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Brazil vs. France

Introduction

BrazilFrance
Background

Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world's strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country's rise. However, from about 2013 to 2016, Brazil was plagued by a sagging economy, high unemployment, and high inflation, only emerging from recession in 2017. Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF (2011-2016) was removed from office in 2016 by Congress for having committed impeachable acts against Brazil's budgetary laws, and her vice president, Michel TEMER, served the remainder of her second term. In October 2018, Jair BOLSONARO won the presidency with 55 percent of the vote and assumed office on 1 January 2019.

France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-7, the G-20, the EU, and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE's 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.

Geography

BrazilFrance
Location
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

metropolitan France: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain;

French Guiana: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname;

Guadeloupe: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Puerto Rico;

Martinique: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago;

Mayotte: Southern Indian Ocean, island in the Mozambique Channel, about halfway between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique;

Reunion: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates
10 00 S, 55 00 W

metropolitan France: 46 00 N, 2 00 E;

French Guiana: 4 00 N, 53 00 W;

Guadeloupe: 16 15 N, 61 35 W;

Martinique: 14 40 N, 61 00 W;

Mayotte: 12 50 S, 45 10 E;

Reunion: 21 06 S, 55 36 E

Map references
South America

metropolitan France: Europe;

French Guiana: South America;

Guadeloupe: Central America and the Caribbean;

Martinique: Central America and the Caribbean;

Mayotte: Africa;

Reunion: World

Area
total: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km

note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

total: 643,801 sq km
land: 640,427 sq km
water: 3,374 sq km
551,500 sq km (metropolitan France) 549,970 sq km (metropolitan France) 1,530 sq km (metropolitan France)

note: the first numbers include the overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion

Area - comparative
slightly smaller than the US
slightly more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than the size of Texas
Land boundaries
total: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1263 km, Bolivia 3403 km, Colombia 1790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1308 km, Paraguay 1371 km, Peru 2659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1050 km, Venezuela 2137 km
border countries (8): Andorra 55 km, Belgium 556 km, Germany 418 km, Italy 476 km, Luxembourg 69 km, Monaco 6 km, Spain 646 km, Switzerland 525 km
metropolitan France - total: 2751
French Guiana - total: 1205
Coastline
7,491 km
4,853 km
metropolitan France: 3,427 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean Sea)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
mostly tropical, but temperate in south

metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as the mistral;

French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation;

Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average;

Mayotte: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November);

Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)

Terrain
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

metropolitan France: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east;

French Guiana: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains;

Guadeloupe: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin;

Martinique: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano;

Mayotte: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks;

Reunion: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 320 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
mean elevation: 375 m
lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,810
note: to assess the possible effects of climate change on the ice and snow cap of Mont Blanc, its surface and peak have been extensively measured in recent years; these new peak measurements have exceeded the traditional height of 4,807 m and have varied between 4,808 m and 4,811 m; the actual rock summit is 4,792 m and is 40 m away from the ice-covered summit
Natural resources
alumina, bauxite, beryllium, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, niobium, phosphates, platinum, tantalum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
metropolitan France, coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, timber, arable land, fish, French Guiana, gold deposits, petroleum, kaolin, niobium, tantalum, clay
Land use
agricultural land: 32.9% (2011 est.)
arable land: 8.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 23.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 61.9% (2011 est.)
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 52.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 33.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 17.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 29.2% (2011 est.)
other: 18.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
54,000 sq km (2012)
26,420 sq km 26,950 sq km (2012)
metropolitan France: 26,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

metropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean;

overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding;

volcanism: Montagne Pelee (1,394 m) on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc, it last erupted in 1932; a catastrophic eruption in May 1902 destroyed the city of St. Pierre, killing an estimated 30,000 people;; La Soufriere (1,467 m) on the island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean last erupted from July 1976 to March 1977;; these volcanoes are part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south

Environment - current issues
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; illegal wildlife trade; illegal poaching; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Environment - international agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina
largest West European nation; most major French rivers - the Meuse, Seine, Loire, Charente, Dordogne, and Garonne - flow northward or westward into the Atlantic Ocean, only the Rhone flows southward into the Mediterranean Sea
Population distribution
the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro
much of the population is concentrated in the north and southeast; although there are many urban agglomerations throughout the country, Paris is by far the largest city, with Lyon ranked a distant second

Demographics

BrazilFrance
Population
208,846,892 (July 2018 est.)
67,364,357 (July 2018 est.)

note: the above figure is for metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233

Age structure
0-14 years: 21.89% (male 23,310,437 /female 22,414,551)
15-24 years: 16.29% (male 17,254,084 /female 16,758,140)
25-54 years: 43.86% (male 45,449,158 /female 46,151,759)
55-64 years: 9.35% (male 9,229,665 /female 10,296,824)
65 years and over: 8.61% (male 7,666,845 /female 10,315,429) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 18.48% (male 6,366,789 /female 6,082,729)
15-24 years: 11.8% (male 4,065,780 /female 3,884,488)
25-54 years: 37.48% (male 12,731,825 /female 12,515,501)
55-64 years: 12.42% (male 4,035,073 /female 4,331,751)
65 years and over: 19.82% (male 5,781,410 /female 7,569,011) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 32.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 31.5 years
female: 33.3 years
total: 41.5 years (2018 est.)
male: 39.7 years
female: 43.2 years
Population growth rate
0.71% (2018 est.)
0.37% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
13.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
12.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 74.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 70.7 years
female: 78 years
total population: 82 years (2018 est.)
male: 78.9 years
female: 85.3 years
Total fertility rate
1.75 children born/woman (2018 est.)
2.06 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.5% (2018 est.)
0.3% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French
Ethnic groups
white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

note: overseas departments: black, white, mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
900,000 (2018 est.)
180,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Christian (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic) 63-66%, Muslim 7-9%, Buddhist 0.5-0.75%, Jewish 0.5-0.75%, other 0.5-1.0%, none 23-28% (2015 est.)

note: France maintains a tradition of secularism and has not officially collected data on religious affiliation since the 1872 national census, which complicates assessments of France's religious composition; an 1872 law prohibiting state authorities from collecting data on individuals' ethnicity or religious beliefs was reaffirmed by a 1978 law emphasizing the prohibition of the collection or exploitation of personal data revealing an individual's race, ethnicity, or political, philosophical, or religious opinions; a 1905 law codified France's separation of church and state

HIV/AIDS - deaths
15,000 (2018 est.)
<500 (2018 est.)
Languages
Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)

note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

French (official) 100%, declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish, Occitan, Picard)

note: overseas departments: French, Creole patois, Mahorian (a Swahili dialect)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2016)
Education expenditures
6.2% of GDP (2015)
5.5% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 86.8% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 80.7% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.72% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 88% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 51.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 82.8% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 12% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 48.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 98.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 98.7% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 1.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
21.847 million Sao Paulo, 13.374 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.028 million Belo Horizonte, 4.559 million BRASILIA (capital), 4.115 million Porto Alegre, 4.078 million Recife (2019)
10.958 million PARIS (capital), 1.705 million Lyon, 1.603 million Marseille-Aix-en-Provence, 1.058 million Lille, 1.011 million Toulouse, 957,000 Bordeaux (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
11.8% (2016)
11.1% (2015)
Physicians density
2.15 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
3.23 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
2.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
6.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
22.1% (2016)
21.6% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
80.2% (2013)
78.4% (2010/11)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 43.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 32.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 11.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 8.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 59.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 29.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 30.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)

Government

BrazilFrance
Country name
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique francaise
local short form: France
etymology: name derives from the Latin "Francia" meaning "Land of the Franks"; the Franks were a group of Germanic tribes located along the middle and lower Rhine River in the 3rd century A.D. who merged with Gallic-Roman populations in succeeding centuries and to whom they passed on their name
Government type
federal presidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capital
name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February

note: Brazil has four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

etymology:
name bestowed on the new capital of Brazil upon its inauguration in 1960; previous Brazilian capitals had been Salvador from 1549 to 1763 and Rio de Janeiro from 1763 to 1960


name: Paris
geographic coordinates: 48 52 N, 2 20 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: applies to metropolitan France only; for its overseas regions the time difference is UTC-4 for Guadeloupe and Martinique, UTC-3 for French Guiana, UTC+3 for Mayotte, and UTC+4 for Reunion

etymology:
name derives from the Parisii, a Celtic tribe that inhabited the area from the 3rd century B.C., but who were conquered by the Romans in the 1st century B.C.; the Celtic settlement became the Roman town of Lutetia Parisiorum (Lutetia of the Parisii); over subsequent centuries it became Parisium and then just Paris


Administrative divisions
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
18 regions (regions, singular - region); Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Bourgogne-Franche-Comte (Burgundy-Free County), Bretagne (Brittany), Centre-Val de Loire (Center-Loire Valley), Corse (Corsica), Grand Est (Grand East), Guadeloupe, Guyane (French Guiana), Hauts-de-France (Upper France), Ile-de-France, Martinique, Mayotte, Normandie (Normandy), Nouvelle-Aquitaine (New Aquitaine), Occitanie (Occitania), Pays de la Loire (Lands of the Loire), Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Reunion

note: France is divided into 13 metropolitan regions (including the "collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and 5 overseas regions (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion) and is subdivided into 96 metropolitan departments and 5 overseas departments (which are the same as the overseas regions)

Independence
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
no official date of independence: 486 (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship); 10 August 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 14 July 1789 (French monarchy overthrown); 22 September 1792 (First French Republic founded); 4 October 1958 (Fifth French Republic established)
National holiday
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988
amendments: proposed by at least one third of either house of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by simple majority vote by more than half of the state legislative assemblies; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote by both houses in each of two readings; constitutional provisions affecting the federal form of government, separation of powers, suffrage, or individual rights and guarantees cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2017 (2018)
history: many previous; latest effective 4 October 1958
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (upon recommendation of the prime minister and Parliament) or by Parliament; proposals submitted by Parliament members require passage by both houses followed by approval in a referendum; passage of proposals submitted by the government can bypass a referendum if submitted by the president to Parliament and passed by at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament’s National Assembly; amended many times, last in 2008; note - in May 2018, the prime minister submitted a bill to the National Assembly to amend several provisions of the constitution (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and if illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2018 with runoff on 28 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)
election results: Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%
chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Edouard PHILIPPE (since 15 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 April with a runoff on 7 May 2017 (next to be held in April 2022); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emmanuel MACRON elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (EM) 24.%, Marine LE PEN (FN) 21.3%, Francois FILLON (LR) 20.%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (FI) 19.6%, Benoit HAMON (PS) 6.4%, other 8.7%; percent of vote in second round - MACRON 66.1%, LE PEN 33.9%
Legislative branch
description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of:
Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections:
Federal Senate - last held on 7 October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held in October 2022 for one-third of the Senate)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)
election results:
Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 7, PP 5, REDE 5, DEM 4, PSDB 4, PSDC 4, PSL 4, PT 4, PDT 2, PHS 2, PPS 2, PSB 2, PTB 2, Podemos 1, PR 1, PRB 1, PROS 1, PRP 1, PSC 1, SD 1; composition - men 70, women 11, percent of women 13.6%    
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 56, PSL 52, PP 37, PMDB 34, PSDC 34, PR 33, PSB 32, PRB 30, DEM 29, PSDB 29, PDT 28, SD 13, Podemos 11, PSOL 10, PTB 10, PCdoB 9, NOVO 8, PPS 8, PROS 8, PSC 8, Avante 7, PHS 6, Patriota 5, PRP 4, PV 4, PMN 3, PTC 2, DC 1, PPL 1, REDE 1; composition - men 462, women 51, percent of women 9.9%; total National Congress percent of women 10.4%
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Senat (348 seats - 328 for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for departments with 1-3 members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats - 556 for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held on 24 September 2020)
National Assembly - last held on 11 and 18 June 2017 (next to be held in June 2022)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by political caucus (party or group of parties)  - LR 144, PS 73, UC 51. LREM 23, RDSE 22, CRCE 16, RTLI 13, other 6; composition - men 246, women 102, percent of women 29.3%
National Assembly - percent of vote by party first round - LREM 28.2%, LR 15.8%. FN 13.2%, FI 11%, PS 7.4%, other 24.4%; percent of vote by party second round - LREM 43.1%, LR 22.2%, FN 8.8%, MoDEM 6.1%, PS 5.7%. FI 4.9%, other 9.2%; seats by political caucus (party or group of parties) - LREM 306, LR 104, MoDEM 46, UDI/Agir 29, PS 29, UDI 18, FI 17, Liberties and Territories 16, PCF 16, other 14; composition - men 349, women 228, percent of women 39.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 35.7%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
highest courts: Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, 120 trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal); Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate courts or Cour d'Appel; regional courts or Tribunal de Grande Instance; first instance courts or Tribunal d'instance; administrative courts

note: in April 2018, the French Government announced its intention to reform the country's judicial system

Political parties and leaders
Avante [Luis TIBE] (formerly Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB) 
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Tasso JEREISSATI]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Democracy or DC [Jose Maria EYMAEL] (formerly Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC)
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
New Party or NOVO [Moises JARDIM]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Patriota [Adilson BARROSO Oliveira] (formerly National Ecologic Party or PEN)
Podemos [Renata ABREU] (formerly National Labor Party or PTN) 
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
Sustainability Network or REDE [Marina SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Gleisi HOFFMAN]
Presidential majority Parties [Edouard PHILIPPE]
     La Republique en Marche! or REM [Richard FERRAND]
     Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU]
     Movement of Progressives or MDP  Robert HUE]
Parliamentary right Parties [Francois BAROIN]
     The Republicans or LR [Annie GENEVARD]
     Union of Democrats and Independents or UDI [Jean-Christophe CAMBADELIS]
      Hunting, Fishing, Nature and Tradition or (CPNT) [Eddie PUYJAION]
     CE
Parliamentary left Parties [Bernard CAZENEUVE]
     Sociatlist Party or PS [Jean-Christophe CAMBADEMAND]
     Radical Party of the Left or PRG [Sylvia PINEL]
     Citizen and Republican Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT]
     Martinican Progressive Party or PPM [Aiem CESAIRE]
National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN]
La France Insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHONLIS]
Europe Ecologists - the Greens or EELV [David CORMAND]
French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT]
Debout la France or DLF [Nicolas DUPONT-AIGNAN]
International organization participation
AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, FZ, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UN Security Council (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Fernando PIMENTEL (since 3 June 2019)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Ambassador Philippe ETIENNE (since 8 July 2019)
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires William POPP (since 3 November 2018)
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO AA 34030
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Belo Horizonte, Recife, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
chief of mission: Ambassador Jamie D. McCOURT (since 18 December 2017); note - also accredited to Monaco
telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75008 Paris
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg
consulate(s): Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes
Flag description
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the "Le drapeau tricolore" (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution when the "ancient French color" of white was combined with the blue and red colors of the Parisian militia; the official flag for all French dependent areas

note: the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, and Netherlands

National anthem
name: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA

note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted

name: "La Marseillaise" (The Song of Marseille)
lyrics/music: Claude-Joseph ROUGET de Lisle

note: adopted 1795, restored 1870; originally known as "Chant de Guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin" (War Song for the Army of the Rhine), the National Guard of Marseille made the song famous by singing it while marching into Paris in 1792 during the French Revolutionary Wars

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne (female personification); national colors: blue, white, red
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of France
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

BrazilFrance
Economy - overview

Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. In 2017, Brazil`s GDP grew 1%, inflation fell to historic lows of 2.9%, and the Central Bank lowered benchmark interest rates from 13.75% in 2016 to 7%.

The economy has been negatively affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials, including the impeachment and conviction of Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF in August 2016. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — have limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors but creating opportunities for foreign companies to step into what had been a closed market.

The succeeding TEMER administration has implemented a series of fiscal and structural reforms to restore credibility to government finances. Congress approved legislation in December 2016 to cap public spending. Government spending growth had pushed public debt to 73.7% of GDP at the end of 2017, up from over 50% in 2012. The government also boosted infrastructure projects, such as oil and natural gas auctions, in part to raise revenues. Other economic reforms, proposed in 2016, aim to reduce barriers to foreign investment, and to improve labor conditions. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, have boosted employment, but at the expense of investment.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc that includes Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay - Venezuela’s membership in the organization was suspended In August 2017. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to volatile foreign markets and it currently is negotiating Free Trade Agreements with the European Union and Canada.

The French economy is diversified across all sectors. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, including Air France, France Telecom, Renault, and Thales. However, the government maintains a strong presence in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries. France is the most visited country in the world with 89 million foreign tourists in 2017. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that mitigate economic inequality.

France's real GDP grew by 1.9% in 2017, up from 1.2% the year before. The unemployment rate (including overseas territories) increased from 7.8% in 2008 to 10.2% in 2015, before falling to 9.0% in 2017. Youth unemployment in metropolitan France decreased from 24.6% in the fourth quarter of 2014 to 20.6% in the fourth quarter of 2017.

France’s public finances have historically been strained by high spending and low growth. In 2017, the budget deficit improved to 2.7% of GDP, bringing it in compliance with the EU-mandated 3% deficit target. Meanwhile, France's public debt rose from 89.5% of GDP in 2012 to 97% in 2017.

Since entering office in May 2017, President Emmanuel MACRON launched a series of economic reforms to improve competitiveness and boost economic growth. President MACRON campaigned on reforming France’s labor code and in late 2017 implemented a range of reforms to increase flexibility in the labor market by making it easier for firms to hire and fire and simplifying negotiations between employers and employees. In addition to labor reforms, President MACRON’s 2018 budget cuts public spending, taxes, and social security contributions to spur private investment and increase purchasing power. The government plans to gradually reduce corporate tax rate for businesses from 33.3% to 25% by 2022.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$3.248 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.216 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.332 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$2.856 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.791 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.761 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
1% (2017 est.)
-3.5% (2016 est.)
-3.5% (2015 est.)
2.3% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$15,600 (2017 est.)
$15,600 (2016 est.)
$16,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$44,100 (2017 est.)
$43,200 (2016 est.)
$42,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 6.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 20.7% (2017 est.)
services: 72.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.7% (2017 est.)
industry: 19.5% (2017 est.)
services: 78.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
4.2% (2016 est.)

note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line

14.2% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 43.4% (2016 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.4% (2013)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
3.4% (2017 est.)
8.7% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2017 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force
104.2 million (2017)
30.68 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 9.4%
industry: 32.1%
services: 58.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 2.8% (2016 est.)
industry: 20% (2016 est.)
services: 77.2% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate
12.8% (2017 est.)
11.3% (2016 est.)
9.4% (2017 est.)
10.1% (2016 est.)

note: includes overseas territories

Distribution of family income - Gini index
49 (2014)
54 (2004)
29.3 (2016)
29.2 (2015)
Budget
revenues: 733.7 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 756.3 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 1.392 trillion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.459 trillion (2017 est.)
Industries
textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
Industrial production growth rate
0% (2017 est.)
2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish
Exports
$217.2 billion (2017 est.)
$184.5 billion (2016 est.)
$549.9 billion (2017 est.)
$507 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
Exports - partners
China 21.8%, US 12.5%, Argentina 8.1%, Netherlands 4.3% (2017)
Germany 14.8%, Spain 7.7%, Italy 7.5%, US 7.2%, Belgium 7%, UK 6.7% (2017)
Imports
$153.2 billion (2017 est.)
$139.4 billion (2016 est.)
$601.7 billion (2017 est.)
$536.7 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
Imports - partners
China 18.1%, US 16.7%, Argentina 6.3%, Germany 6.1% (2017)
Germany 18.5%, Belgium 10.2%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 7.9%, Spain 7.1%, UK 5.3%, US 5.2%, China 5.1% (2017)
Debt - external
$547.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$548.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.36 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$5.25 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rates
reals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.19 (2017 est.)
3.48 (2016 est.)
3.4901 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
84% of GDP (2017 est.)
78.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
96.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
96.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$374 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$367.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$156.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$9.762 billion (2017 est.)
-$23.55 billion (2016 est.)
-$14.83 billion (2017 est.)
-$18.55 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$2.055 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.588 trillion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$778.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$703.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$858.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$807.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$358.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$341.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.429 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.259 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$642.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$561.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$420 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.591 trillion (31 March 2017 est.)
$2.088 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.086 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate
7% (31 December 2017 est.)
13.75% (31 December 2016)
0% (31 December 2016)
0.05% (31 December 2015)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate
46.92% (31 December 2017 est.)
52.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.29% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$2.206 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.138 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.334 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.646 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$110.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$106.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.465 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money
$110.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$106.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.465 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
35.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
53.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-2.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 28.5%
male: 25.3%
female: 32.8% (2018 est.)
total: 22.3%
male: 23.1%
female: 21.3% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 63.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 15.6% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 12.6% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -11.6% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 54.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 23.6% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 22.5% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.9% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 30.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -32% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
15% of GDP (2017 est.)
14.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

BrazilFrance
Electricity - production
567.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
529.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
509.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
450.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
219 million kWh (2015 est.)
61.41 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
41.31 billion kWh (2016 est.)
19.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
2.587 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
16,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
297,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.147 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports
736,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
12.63 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
65.97 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
377.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
8.41 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
16.99 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
34.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)
41.88 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
134.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
6.031 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
10.51 billion cu m (2017 est.)
48.59 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
150.8 million kW (2016 est.)
130.8 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
17% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
17% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
64% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
15% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
50% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
18% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
2.811 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.311 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
2.956 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
1.705 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
279,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
440,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
490,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
886,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
513.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
341.2 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

BrazilFrance
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 40,878,018
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 38.687 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 236,488,548
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 114 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 69.017 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations; four major mobile operators offering a range of voice and data services; one of the largest broadband markets in Latin America, broadband penetration only behind Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay; country is a pioneer in the region for m-commerce (electronic commerce conducted on mobile phones) (2018)
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major impetus broadening telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 114 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 55; landing points for a number of submarine cables, including Malbec, ARBR, Tamnat, SAC, SAm-1, Atlantis -2, Seabras-1, Monet, EllaLink, BRUSA, GlobeNet, AMX-1, Brazilian Festoon, Bicentenario, Unisur, Junior, Americas -II, SAE x1, SAIL, SACS and SABR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station; satellites is a major communication platform, as it is almost impossible to lay fibre optic cable in the thick vegetation (2019)
general assessment: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system; highly developed; 3rd largest in Europe; broadband subscriber rate remains strong at 4% (2018)
domestic: 58 per 100 persons for fixed-line and 103 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 33; landing points for Circe South, TAT-14, INGRID, FLAG Atlantic-1, Apollo, HUGO, IFC-1, ACE, SeaMeWe-3 & 4, Dunant, Africa-1, AAE-1, Atlas Offshore, Hawk, IMEWE, Med Cable, PEACE Cable, and TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/Alexandros/Medex submarine cables providing links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries (2019)
overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; landing points for Ella Link, Kanawa, Americas II to South America, Europe, Caribbean and US; Guadeloupe - 590; landing points for GCN, Southern Caribbean Fiber, and ECFS around the Caribbean and US; Martinique - 596; landing points for Ameicas II, ECFS, and Southern Caribbean Fiber to South America, US and around the Caribbean;  Mayotte - 262; landing points for FLY-LION3 and LION2 to East Africa and East African Islands in Indian Ocean; Reunion - 262; landing points for SAFE, METISS, and LION submarine cables to Asia, South and East Africa, Southeast Asia and nearby Indian Ocean Island countries of Mauritius, and Madagascar  (2019)
Internet country code
.br
metropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Mayotte - .yt; Reunion - .re
Internet users
total: 122,841,218
percent of population: 59.7% (July 2016 est.)
total: 57,226,585
percent of population: 85.6% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated
a mix of both publicly operated and privately owned TV stations; state-owned France television stations operate 4 networks, one of which is a network of regional stations, and has part-interest in several thematic cable/satellite channels and international channels; a large number of privately owned regional and local TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable services provide a large number of channels; public broadcaster Radio France operates 7 national networks, a series of regional networks, and operates services for overseas territories and foreign audiences; Radio France Internationale, under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a leading international broadcaster; a large number of commercial FM stations, with many of them consolidating into commercial networks

Transportation

BrazilFrance
Railways
total: 29,850 km (2014)
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified) (2014)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 29,640 km (2014)
standard gauge: 29,473 km 1.435-m gauge (15,561 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 167 km 1.000-m gauge (63 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways
total: 2 million km (2018)
paved: 246,000 km (2018)
unpaved: 1.754 million km (2018)
total: 1,053,215 km (2011)
urban: 654,201 km (2011)
non-urban: 399,014 km (2011)
Waterways
50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
metropolitan France: 8,501 km (1,621 km navigable by craft up to 3,000 metric tons) (2010)
Pipelines
5959 km refined petroleum product (1,165 km distribution, 4,794 km transport), 11696 km natural gas (2,274 km distribution, 9,422 km transport), 1985 km crude oil (distribution), 77 km ethanol/petrochemical (37 km distribution, 40 km transport) (2016)
15322 km gas, 2939 km oil, 5084 km refined products (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (3,853,719) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
major seaport(s): Brest, Calais, Dunkerque, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes,
container port(s) (TEUs): Le Havre (2,870,000) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fos Cavaou, Fos Tonkin, Montoir de Bretagne
river port(s): Paris, Rouen (Seine)
cruise/ferry port(s): Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre
Strasbourg (Rhine) Bordeaux (Garronne)
Merchant marine
total: 791
by type: bulk carrier 13, container ship 15, general cargo 47, oil tanker 38, other 678 (2018)
total: 555
by type: container ship 24, general cargo 73, oil tanker 29, other 429 (2018)

note: includes Monaco

Airports
total: 4,093 (2013)
total: 464 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 698 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 436 (2017)
under 914 m: 49 (2017)
total: 294 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 14 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 97 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 83 (2017)
under 914 m: 75 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 3,395 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619 (2013)
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
total: 170 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 64 (2013)
under 914 m: 105 (2013)
Heliports
13 (2013)
1 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 9 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,039,359 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 149.393 million mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 30 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 65,039,503 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,098,310,000 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
PP (2016)
F (2016)

Military

BrazilFrance
Military branches
Brazilian Armed Forces: Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Aviation and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2019)
Army (Armee de Terre; includes Foreign Legion), Navy (Marine Nationale), Air Force (Armee de l'Air (AdlA); includes Air Defense), National Guard (Reserves), National Gendarmerie (paramilitary police force that is a branch of the Armed Forces but under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior; also has additional duties to the Ministry of Defense) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 1-year service obligation; women serve in noncombat posts (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.48% of GDP (2018)
1.42% of GDP (2017)
1.32% of GDP (2016)
1.36% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.82% of GDP (2018)
1.79% of GDP (2017)
1.79% of GDP (2016)
1.79% of GDP (2015)
1.82% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

BrazilFrance
Disputes - international

uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela

Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia

Illicit drugs
second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area

metropolitan France: transshipment point for South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics;

French Guiana: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe;

Martinique: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 224,102 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 23,918 (Sri Lanka), 18,534 (Afghanistan), 16,484 (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 15,898 (Russia), 15,822 (Syria), 14,700 (Sudan), 13,778 (Serbia and Kosovo), 11,196 (Turkey), 11,193 (Cambodia), 9,264 (Guinea), 8,131 (Iraq), 7,821 (Vietnam), 6,617 (Laos), 5,419 (Mauritania) (2018)
stateless persons: 1,493 (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook