 (2016 est.)

6.229 (2015 est.)

3.4167 (2014 est.)

3.3 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt84% of GDP (2017 est.)

78.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
69.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

75.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$374 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$367.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$424.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$381.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$50.927 billion (2019 est.)

-$41.54 billion (2018 est.)
-$2 million (2017 est.)

-$169 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1,877,942,000,000 (2019 est.)$3.419 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues35.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)16.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)-7.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 27.8%

male: 24.1%

female: 32.6% (2019 est.)
total: 26.5%

male: 18.7%

female: 39.9% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 63.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 15.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 12.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -11.6% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 27.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 52.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 26.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 68.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -60.6% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving12.2% of GDP (2019 est.)

12.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

13.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
46.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

55.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

53.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

BrazilSuriname
Electricity - production567.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)1.967 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption509.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)1.75 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports219 million kWh (2015 est.)0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports41.31 billion kWh (2016 est.)0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production2.587 million bbl/day (2018 est.)17,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports297,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)820 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports736,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves12.63 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)84.2 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves377.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas - production23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption34.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports134.5 million cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports10.51 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity150.8 million kW (2016 est.)504,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels17% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)61% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants64% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)38% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources18% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production2.811 million bbl/day (2015 est.)7,571 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption2.956 million bbl/day (2016 est.)13,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports279,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)14,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports490,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)10,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2020)electrification - total population: 97.4% (2018)

electrification - urban areas: 99% (2018)

electrification - rural areas: 94.3% (2018)

Telecommunications

BrazilSuriname
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 33,712,877

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16.01 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 92,756

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15.37 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 202,009,290

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95.92 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 813,844

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134.9 (2019 est.)
Internet country code.br.sr
Internet userstotal: 140,908,998

percent of population: 67.47% (July 2018 est.)
total: 292,685

percent of population: 48.95% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

Brazil is one of the largest mobile and broadband markets in Latin America with healthy competition and pricing; 5G launched on limited basis; large fixed-line broadband market with focus on fiber; landing point for submarine cables and investment into terrestrial fiber cables to neighboring countries; Internet penetration has increased, access varies along geographic and socio-economic lines; government provides free WiFi in urban public spaces; pioneer in the region for M-commerce; major importer of integrated circuits from South Korea and China, and broadcasting equipment from China (2021)

 

(2020)

domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 16 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major impetus broadening telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 99 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 55; landing points for a number of submarine cables, including Malbec, ARBR, Tamnat, SAC, SAm-1, Atlantis -2, Seabras-1, Monet, EllaLink, BRUSA, GlobeNet, AMX-1, Brazilian Festoon, Bicentenario, Unisur, Junior, Americas -II, SAE x1, SAIL, SACS and SABR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station; satellites is a major communication platform, as it is almost impossible to lay fiber optic cable in the thick vegetation (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment:

smallest nation in South America with low population and client base; state-owned fixed-line tele-density rates and broadband services below regional average for Latin America and Caribbean; operator building out fiber network; mobile penetration is above regional average; fixed-line effective along the coastline yet poor in the interior; competition in the mobile sector; launch of 5G in Paramaribo; importer of broadcasting equipment from USA (2021)

(2020)

domestic: fixed-line 16 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 140 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay network is in place (2019)

international: country code - 597; landing point for the SG-SCS submarine cable linking South America with the Caribbean; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 32,914,496

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15.63 (2019 est.)
total: 80,320

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13.31 (2019 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated2 state-owned TV stations; 1 state-owned radio station; multiple private radio and TV stations (2019)

Transportation

BrazilSuriname
Roadwaystotal: 2 million km (2018)

paved: 246,000 km (2018)

unpaved: 1.754 million km (2018)
total: 4,304 km (2003)

paved: 1,119 km (2003)

unpaved: 3,185 km (2003)
Waterways50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)1,200 km (most navigable by ships with drafts up to 7 m) (2011)
Pipelines5959 km refined petroleum product (1,165 km distribution, 4,794 km transport), 11696 km natural gas (2,274 km distribution, 9,422 km transport), 1985 km crude oil (distribution), 77 km ethanol/petrochemical (37 km distribution, 40 km transport) (2016)50 km oil (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Belem, Itajai, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao

oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Itajai (1,223,262), Paranagua (865,110), Santos (4,165,248) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero

river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)

dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
major seaport(s): Paramaribo, Wageningen
Merchant marinetotal: 875

by type: bulk carrier 12, container ship 18, general cargo 45, oil tanker 38, other 762 (2020)
total: 10

by type: general cargo 5, oil tanker 3, other 2 (2020)
Airportstotal: 4,093 (2013)total: 55 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 698 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 7 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 179 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 436 (2017)

under 914 m: 49 (2017)
total: 6 (2019)

over 3,047 m: 1

under 914 m: 5
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3,395 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 92 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 1,619 (2013)

under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
total: 49 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)

under 914 m: 45 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 9 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,109,977 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,845,650,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 20

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 272,347 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 33.2 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixPPPZ

Military

BrazilSuriname
Military branchesBrazilian Armed Forces: Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Aviation and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB); Public Security Forces (2021)Suriname Army (National Leger, NL): Army, Navy, Air Force, Military Police (2021)
Military service age and obligation18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2019)18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.5% of GDP (2019)

1.5% of GDP (2018)

1.4% of GDP (2017)

1.3% of GDP (2016)

1.4% of GDP (2015)
1.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

1.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

1.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

1.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

1.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

Transnational Issues

BrazilSuriname
Disputes - international

uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela

area claimed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks UN Convention on the Law of the Sea arbitration to resolve the longstanding dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters

Illicit drugssecond-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Areagrowing transshipment point for South American drugs destined for Europe via the Netherlands and Brazil; transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing

Source: CIA Factbook