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Brazil vs. Argentina

Introduction

BrazilArgentina
Background

Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world's strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country's rise. However, from about 2013 to 2016, Brazil was plagued by a sagging economy, high unemployment, and high inflation, only emerging from recession in 2017. Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF (2011-2016) was removed from office in 2016 by Congress for having committed impeachable acts against Brazil's budgetary laws, and her vice president, Michel TEMER, served the remainder of her second term. In October 2018, Jair BOLSONARO won the presidency with 55 percent of the vote and assumed office on 1 January 2019.

In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, with Italy and Spain providing the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political unrest and conflict between civilian and military factions.

After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents. The years 2003-15 saw Peronist rule by Nestor and Cristina FERNANDEZ de KIRCHNER, whose policies isolated Argentina and caused economic stagnation. With the election of Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a period of reform and international reintegration.

Geography

BrazilArgentina
Location
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Geographic coordinates
10 00 S, 55 00 W
34 00 S, 64 00 W
Map references
South America
South America
Area
total: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km

note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

total: 2,780,400 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than the US
slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land boundaries
total: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1263 km, Bolivia 3403 km, Colombia 1790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1308 km, Paraguay 1371 km, Peru 2659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1050 km, Venezuela 2137 km
total: 11,968 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 942 km, Brazil 1263 km, Chile 6691 km, Paraguay 2531 km, Uruguay 541 km
Coastline
7,491 km
4,989 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 320 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
mean elevation: 595 m
lowest point: Laguna del Carbon (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz) -105 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza; highest point in South America) 6,962 m
Natural resources
alumina, bauxite, beryllium, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, niobium, phosphates, platinum, tantalum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium, arable land
Land use
agricultural land: 32.9% (2011 est.)
arable land: 8.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 23.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 61.9% (2011 est.)
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 53.9% (2016 est.)
arable land: 13.9% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 0.4% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 39.6% (2016 est.)
forest: 10.7% (2016 est.)
other: 35.4% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land
54,000 sq km (2012)
23,600 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma

Environment - current issues
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; illegal wildlife trade; illegal poaching; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation (erosion, salinization), desertification, air pollution, and water pollution

note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets

Environment - international agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note
largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Brazil
Population distribution
the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro
one-third of the population lives in Buenos Aires; pockets of agglomeration occur throughout the northern and central parts of the country; Patagonia to the south remains sparsely populated

Demographics

BrazilArgentina
Population
208,846,892 (July 2018 est.)
44,694,198 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 21.89% (male 23,310,437 /female 22,414,551)
15-24 years: 16.29% (male 17,254,084 /female 16,758,140)
25-54 years: 43.86% (male 45,449,158 /female 46,151,759)
55-64 years: 9.35% (male 9,229,665 /female 10,296,824)
65 years and over: 8.61% (male 7,666,845 /female 10,315,429) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 24.44% (male 5,629,345 /female 5,293,680)
15-24 years: 15.2% (male 3,476,344 /female 3,317,151)
25-54 years: 39.46% (male 8,808,591 /female 8,826,379)
55-64 years: 9.12% (male 1,977,421 /female 2,096,665)
65 years and over: 11.79% (male 2,216,487 /female 3,052,135) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 32.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 31.5 years
female: 33.3 years
total: 31.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 30.7 years
female: 33.1 years
Population growth rate
0.71% (2018 est.)
0.89% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
13.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
16.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 74.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 70.7 years
female: 78 years
total population: 77.5 years (2018 est.)
male: 74.4 years
female: 80.8 years
Total fertility rate
1.75 children born/woman (2018 est.)
2.25 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.5% (2018 est.)
0.4% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine
Ethnic groups
white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
European (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 97.2%, Amerindian 2.4%, African 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
900,000 (2018 est.)
140,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
HIV/AIDS - deaths
15,000 (2018 est.)
1,700 (2018 est.)
Languages
Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)

note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92%
male: 91.7%
female: 92.3% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 99.1% (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2019)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A (2019)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2019)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2019)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 18 years
male: 16 years
female: 19 years (2016)
Education expenditures
6.2% of GDP (2015)
5.6% of GDP (2016)
Urbanization
urban population: 86.8% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 92% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 88% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 51.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 82.8% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 12% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 48.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 96.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 96.4% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
21.847 million Sao Paulo, 13.374 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.028 million Belo Horizonte, 4.559 million BRASILIA (capital), 4.115 million Porto Alegre, 4.078 million Recife (2019)
15.057 million BUENOS AIRES (capital), 1.560 million Cordoba, 1.510 million Rosario, 1.153 million Mendoza, 971,000 San Miguel de Tucuman, 874,000 La Plata (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
39 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
11.8% (2016)
7.5% (2016)
Physicians density
2.15 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
3.96 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
2.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
5 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
22.1% (2016)
28.3% (2016)
Demographic profile

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).

Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.

Argentina's population continues to grow but at a slower rate because of its steadily declining birth rate. Argentina's fertility decline began earlier than in the rest of Latin America, occurring most rapidly between the early 20th century and the 1950s, and then becoming more gradual. Life expectancy has been improving, most notably among the young and the poor. While the population under age 15 is shrinking, the youth cohort - ages 15-24 - is the largest in Argentina's history and will continue to bolster the working-age population. If this large working-age population is well-educated and gainfully employed, Argentina is likely to experience an economic boost and possibly higher per capita savings and investment. Although literacy and primary school enrollment are nearly universal, grade repetition is problematic and secondary school completion is low. Both of these issues vary widely by region and socioeconomic group.

Argentina has been primarily a country of immigration for most of its history, welcoming European immigrants (often providing needed low-skilled labor) after its independence in the 19th century and attracting especially large numbers from Spain and Italy. More than 7 million European immigrants are estimated to have arrived in Argentina between 1880 and 1930, when it adopted a more restrictive immigration policy. European immigration also began to wane in the 1930s because of the global depression. The inflow rebounded temporarily following WWII and resumed its decline in the 1950s when Argentina's military dictators tightened immigration rules and European economies rebounded. Regional migration increased, however, supplying low-skilled workers escaping economic and political instability in their home countries. As of 2015, immigrants made up almost 5% of Argentina's population, the largest share in South America. Migration from neighboring countries accounted for approximately 80% of Argentina's immigrant population in 2015.

The first waves of highly skilled Argentine emigrant workers headed mainly to the United States and Spain in the 1960s and 1970s, driven by economic decline and repressive military dictatorships. The 2008 European economic crisis drove the return migration of some Argentinean and other Latin American nationals, as well as the immigration of Europeans to South America, where Argentina was a key recipient. In 2015, Argentina received the highest number of legal migrants in Latin America and the Caribbean. The majority of its migrant inflow came from Paraguay and Bolivia.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
80.2% (2013)
81.3% (2013)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 43.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 32.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 11.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 8.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 56.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 39.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)

Government

BrazilArgentina
Country name
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina
etymology: originally the area was referred to as Tierra Argentina, i.e., "Land beside the Silvery River" or "silvery land," which referred to the massive estuary in the east of the country, the Rio de la Plata (River of Silver); over time the name shortened to simply Argentina or "silvery"
Government type
federal presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February

note: Brazil has four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

etymology:
name bestowed on the new capital of Brazil upon its inauguration in 1960; previous Brazilian capitals had been Salvador from 1549 to 1763 and Rio de Janeiro from 1763 to 1960


name: Buenos Aires
geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 22 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name translates as "fair winds" in Spanish and derives from the original designation of the settlement that would become the present-day city, "Santa Maria del Buen Aire" (Saint Mary of the Fair Winds)
Administrative divisions
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego - Antarctica and the South Atlantic Islands), Tucuman

note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
9 July 1816 (from Spain)
National holiday
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Revolution Day (May Revolution Day), 25 May (1810)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988
amendments: proposed by at least one third of either house of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by simple majority vote by more than half of the state legislative assemblies; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote by both houses in each of two readings; constitutional provisions affecting the federal form of government, separation of powers, suffrage, or individual rights and guarantees cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2017 (2018)
history: several previous; latest effective 11 May 1853
amendments: a declaration of proposed amendments requires two-thirds majority vote by both houses of the National Congress followed by approval by an ad hoc, multi-member constitutional convention; amended many times, last significant amendment in 1994 (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and if illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-17 years of age - optional for national elections
Executive branch
chief of state: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2018 with runoff on 28 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)
election results: Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%
chief of state: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority vote (to win, a candidate must receive at least 45% of votes or 40% of votes and a 10-point lead over the second place candidate; if neither occurs, a second round is held ); the president serves a 4-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2023)
election results: Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ elected president; percent of vote - Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ (TODOS) 48.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 40.4%, Roberto LAVAGNA (independent) 6.2%, other 5.3%; note - FERNANDEZ will take office 10 December 2019
Legislative branch
description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of:
Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections:
Federal Senate - last held on 7 October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held in October 2022 for one-third of the Senate)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)
election results:
Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 7, PP 5, REDE 5, DEM 4, PSDB 4, PSDC 4, PSL 4, PT 4, PDT 2, PHS 2, PPS 2, PSB 2, PTB 2, Podemos 1, PR 1, PRB 1, PROS 1, PRP 1, PSC 1, SD 1; composition - men 70, women 11, percent of women 13.6%    
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 56, PSL 52, PP 37, PMDB 34, PSDC 34, PR 33, PSB 32, PRB 30, DEM 29, PSDB 29, PDT 28, SD 13, Podemos 11, PSOL 10, PTB 10, PCdoB 9, NOVO 8, PPS 8, PROS 8, PSC 8, Avante 7, PHS 6, Patriota 5, PRP 4, PV 4, PMN 3, PTC 2, DC 1, PPL 1, REDE 1; composition - men 462, women 51, percent of women 9.9%; total National Congress percent of women 10.4%
description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Senate (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership elected every 2 years)
Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 2 years)
elections:
Senate - last held on 22 October 2017 (next to be held on 27 October 2019)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 22 October 2017 (next to be held on 27 October 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 12, UC 6, PJ 4, FRC 2;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 61, UC 28, PJ 18, FR 7, FCS 3, FRC 2, other 8 (L)
note - as of 1 May 2019, composition of the legislature is as follows: Senate - seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 26, PJ 21, FPV-PJ 8, other 17; composition - men 42, women 30, percent of women 42%; Chamber of Deputies - seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 108, FPV-PJ 66, Argentina Federal 33, Frente Renovador UNA 21, other 29; composition - men 164, women 93, percent of women 3%; note - total National Congress percent of women 37%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
highest courts: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 75; extensions beyond 75 require renomination by the president and approval by the Senate
subordinate courts: federal level appellate, district, and territorial courts; provincial level supreme, appellate, and first instance courts
Political parties and leaders
Avante [Luis TIBE] (formerly Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB) 
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Tasso JEREISSATI]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Democracy or DC [Jose Maria EYMAEL] (formerly Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC)
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
New Party or NOVO [Moises JARDIM]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Patriota [Adilson BARROSO Oliveira] (formerly National Ecologic Party or PEN)
Podemos [Renata ABREU] (formerly National Labor Party or PTN) 
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
Sustainability Network or REDE [Marina SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Gleisi HOFFMAN]
Argentina Federal [coalition led by Pablo KOSINER]
Cambiemos [Mauricio MACRI] (coalition of CC-ARI, PRO, and UCR)
Citizen's Unity or UC [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]
Civic Coalition ARI or CC-ARI [Elisa CARRIO, Maximiliano FERRARO]
Civic Front for Santiago or FCS [Gerardo ZAMORA]
Everyone's Front (Frente de Todos) or TODOS [Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ]
Front for the Renewal of Concord or FRC
Front for Victory or FpV [coalition led by Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER and Agustin ROSSI]
Generation for a National Encounter or GEN [Monica PERALTA]
Justicialist Party or PJ [Miguel Angel PICHETTO]
Radical Civic Union or UCR [Alfredo CORNEJO]
Renewal Front (Frente Renovador) or FR [Sergio MASSA]
Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI, Humberto SCHIAVONI]
Socialist Party or PS [Antonio BONFATTI]
Socialist Workers’ Party or PTS) [Jose MONTES]
Workers' Party or PO [Jorge ALTAMIRA]
Worker’s Socialist Movement or MST [Alejandro BODDART; Vilma RIPOLL]
numerous provincial parties
International organization participation
AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Fernando PIMENTEL (since 3 June 2019)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Ambassador Fernando ORIS DE ROA (since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires William POPP (since 3 November 2018)
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO AA 34030
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Belo Horizonte, Recife, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward Charles PRADO (since 16 May 2018)
telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
Flag description
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), white, and sky blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face (delineated in brown) known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
National anthem
name: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA

note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted

name: "Himno Nacional Argentino" (Argentine National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA

note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: sky blue, white
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Economy

BrazilArgentina
Economy - overview

Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. In 2017, Brazil`s GDP grew 1%, inflation fell to historic lows of 2.9%, and the Central Bank lowered benchmark interest rates from 13.75% in 2016 to 7%.

The economy has been negatively affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials, including the impeachment and conviction of Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF in August 2016. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — have limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors but creating opportunities for foreign companies to step into what had been a closed market.

The succeeding TEMER administration has implemented a series of fiscal and structural reforms to restore credibility to government finances. Congress approved legislation in December 2016 to cap public spending. Government spending growth had pushed public debt to 73.7% of GDP at the end of 2017, up from over 50% in 2012. The government also boosted infrastructure projects, such as oil and natural gas auctions, in part to raise revenues. Other economic reforms, proposed in 2016, aim to reduce barriers to foreign investment, and to improve labor conditions. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, have boosted employment, but at the expense of investment.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc that includes Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay - Venezuela’s membership in the organization was suspended In August 2017. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to volatile foreign markets and it currently is negotiating Free Trade Agreements with the European Union and Canada.

Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight.

Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as president in late 2007, and in 2008 the rapid economic growth of previous years slowed sharply as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. In 2010 the economy rebounded strongly, but slowed in late 2011 even as the government continued to rely on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies, which kept inflation in the double digits.

In order to deal with these problems, the government expanded state intervention in the economy: it nationalized the oil company YPF from Spain's Repsol, expanded measures to restrict imports, and further tightened currency controls in an effort to bolster foreign reserves and stem capital flight. Between 2011 and 2013, Central Bank foreign reserves dropped $21.3 billion from a high of $52.7 billion. In July 2014, Argentina and China agreed on an $11 billion currency swap; the Argentine Central Bank has received the equivalent of $3.2 billion in Chinese yuan, which it counts as international reserves.

With the election of President Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a historic political and economic transformation, as his administration took steps to liberalize the Argentine economy, lifting capital controls, floating the peso, removing export controls on some commodities, cutting some energy subsidies, and reforming the country’s official statistics. Argentina negotiated debt payments with holdout bond creditors, continued working with the IMF to shore up its finances, and returned to international capital markets in April 2016.

In 2017, Argentina’s economy emerged from recession with GDP growth of nearly 3.0%. The government passed important pension, tax, and fiscal reforms. And after years of international isolation, Argentina took on several international leadership roles, including hosting the World Economic Forum on Latin America and the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference, and is set to assume the presidency of the G-20 in 2018.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$3.248 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.216 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.332 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$922.1 billion (2017 est.)
$896.5 billion (2016 est.)
$913.2 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
1% (2017 est.)
-3.5% (2016 est.)
-3.5% (2015 est.)
2.9% (2017 est.)
-1.8% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$15,600 (2017 est.)
$15,600 (2016 est.)
$16,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$20,900 (2017 est.)
$20,600 (2016 est.)
$21,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 6.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 20.7% (2017 est.)
services: 72.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 10.8% (2017 est.)
industry: 28.1% (2017 est.)
services: 61.1% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
4.2% (2016 est.)

note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line

25.7% (2017 est.)

note: data are based on private estimates

Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 43.4% (2016 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 31% (2017 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
3.4% (2017 est.)
8.7% (2016 est.)
25.7% (2017 est.)
26.5% (2016 est.)

note: data are derived from private estimates

Labor force
104.2 million (2017)
18 million (2017 est.)

note: urban areas only

Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 9.4%
industry: 32.1%
services: 58.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 5.3%
industry: 28.6%
services: 66.1% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate
12.8% (2017 est.)
11.3% (2016 est.)
8.4% (2017 est.)
8.5% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
49 (2014)
54 (2004)
41.7 (2017 est.)
45.8 (2009)
Budget
revenues: 733.7 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 756.3 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 120.6 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 158.6 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Industrial production growth rate
0% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2017 est.)

note: based on private sector estimates

Agriculture - products
coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Exports
$217.2 billion (2017 est.)
$184.5 billion (2016 est.)
$58.45 billion (2017 est.)
$57.78 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
Exports - partners
China 21.8%, US 12.5%, Argentina 8.1%, Netherlands 4.3% (2017)
Brazil 16.1%, US 7.9%, China 7.5%, Chile 4.4% (2017)
Imports
$153.2 billion (2017 est.)
$139.4 billion (2016 est.)
$63.97 billion (2017 est.)
$53.5 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
Imports - partners
China 18.1%, US 16.7%, Argentina 6.3%, Germany 6.1% (2017)
Brazil 26.9%, China 18.5%, US 11.3%, Germany 4.9% (2017)
Debt - external
$547.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$548.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$214.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$190.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
reals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.19 (2017 est.)
3.48 (2016 est.)
3.4901 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar -
16.92 (2017 est.)
14.76 (2016 est.)
14.76 (2015 est.)
9.23 (2014 est.)
8.08 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
84% of GDP (2017 est.)
78.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
57.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
55% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$374 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$367.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$55.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$38.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$9.762 billion (2017 est.)
-$23.55 billion (2016 est.)
-$31.32 billion (2017 est.)
-$14.69 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$2.055 trillion (2017 est.)
$637.6 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$778.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$703.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$76.58 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$72.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$358.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$341.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$40.94 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$39.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$642.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$561.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$420 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$56.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.14 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate
7% (31 December 2017 est.)
13.75% (31 December 2016)

NA

Commercial bank prime lending rate
46.92% (31 December 2017 est.)
52.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
26.58% (31 December 2017 est.)
31.23% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$2.206 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.138 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$219.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$194 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$110.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$106.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.61 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$110.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$106.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.61 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
35.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
18.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 28.5%
male: 25.3%
female: 32.8% (2018 est.)
total: 22.6%
male: 19.9%
female: 26.9% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 63.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 15.6% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 12.6% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -11.6% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 65.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 11.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -13.8% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
15% of GDP (2017 est.)
14.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

BrazilArgentina
Electricity - production
567.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
131.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
509.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
121 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
219 million kWh (2015 est.)
55 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports
41.31 billion kWh (2016 est.)
9.851 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
2.587 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
489,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
297,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
16,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
736,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
36,630 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
12.63 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
2.162 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
377.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
336.6 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
40.92 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
34.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)
49.04 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
134.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
76.45 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
10.51 billion cu m (2017 est.)
9.826 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
150.8 million kW (2016 est.)
38.35 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
17% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
69% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
64% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
24% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
18% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
2.811 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
669,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
2.956 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
806,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
279,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
58,360 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
490,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
121,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
513.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
203.7 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

BrazilArgentina
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 40,878,018
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 9,530,349
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 236,488,548
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 114 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 61,897,379
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 144 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations; four major mobile operators offering a range of voice and data services; one of the largest broadband markets in Latin America, broadband penetration only behind Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay; country is a pioneer in the region for m-commerce (electronic commerce conducted on mobile phones) (2018)
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major impetus broadening telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 114 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 55; landing points for a number of submarine cables, including Malbec, ARBR, Tamnat, SAC, SAm-1, Atlantis -2, Seabras-1, Monet, EllaLink, BRUSA, GlobeNet, AMX-1, Brazilian Festoon, Bicentenario, Unisur, Junior, Americas -II, SAE x1, SAIL, SACS and SABR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station; satellites is a major communication platform, as it is almost impossible to lay fibre optic cable in the thick vegetation (2019)
general assessment: Argentina opened its telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology in 1998; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service continues to improve to rural areas; even with numerous providers there is a lack of competition; still Argentina is the 3rd largest in the region after Brazil and Mexico (2018)
domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; 22 per 100 fixed-line, 144 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 54; landing points for the UNISUR, Bicentenario, Atlantis-2, SAm-1, and SAC, Tannat, Malbec and ARBR submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112 (2019)
Internet country code
.br
.ar
Internet users
total: 122,841,218
percent of population: 59.7% (July 2016 est.)
total: 30,786,889
percent of population: 70.2% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated
government owns a TV station and radio network; more than 2 dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage

Transportation

BrazilArgentina
Railways
total: 29,850 km (2014)
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified) (2014)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 36,917 km (2014)
standard gauge: 2,745.1 km 1.435-m gauge (41.1 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 7,523.3 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
broad gauge: 26,391 km 1.676-m gauge (149 km electrified) (2014)
258 km 0.750-m gauge
Roadways
total: 2 million km (2018)
paved: 246,000 km (2018)
unpaved: 1.754 million km (2018)
total: 281,290 km (2017)
paved: 117,616 km (2017)
unpaved: 163,674 km (2017)
Waterways
50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
11,000 km (2012)
Pipelines
5959 km refined petroleum product (1,165 km distribution, 4,794 km transport), 11696 km natural gas (2,274 km distribution, 9,422 km transport), 1985 km crude oil (distribution), 77 km ethanol/petrochemical (37 km distribution, 40 km transport) (2016)
29930 km gas, 41 km liquid petroleum gas, 6248 km oil, 3631 km refined products (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (3,853,719) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
major seaport(s): Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Ushuaia
container port(s) (TEUs): Buenos Aires (1,851,701)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Bahia Blanca
river port(s): Arroyo Seco, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin (Parana)
Merchant marine
total: 791
by type: bulk carrier 13, container ship 15, general cargo 47, oil tanker 38, other 678 (2018)
total: 167
by type: container ship 1, general cargo 9, oil tanker 27, other 130 (2018)
Airports
total: 4,093 (2013)
total: 1,138 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 698 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 436 (2017)
under 914 m: 49 (2017)
total: 161 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2017)
under 914 m: 10 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 3,395 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619 (2013)
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
total: 977 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 484 (2013)
under 914 m: 448 (2013)
Heliports
13 (2013)
2 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 9 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,039,359 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 149.393 million mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 107 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 14,245,183 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 243,772,567 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
PP (2016)
LV (2016)

Military

BrazilArgentina
Military branches
Brazilian Armed Forces: Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Aviation and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2019)
Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental consent); no conscription; if the number of volunteers fails to meet the quota of recruits for a particular year, Congress can authorize the conscription of citizens turning 18 that year for a period not exceeding one year (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.48% of GDP (2018)
1.42% of GDP (2017)
1.32% of GDP (2016)
1.36% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
0.86% of GDP (2018)
0.86% of GDP (2017)
0.95% of GDP (2016)
0.86% of GDP (2015)
0.88% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

BrazilArgentina
Disputes - international

uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela

Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia

Illicit drugs
second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area
a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 224,102 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 178,625 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019)

Source: CIA Factbook