Home

Brazil vs. Bolivia

Introduction

BrazilBolivia
BackgroundFollowing more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, since about 2013, Brazil has been plagued by a shrinking economy, growing unemployment, and rising inflation. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president through 2018, completing her second term.
Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of coups and countercoups, with the last coup occurring in 1978. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production.
In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009 and October 2014, President MORALES easily won reelection. His party maintained control of the legislative branch of the government, which has allowed him to continue his process of change. In February 2016, MORALES narrowly lost a referendum to approve a constitutional amendment that would have allowed him to compete in the 2019 presidential election. Despite the loss, MORALES has already been chosen by his party to run again in 2019, via a still-undetermined method for him to appear on the ballot.

Geography

BrazilBolivia
LocationEastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 55 00 W
17 00 S, 65 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
total: 1,098,581 sq km
land: 1,083,301 sq km
water: 15,280 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the US
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundariestotal: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
total: 7,252 km
border countries (5): Argentina 942 km, Brazil 3,403 km, Chile 942 km, Paraguay 753 km, Peru 1,212 km
Coastline7,491 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
none (landlocked)
Climatemostly tropical, but temperate in south
varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrainmostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
mean elevation: 1,192 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 32.9%
arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 61.9%
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 34.3%
arable land 3.6%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 30.5%
forest: 52.5%
other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land54,000 sq km (2012)
3,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
flooding in the northeast (March to April)
volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and the Olca-Paruma volcanic complex (5,762 m to 5,167 m)
Environment - current issuesdeforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notelargest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina
landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Population distributionthe vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro
a high altitude plain in the west between two cordillera of the Andes, known as the Altiplano, is the focal area for most of the population; a dense settlement pattern is also found in and around the city of Santa Cruz, located on the eastern side of the Andes

Demographics

BrazilBolivia
Population207,353,391 (July 2017 est.)
11,138,234 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 22.33% (male 23,599,867/female 22,696,756)
15-24 years: 16.36% (male 17,212,048/female 16,721,295)
25-54 years: 43.86% (male 45,114,076/female 45,836,147)
55-64 years: 9.12% (male 8,931,065/female 9,974,723)
65 years and over: 8.33% (male 7,356,838/female 9,910,576) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 31.85% (male 1,807,735/female 1,739,763)
15-24 years: 19.46% (male 1,098,097/female 1,069,950)
25-54 years: 37.48% (male 2,041,866/female 2,133,065)
55-64 years: 5.9% (male 303,409/female 353,598)
65 years and over: 5.3% (male 260,424/female 330,327) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 32 years
male: 31.1 years
female: 32.8 years (2017 est.)
total: 24.3 years
male: 23.6 years
female: 25 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.73% (2017 est.)
1.51% (2017 est.)
Birth rate14.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
22 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 17.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 35.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 38.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74 years
male: 70.5 years
female: 77.7 years (2017 est.)
total population: 69.5 years
male: 66.7 years
female: 72.4 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.75 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.6% (2016 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian
Ethnic groupswhite 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
"mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara
note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide ""mestizo"" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of ""mestizo"" and ""cholo"" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchangeably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices (2009 est.)
"
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS830,000 (2016 est.)
19,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths14,000 (2016 est.)
<1000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesPortuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, none 0.1%
note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including a few that are extinct (2001 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.2%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 96.5%
female: 88.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2007)
Education expenditures6% of GDP (2013)
7.3% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 86.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 69.3% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.11% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 75.6% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 24.4% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 82.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 60.8% of population
rural: 27.5% of population
total: 50.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 39.2% of population
rural: 72.5% of population
total: 49.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
Santa Cruz 2.107 million; LA PAZ (capital) 1.816 million; Cochabamba 1.24 million; Sucre (constitutional capital) 372,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
206 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.2% (2007)
3.6% (2012)
Health expenditures8.3% of GDP (2014)
6.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.1% (2016)
20.2% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 959,942
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2009 est.)
total number: 757,352
percentage: 26.4%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2008 est.)
Demographic profileBrazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Bolivia ranks at or near the bottom among Latin American countries in several areas of health and development, including poverty, education, fertility, malnutrition, mortality, and life expectancy. On the positive side, more children are being vaccinated and more pregnant women are getting prenatal care and having skilled health practitioners attend their births. Bolivia's income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia's high fertility rate - approximately three children per woman. Bolivia's lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.
Bolivia's income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia's high fertility rate - approximately three children per woman. Bolivia's lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.
Between 7% and 16% of Bolivia’s population lives abroad (estimates vary in part because of illegal migration). Emigrants primarily seek jobs and better wages in Argentina (the principal destination), the US, and Spain. In recent years, more restrictive immigration policies in Europe and the US have increased the flow of Bolivian emigrants to neighboring countries. Fewer Bolivians migrated to Brazil in 2015 and 2016 because of its recession; increasing numbers have been going to Chile, mainly to work as miners.
Contraceptive prevalence rate80.2% (2013)
60.5% (2008)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.8
youth dependency ratio: 32.4
elderly dependency ratio: 11.4
potential support ratio: 8.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 63.7
youth dependency ratio: 53.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.6
potential support ratio: 9.4 (2015 est.)

Government

BrazilBolivia
Country nameconventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia
etymology: the country is named after Simon BOLIVAR, a 19th-century leader in the South American wars for independence
Government typefederal presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
name: La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional [legislative and judicial] capital)
geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 7 September (1822)
Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 - 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; amended 2013; note - in late 2017, the Constitutional Court changed the presidential two consecutive term limit to no term limits (2017)
Legal systemcivil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law
Suffragevoluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and the illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER is serving as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term, which ends 1 January 2019
chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot one of 3 ways: candidate wins at least 50% of the vote, or at least 40% of the vote and 10% more than the next highest candidate; otherwise a second round is held and the winner determined by simple majority vote ; no term limits (changed from two consecutive term limit by Constitutional Court in late 2017); election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (MAS) 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana (UN) 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA Ramirez (POC) 9.1%; other 5.4%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
description: bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 53 indirectly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote, and 7 - apportioned to non-contiguous, rural areas in 7 of the 9 states - directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 25, UD 9, PDC 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 88, UD 32, PDC 10
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges or ministros organized into civil, penal, social, and administrative chambers); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members and 6 alternates); National Agro-Environment Court (consists of 5 primary and 5 alternate judges; Council of the Judiciary (consists of 3 primary and 3 alternate judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal, National Agro-Environmental Court, and Council of the Judiciary candidates pre-selected by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly and elected by direct popular vote; judges elected for 6-year terms; Plurinational Electoral Organ judges appointed - 6 by the Legislative Assembly and 1 by the president of the republic; members serve single 6-year terms
subordinate courts: National Electoral Court; District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments); Agro-Environmental lower courts
Political parties and leadersBrazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]
Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]
National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]
Political pressure groups and leadersLandless Workers' Movement or MST [Joao Pedro STEDILE]
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
Bolivian Workers Central or COB
Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB
Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB
Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE-El Alto
Landless Movement or MST
National Confederation of Native Rural Indigenous Women of Bolivia or Bartolina Sisa
National Coordination for Change or CONALCAM
National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ
Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Jacinto HERRARA]
other: Cocalero unions
Interculturales union or CSCIB
various federations of neighborhood councils or FEJUVEs (including the national organization)
International organization participationAfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rafael Pablo CANEDO Daroca (since July 2017)
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4155
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington, DC
note: in September 2008, the US expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US in reciprocity for Bolivia expelling the US ambassador to Bolivia
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Michael MCKINNEY (since 1 January 2017)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter BRENNAN (since June 2014)
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Paz
mailing address: 3220 La Paz Place, Dulles, VA, 20189-3220
telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111
note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, Philip GOLDBERG, and both countries have yet to reinstate their ambassadors
Flag descriptiongreen with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; red stands for bravery and the blood of national heroes, yellow for the nation's mineral resources, and green for the fertility of the land
note: similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; in 2009, a presidential decree made it mandatory for a so-called wiphala - a square, multi-colored flag representing the country's indigenous peoples - to be used alongside the traditional flag
National anthem"name: ""Hino Nacional Brasileiro"" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
"
"name: ""Cancion Patriotica"" (Patriotic Song)
lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTI
note: adopted 1852
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
llama, Andean condor; national colors: red, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

BrazilBolivia
Economy - overviewBrazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.

Economic reforms, proposed in 2016, aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 78% of GDP at the end of 2017, up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.

Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments too difficult to enact.
Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports to Brazil and Argentina. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth.

Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. High commodity prices between 2010 and 2014 sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses. The global decline in oil prices that began in late 2014 exerted downward pressure on the price Bolivia receives for exported gas and resulted in lower GDP growth rates - declining from 4.9% in 2015 to 4.2% in 2017 - and losses in government revenue as well as fiscal and trade deficits.

A lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with conflict among social groups, pose challenges for the Bolivian economy. In 2015, in an attempt to improve the investment climate, President Evo MORALES expanded efforts to court international investment and boost Bolivia’s energy production capacity, passing an investment law and promising not to nationalize additional industries. In early 2016, the Government of Bolivia approved the 2016-20 National Economic and Social Development Plan aimed at maintaining growth of 5% and reducing poverty.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$3.219 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.195 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.314 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$83.5 billion (2017 est.)
$80.14 billion (2016 est.)
$76.86 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.7% (2017 est.)
-3.6% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
4.2% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$15,500 (2017 est.)
$15,500 (2016 est.)
$16,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$7,500 (2017 est.)
$7,400 (2016 est.)
$7,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.2%
industry: 21%
services: 72.8%
(2017 est.)
agriculture: 13%
industry: 37.4%
services: 54.1% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line"3.7%
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the ""extreme"" poverty line (2016 est.)
"
38.6%
note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.7% (2017 est.)
8.7% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force111.6 million (2017 est.)
5.07 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 10%
industry: 39.8%
services: 50.2%
(2016 est.)
agriculture: 29.4%
industry: 22%
services: 48.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate13.1% (2017 est.)
11.3% (2016 est.)
4% (2017 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemployment
Distribution of family income - Gini index49.7 (2014)
55.3 (2001)
47 (2016 est.)
57.9 (1999)
Budgetrevenues: $726.6 billion
expenditures: $749 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $15.01 billion
expenditures: $17.35 billion (2017 est.)
Industriestextiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
Industrial production growth rate1% (2017 est.)
3.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
soybeans, quinoa, Brazil nuts, sugarcane, coffee, corn, rice, potatoes, chia, coca
Exports$215.4 billion (2017 est.)
$184.5 billion (2016 est.)
$7.541 billion (2017 est.)
$7 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiestransport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
natural gas, silver, zinc, lead, tin, gold, quinoa, soybeans and soy products
Exports - partnersChina 19%, US 12.6%, Argentina 7.3%, Netherlands 5.6% (2016)
Brazil 19.3%, US 13.6%, Argentina 11.4%, Colombia 8.8%, China 6.8%, Japan 5.9%, South Korea 5.4%, Peru 4.8%, Belgium 4.6% (2016)
Imports$151.9 billion (2017 est.)
$139.4 billion (2016 est.)
$8.239 billion (2017 est.)
$7.888 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
machinery, petroleum products, vehicles, iron and steel, plastics
Imports - partnersUS 17.6%, China 16.9%, Argentina 6.7%, Germany 6.6%, South Korea 4.4% (2016)
China 19.9%, Brazil 17.5%, Argentina 10.5%, US 9.8%, Peru 6.9%, Japan 4.9%, Chile 4.1% (2016)
Debt - external$554.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$551.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.81 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$11.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesreals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.214 (2017 est.)
3.4901 (2016 est.)
3.4901 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar -
6.91 (2017 est.)
6.91 (2016 est.)
6.91 (2015 est.)
6.91 (2014 est.)
6.91 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt78.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
69.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
51.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
44.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$377.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$365 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.287 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$28.99 billion (2017 est.)
-$23.53 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.791 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.928 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$2.081 trillion (2016 est.)
$37.78 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$828.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$763.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.084 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$327.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$319.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$0 (31 December 2016 est.)
$0 (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$12.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.833 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.25% (31 December 2015)
1.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate48.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
52.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
7.95% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.237 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.138 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$26.42 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$106.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$106.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$761.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$727.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues34.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
39.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
-6.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 16.1%
male: 13.8%
female: 21.2% (2014 est.)
total: 6.9%
male: 6.4%
female: 7.6% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 63.5%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 16.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 11.8%
imports of goods and services: -11.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 69%
government consumption: 17.6%
investment in fixed capital: 20.3%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 24.2%
imports of goods and services: -31.6% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving16.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
15.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

BrazilBolivia
Electricity - production559.2 billion kWh (2015 est.)
8.147 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption500.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
7.332 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports219 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports34.64 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production2.515 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
59,330 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports350,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports518,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves13 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
211.5 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves429.9 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
295.9 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production20.41 billion cu m (2015 est.)
21.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption43.4 billion cu m (2015 est.)
5.366 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports100 million cu m (2014 est.)
15.73 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports18.98 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity155.6 million kW (2015 est.)
2.362 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels25.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
71.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants59.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
21% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels1.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources16% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production2.899 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
59,050 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption3.102 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
86,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports269,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
8,642 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports559,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
22,340 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy535 million Mt (2013 est.)
16 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 800,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 90%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)

Telecommunications

BrazilBolivia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 41,846,846
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 867,302
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 244,066,759
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2016 est.)
total: 10,165,308
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 93 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 120 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2016)
general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved
domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2016, teledensity stood at 93 per 100 persons
international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.br
.bo
Internet userstotal: 122,841,218
percent of population: 59.7% (July 2016 est.)
total: 4,354,678
percent of population: 39.7% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)
large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)

Transportation

BrazilBolivia
Railwaystotal: 29,849.9 km
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
total: 3,504 km
narrow gauge: 3,504 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
total: 90,568 km
paved: 9,792 km
unpaved: 80,776 km (2017)
Waterways50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)
Pipelinescondensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)
gas 5,457 km; liquid petroleum gas 51 km; oil 2,511 km; refined products 1,627 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (3,780,000) (2015)
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana)
note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
Merchant marinetotal: 766
by type: bulk carrier 14, container ship 16, general cargo 48, oil tanker 37, other 651 (2017)
total: 55
by type: general cargo 41, oil tanker 3, other 11 (2017)
Airports4,093 (2013)
855 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2017)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
total: 834
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 47
914 to 1,523 m: 151
under 914 m: 631 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 9
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,039,359
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 149.393 million mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 7
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 39
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,578,959
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 9,456,548 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixPP (2016)
CP (2016)

Military

BrazilBolivia
Military branchesBrazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB, includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2017)
Military service age and obligation"18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are ""long-service"" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
"
16-49 years of age for 12-month voluntary male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; minimum age of combat is 18; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.32% of GDP (2016)
1.36% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
1.68% of GDP (2016)
1.74% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.84% of GDP (2013)
1.85% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

BrazilBolivia
Disputes - internationaluncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian products; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of its border regions with all of its neighbors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Peru)
Illicit drugssecond-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area
world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 36,500 hectares under cultivation in 2015, a 3 percent increase over 2014; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 255 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2015; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption

Source: CIA Factbook