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Brazil vs. Colombia

Introduction

BrazilColombia
BackgroundFollowing more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, since about 2013, Brazil has been plagued by a shrinking economy, growing unemployment, and rising inflation. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president through 2018, completing her second term.
Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A decades-long conflict between government forces and antigovernment insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia as a formal organization ceased to operate. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, organized criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. After four years of formal peace negotiations, the Colombian Government signed a revised final peace accord with the FARC in November 2016, which was subsequently ratified by the Colombian Congress. The accord calls for members of the FARC to demobilize, disarm, and reincorporate into society and politics, and it creates an alternative system for transitional justice that includes a “Special Jurisdiction for Peace” to address accountability for conflict-related crimes and established truth-telling mechanisms. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.

Geography

BrazilColombia
LocationEastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 55 00 W
4 00 N, 72 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the US
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
total: 6,672 km
border countries (5): Brazil 1,790 km, Ecuador 708 km, Panama 339 km, Peru 1,494 km, Venezuela 2,341 km
Coastline7,491 km
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatemostly tropical, but temperate in south
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrainmostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
mean elevation: 593 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,730 m
note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Natural resourcesbauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 32.9%
arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 61.9%
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 37.5%
arable land 1.4%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 34.5%
forest: 54.4%
other: 8.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land54,000 sq km (2012)
10,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
volcanism: Galeras (4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
Environment - current issuesdeforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notelargest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina
only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Population distributionthe vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro
the majority of people live in the north and west where agricultural opportunities and natural resources are found; the vast grasslands of the llanos to the south and east, which make up approximately 60% of the country, are sparsely populated

Demographics

BrazilColombia
Population207,353,391 (July 2017 est.)
47,698,524 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 22.33% (male 23,599,867/female 22,696,756)
15-24 years: 16.36% (male 17,212,048/female 16,721,295)
25-54 years: 43.86% (male 45,114,076/female 45,836,147)
55-64 years: 9.12% (male 8,931,065/female 9,974,723)
65 years and over: 8.33% (male 7,356,838/female 9,910,576) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 24.22% (male 5,917,425/female 5,634,516)
15-24 years: 17.25% (male 4,191,033/female 4,038,314)
25-54 years: 41.91% (male 9,918,698/female 10,071,419)
55-64 years: 9.18% (male 2,059,712/female 2,318,320)
65 years and over: 7.44% (male 1,480,966/female 2,068,121) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 32 years
male: 31.1 years
female: 32.8 years (2017 est.)
total: 30 years
male: 29 years
female: 31 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.73% (2017 est.)
0.99% (2017 est.)
Birth rate14.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
16.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
5.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 17.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 13.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 16.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74 years
male: 70.5 years
female: 77.7 years (2017 est.)
total population: 75.9 years
male: 72.8 years
female: 79.3 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.75 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.6% (2016 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groupswhite 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
mestizo and white 84.2%, Afro-Colombian (includes mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 10.4%, Amerindian 3.4%, Romani <.01, unspecified 2.1% (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS830,000 (2016 est.)
120,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 79%, Protestant 14% (includes Pentecostal 6%, mainline Protestant 2%, other 6%), other 2%, unspecified 5% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths14,000 (2016 est.)
2,800 (2016 est.)
LanguagesPortuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Spanish (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.2%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.2%
male: 94.1%
female: 94.4% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures6% of GDP (2013)
4.5% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 86.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 77% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.47% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 82.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 85.2% of population
rural: 67.9% of population
total: 81.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.8% of population
rural: 32.1% of population
total: 18.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
BOGOTA (capital) 9.765 million; Medellin 3.911 million; Cali 2.646 million; Barranquilla 1.991 million; Bucaramanga 1.215 million; Cartagena 1.092 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.2% (2007)
3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures8.3% of GDP (2014)
7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.1% (2016)
22.3% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 959,942
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2009 est.)
total number: 988,362
percentage: 9%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2009 est.)
Demographic profileBrazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Colombia is in the midst of a demographic transition resulting from steady declines in its fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. The birth rate has fallen from more than 6 children per woman in the 1960s to just above replacement level today as a result of increased literacy, family planning services, and urbanization. However, income inequality is among the worst in the world, and more than a third of the population lives below the poverty line.
Colombia experiences significant legal and illegal economic emigration and refugee outflows. Large-scale labor emigration dates to the 1960s; the United States and, until recently, Venezuela have been the main host countries. Emigration to Spain picked up in the 1990s because of its economic growth, but this flow has since diminished because of Spain’s ailing economy and high unemployment. Colombia has been the largest source of Latin American refugees in Latin America, nearly 400,000 of whom live primarily in Venezuela and Ecuador. Venezuela’s political and economic crisis since 2015, however, has created a reverse flow, consisting largely of Colombians returning home.
Forced displacement continues to be prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Even with the Colombian Government’s December 2016 peace agreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the risk of displacement remains as other rebel groups fill the void left by the FARC. Between 1985 and September 2017, nearly 7.6 million persons have been internally displaced, the highest total in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because many internally displaced persons are not registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world’s highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades—although the number is likely to be much higher—including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
Because of political violence and economic problems, Colombia received limited numbers of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries, mostly from the Middle East, Europe, and Japan. More recently, growth in the oil, mining, and manufacturing sectors has attracted increased labor migration; the primary source countries are Venezuela, the US, Mexico, and Argentina. Colombia has also become a transit area for illegal migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean -- especially Haiti and Cuba -- who are en route to the US or Canada.
Contraceptive prevalence rate80.2% (2013)
79.1% (2009/10)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.8
youth dependency ratio: 32.4
elderly dependency ratio: 11.4
potential support ratio: 8.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 45.6
youth dependency ratio: 35.4
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)

Government

BrazilColombia
Country nameconventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia
etymology: the country is named after explorer Christopher COLUMBUS
Government typefederal presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
name: Bogota
geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Independence7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 7 September (1822)
Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
several previous; latest promulgated 5 July 1991; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
civil law system influenced by the Spanish and French civil codes
Suffragevoluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and the illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER is serving as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term, which ends 1 January 2019
chief of state: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Ret. Gen. Oscar Adolfo NARANJO Trujillo (since 30 March 2017); note - Vice President German VARGAS Lleras' resignation on 15 March 2017 became effective on 21 March 2017; the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Ret. Gen. Oscar Adolfo NARANJO Trujillo (since 30 March 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (beginning in 2018); election last held on 25 May 2014 with a runoff held on 15 June 2014 (next to be held on 27 May 2018)
election results: Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (U Party) 51.0%, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA (CD) 45.0%, other 4.0%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
description: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; 100 members elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation popular vote and 2 members elected in a special nationwide for indigenous communities to serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation constituency popular vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - U Party 21, CD 20, PC 18, PL 17, CR 9, PDA 5, Green Party 5, other 7; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 39, U Party 37, PC 27, CD 19, CR 16, Green Party 6, PDA 3, other 19
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of the Civil-Agrarian and Labor Chambers each with 7 judges, and the Penal Chamber with 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 magistrates); Council of State (consists of 31 members); Superior Judiciary Council (consists of 13 magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Supreme Court members from candidates submitted by the Superior Judiciary Council; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Constitutional Court magistrates - nominated by the president, by the Supreme Court, and elected by the Senate; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Council of State members appointed by the State Council plenary from lists nominated by the Superior Judiciary Council
subordinate courts: Superior Tribunals (appellate courts for each of the judicial districts); regional courts; civil municipal courts; Superior Military Tribunal; first instance administrative courts
Political parties and leadersBrazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Clara LOPEZ]
Conservative Party or PC [David BARGUIL]
Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA, Carlos HOLMES TRUJILLO, Ivan DUQUE]
Green Alliance [Jorge LONDONO, Antonio SANGUINO, Luis AVELLANEDA, Camilo ROMERO]
Liberal Party or PL [Horacio SERPA]
Citizens Option (Opcion Ciudadana) or OC [Angel ALIRIO Moreno] (formerly known as the National Integration Party or PIN)
Radical Change or CR [Carlos Fernando GALAN]
Social National Unity Party or U Party [Roy BARRERAS, Jose David NAME]
note: Colombia has numerous smaller movements
Political pressure groups and leadersLandless Workers' Movement or MST [Joao Pedro STEDILE]
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
Central Union of Workers or CUT
Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC
General Confederation of Workers or CGT
National Liberation Army or ELN
International organization participationAfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BCIE, BIS, CAN, Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
chief of mission: Ambassador Camilo REYES Rodriguez (since 21 July 2017)
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Newark (NJ), Orlando, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Boston, Chicago, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Michael MCKINNEY (since 1 January 2017)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
chief of mission: Ambassador Kevin WHITAKER (since 11 June 2014)
embassy: Calle 24 Bis No. 48-50, Bogota, D.C.
mailing address: Carrera 45 No. 24B-27, Bogota, D.C.
telephone: [57] (1) 275-2000
FAX: [57] (1) 275-4600
Flag descriptiongreen with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the short-lived South American republic that broke up in 1830; various interpretations of the colors exist and include: yellow for the gold in Colombia's land, blue for the seas on its shores, and red for the blood spilled in attaining freedom; alternatively, the colors have been described as representing more elemental concepts such as sovereignty and justice (yellow), loyalty and vigilance (blue), and valor and generosity (red); or simply the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity
note: similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
National anthem"name: ""Hino Nacional Brasileiro"" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional de la Republica de Colombia"" (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
lyrics/music: Rafael NUNEZ/Oreste SINDICI
note: adopted 1920; the anthem was created from an inspirational poem written by President Rafael NUNEZ
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Colombia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

BrazilColombia
Economy - overviewBrazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.

Economic reforms, proposed in 2016, aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 78% of GDP at the end of 2017, up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.

Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments too difficult to enact.
Colombia heavily depends on energy and mining exports, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices. Colombia is Latin America’s fourth largest oil producer and the world’s fourth largest coal producer, third largest coffee exporter, and second largest cut flowers exporter. Colombia’s economic development is hampered by inadequate infrastructure, poverty, narcotrafficking, and an uncertain security situation, in addition to dependence on primary commodities.

Colombia’s economy slowed in 2017 because of falling global oil prices and lower oil production due to insurgent attacks on pipeline infrastructure. Although real GDP growth averaged 4.7% during the past decade, it fell to an estimated 1.8% in 2017. Declining oil prices also have contributed to reduced government revenues. In 2016, oil revenue dropped below 4% of the federal budget and likely remained below 4% in 2017. A Western credit rating agency in December 2017 downgraded Colombia’s sovereign credit rating to BBB-, because of weaker-than-expected growth and increasing external debt. Colombia has struggled to address local referendums against foreign investment, which have slowed its expansion, especially in the oil and mining sectors. Colombia’s FDI declined by 3% to $10.2 billion between January and September 2017.

Colombia has signed or is negotiating Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with more than a dozen countries; the US-Colombia FTA went into effect in May 2012. Colombia is a founding member of the Pacific Alliance—a regional trade block formed in 2012 by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to promote regional trade and economic integration. The Colombian government took steps in 2017 to address several bilateral trade irritants with the US, including those on truck scrappage, distilled spirits, pharmaceuticals, ethanol imports, and labor rights. Colombia hopes to accede to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$3.219 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.195 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.314 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$712.5 billion (2017 est.)
$700.6 billion (2016 est.)
$687.2 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.7% (2017 est.)
-3.6% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
1.7% (2017 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$15,500 (2017 est.)
$15,500 (2016 est.)
$16,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$14,500 (2017 est.)
$14,400 (2016 est.)
$14,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.2%
industry: 21%
services: 72.8%
(2017 est.)
agriculture: 7.4%
industry: 31.3%
services: 61.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line"3.7%
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the ""extreme"" poverty line (2016 est.)
"
27.8% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 42.2% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.7% (2017 est.)
8.7% (2016 est.)
4.3% (2017 est.)
7.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force111.6 million (2017 est.)
24.67 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 10%
industry: 39.8%
services: 50.2%
(2016 est.)
agriculture: 17%
industry: 21%
services: 62% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate13.1% (2017 est.)
11.3% (2016 est.)
9.3% (2017 est.)
9.2% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index49.7 (2014)
55.3 (2001)
53.5 (2014)
56.9 (1996)
Budgetrevenues: $726.6 billion
expenditures: $749 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $85.14 billion
expenditures: $95.28 billion (2017 est.)
Industriestextiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial production growth rate1% (2017 est.)
-2.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; shrimp; forest products
Exports$215.4 billion (2017 est.)
$184.5 billion (2016 est.)
$36.79 billion (2017 est.)
$33.38 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiestransport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
Exports - partnersChina 19%, US 12.6%, Argentina 7.3%, Netherlands 5.6% (2016)
US 33.5%, Panama 6.3% (2016)
Imports$151.9 billion (2017 est.)
$139.4 billion (2016 est.)
$44.68 billion (2017 est.)
$43.24 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partnersUS 17.6%, China 16.9%, Argentina 6.7%, Germany 6.6%, South Korea 4.4% (2016)
US 26.4%, China 19.1%, Mexico 7.5%, Brazil 4.7% (2016)
Debt - external$554.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$551.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$120.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$115 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesreals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.214 (2017 est.)
3.4901 (2016 est.)
3.4901 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar -
2,975.5 (2017 est.)
3,055.3 (2016 est.)
3,055.3 (2015 est.)
2,001 (2014 est.)
2,001.1 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt78.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
69.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
53% of GDP (2017 est.)
52% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$377.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$365 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$46.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$46.18 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$28.99 billion (2017 est.)
-$23.53 billion (2016 est.)
-$11.7 billion (2017 est.)
-$12.24 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$2.081 trillion (2016 est.)
$307.5 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$828.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$763.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$178.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$164.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$327.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$319.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$55.32 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$51.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$85.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$146.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$202.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.25% (31 December 2015)
7.5% (31 December 2016)
6.5% (31 December 2014)
Commercial bank prime lending rate48.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
52.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.8% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.65% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.237 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.138 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$162.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$153.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$106.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$106.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.63 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$34.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$761.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$727.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$167.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$136 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues34.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
-3.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 16.1%
male: 13.8%
female: 21.2% (2014 est.)
total: 16.6%
male: 12.6%
female: 22.2% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 63.5%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 16.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 11.8%
imports of goods and services: -11.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 62.1%
government consumption: 18.2%
investment in fixed capital: 24.8%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 14.2%
imports of goods and services: -19.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving16.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
21% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

BrazilColombia
Electricity - production559.2 billion kWh (2015 est.)
67.26 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption500.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
57.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports219 million kWh (2015 est.)
460 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports34.64 billion kWh (2015 est.)
45 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production2.515 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
886,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports350,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports518,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
681,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves13 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
2.002 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves429.9 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
123.5 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production20.41 billion cu m (2015 est.)
11.91 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption43.4 billion cu m (2015 est.)
18.82 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports100 million cu m (2014 est.)
400 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports18.98 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity155.6 million kW (2015 est.)
16.66 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels25.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
29.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants59.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
69% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels1.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources16% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
1.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production2.899 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
362,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption3.102 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
345,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports269,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
83,920 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports559,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
95,790 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy535 million Mt (2013 est.)
74 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 800,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 97%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 88% (2013)

Telecommunications

BrazilColombia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 41,846,846
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 7,115,984
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 244,066,759
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2016 est.)
total: 58,684,924
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 124 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 120 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2016)
general assessment: modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular services, however, infrastructure remains poor in small urban centers and rural areas
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 120 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed-line services
international: country code - 57; multiple submarine cable systems provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2016)
Internet country code.br
.co
Internet userstotal: 122,841,218
percent of population: 59.7% (July 2016 est.)
total: 27,452,550
percent of population: 58.1% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)
combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2007)

Transportation

BrazilColombia
Railwaystotal: 29,849.9 km
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
total: 2,141 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,991 km 0.914-m gauge (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
total: 204,855 km (2015)
Waterways50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)
Pipelinescondensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)
gas 4,991 km; oil 6,796 km; refined products 3,429 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (3,780,000) (2015)
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) - Cartagena, Santa Marta, Turbo; Pacific Ocean - Buenaventura
river port(s): Barranquilla (Rio Magdalena)
oil terminal(s): Covenas offshore terminal
dry bulk cargo port(s): Puerto Bolivar (coal)
container port(s) (TEUs): Cartagena (1,853,342)
Merchant marinetotal: 766
by type: bulk carrier 14, container ship 16, general cargo 48, oil tanker 37, other 651 (2017)
total: 103
by type: general cargo 17, oil tanker 9, other 77 (2017)
Airports4,093 (2013)
836 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2017)
total: 121
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 18 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
total: 715
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 201
under 914 m: 488 (2013)
Heliports13 (2013)
3 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 9
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,039,359
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 149.393 million mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 12
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 157
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 30,742,928
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,317,562,271 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixPP (2016)
HJ, HK (2016)

Military

BrazilColombia
Military branchesBrazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
National Army (Ejercito Nacional), Republic of Colombia Navy (Armada Republica de Colombia, ARC, includes Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (Infanteria de Marina, IM), and Coast Guard), Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC) (2012)
Military service age and obligation"18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are ""long-service"" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
"
18-24 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; service obligation is 18 months (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.32% of GDP (2016)
1.36% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
3.39% of GDP (2016)
3.13% of GDP (2015)
3.13% of GDP (2014)
3.29% of GDP (2013)
3.17% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

BrazilColombia
Disputes - internationaluncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank
Illicit drugssecond-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area
illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 159,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2015, a 42% increase over 2014, producing a potential of 495 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2016, the Colombian government reported manual eradication of 17,642 hectares; Colombia suspended aerial eradication in October 2015 making 2016 the first full year without aerial eradication; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; Colombia probably remains the second largest supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation was estimated to be 1,100 hectares in 2015, sufficient to potentially produce three metric tons of pure heroin
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 16,509 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; only includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum) (2017)
IDPs: 7,582,085 (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985; about 300,000 new IDPs each year since 2000) (2017)
stateless persons: 11 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook