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Brazil vs. Guyana

Demographics

BrazilGuyana
Population213,445,417 (July 2021 est.)787,971 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure0-14 years: 21.11% (male 22,790,634/female 21,907,018)

15-24 years: 16.06% (male 17,254,363/female 16,750,581)

25-54 years: 43.83% (male 46,070,240/female 46,729,640)

55-64 years: 9.78% (male 9,802,995/female 10,911,140)

65 years and over: 9.21% (male 8,323,344/female 11,176,018) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 23.91% (male 91,317/female 88,025)

15-24 years: 21.23% (male 81,294/female 77,987)

25-54 years: 39.48% (male 154,825/female 141,385)

55-64 years: 8.37% (male 29,385/female 33,386)

65 years and over: 7.01% (male 21,325/female 31,275) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 33.2 years

male: 32.3 years

female: 34.1 years (2020 est.)
total: 27.5 years

male: 27.2 years

female: 27.9 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate0.65% (2021 est.)0.19% (2021 est.)
Birth rate13.44 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)16.64 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)6.87 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-7.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.37 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.72 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 22.68 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 25.66 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.98 years

male: 71.49 years

female: 78.65 years (2021 est.)
total population: 71.59 years

male: 69.74 years

female: 73.53 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate1.73 children born/woman (2021 est.)2.07 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.6% (2020 est.)1.3% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian
noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Guyanese
Ethnic groupsWhite 47.7%, Mulatto (mixed White and Black) 43.1%, Black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, Indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)East Indian 39.8%, African descent 29.3%, mixed 19.9%, Amerindian 10.5%, other 0.5% (includes Portuguese, Chinese, White) (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS930,000 (2020 est.)9,000 (2020 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)Protestant 34.8% (Pentecostal 22.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 5.4%, Anglican 5.2%, Methodist 1.4%), Hindu 24.8%, Roman Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 6.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, Rastafarian 0.5%, other Christian 20.8%, other 0.9%, none 3.1% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths13,000 (2020 est.)<200 (2020 est.)
LanguagesPortuguese (official and most widely spoken language); note - less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

major-language sample(s):
O Livro de Fatos Mundiais, a fonte indispensável para informação básica. (Brazilian Portuguese)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
English (official), Guyanese Creole, Amerindian languages (including Caribbean and Arawak languages), Indian languages (including Caribbean Hindustani, a dialect of Hindi), Chinese (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.2%

male: 93%

female: 93.4% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 88.5%

male: 87.2%

female: 89.8% (2015)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Brazil; as of 20 July 2021, Brazil has reported a total of 19,376,574 cases of COVID-19 or 9,115.84  cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 255.09 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 18 July 2021, 44.26% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine
degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2011)
total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 12 years (2012)
Education expenditures6.3% of GDP (2017)5.5% of GDP (2018)
Urbanizationurban population: 87.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 26.9% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.01% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 91.6% of population

total: 98.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 8.4% of population

total: 1.6% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 95.6% of population

total: 96.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 38.7% of population

total: 26.5% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 92.8% of population

rural: 60.1% of population

total: 88.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.2% of population

rural: 39.9% of population

total: 11.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 97.8% of population

rural: 95.4% of population

total: 96% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.2% of population

rural: 4.6% of population

total: 4% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population22.237 million Sao Paulo, 13.544 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.140 million Belo Horizonte, 4.728 million BRASILIA (capital), 4.175 million Recife, 4.161 million Porto Alegre (2021)110,000 GEORGETOWN (capital) (2018)
Maternal mortality rate60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)667 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures9.5% (2018)5.9% (2018)
Physicians density2.16 physicians/1,000 population (2018)0.8 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)1.7 beds/1,000 population (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.1% (2016)20.2% (2016)
Demographic profile

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).

Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.

Guyana is the only English-speaking country in South America and shares cultural and historical bonds with the Anglophone Caribbean. Guyana's two largest ethnic groups are the Afro-Guyanese (descendants of African slaves) and the Indo-Guyanese (descendants of Indian indentured laborers), which together comprise about three quarters of Guyana's population. Tensions periodically have boiled over between the two groups, which back ethnically based political parties and vote along ethnic lines. Poverty reduction has stagnated since the late 1990s. About one-third of the Guyanese population lives below the poverty line; indigenous people are disproportionately affected. Although Guyana's literacy rate is reported to be among the highest in the Western Hemisphere, the level of functional literacy is considerably lower, which has been attributed to poor education quality, teacher training, and infrastructure.

Guyana's emigration rate is among the highest in the world - more than 55% of its citizens reside abroad - and it is one of the largest recipients of remittances relative to GDP among Latin American and Caribbean counties. Although remittances are a vital source of income for most citizens, the pervasive emigration of skilled workers deprives Guyana of professionals in healthcare and other key sectors. More than 80% of Guyanese nationals with tertiary level educations have emigrated. Brain drain and the concentration of limited medical resources in Georgetown hamper Guyana's ability to meet the health needs of its predominantly rural population. Guyana has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the region and continues to rely on international support for its HIV treatment and prevention programs.

Contraceptive prevalence rate80.2% (2013)

note: percent of women aged 18-49
33.9% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.5

youth dependency ratio: 29.7

elderly dependency ratio: 13.8

potential support ratio: 7.3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 53.2

youth dependency ratio: 42.5

elderly dependency ratio: 10.7

potential support ratio: 9.3 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook