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Brazil vs. Argentina

Introduction

BrazilArgentina
BackgroundFollowing more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, since about 2013, Brazil has been plagued by a shrinking economy, growing unemployment, and rising inflation. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president through 2018, completing her second term.
In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, with Italy and Spain providing the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions.
After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents. The years 2003-15 saw Peronist rule by Nestor and Cristina FERNANDEZ de KIRCHNER, whose policies isolated Argentina and caused economic stagnation. With the election of Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a period of reform and international reintegration.

Geography

BrazilArgentina
LocationEastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 55 00 W
34 00 S, 64 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
total: 2,780,400 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the US
slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
total: 11,968 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 942 km, Brazil 1,263 km, Chile 6,691 km, Paraguay 2,531 km, Uruguay 541 km
Coastline7,491 km
4,989 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatemostly tropical, but temperate in south
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrainmostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
mean elevation: 595 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz)
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza; highest point in South America)
Natural resourcesbauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 32.9%
arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 61.9%
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 53.9%
arable land 13.9%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 39.6%
forest: 10.7%
other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land54,000 sq km (2012)
23,600 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma
Environment - current issuesdeforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notelargest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Brazil
Population distributionthe vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro
one-third of the population lives in Buenos Aires; pockets of agglomeration occur throughout the northern and central parts of the country; Patagonia to the south remains sparsely populated

Demographics

BrazilArgentina
Population207,353,391 (July 2017 est.)
44,293,293 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 22.33% (male 23,599,867/female 22,696,756)
15-24 years: 16.36% (male 17,212,048/female 16,721,295)
25-54 years: 43.86% (male 45,114,076/female 45,836,147)
55-64 years: 9.12% (male 8,931,065/female 9,974,723)
65 years and over: 8.33% (male 7,356,838/female 9,910,576) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 24.59% (male 5,612,766/female 5,278,857)
15-24 years: 15.28% (male 3,460,276/female 3,307,227)
25-54 years: 39.38% (male 8,707,818/female 8,733,370)
55-64 years: 9.13% (male 1,963,923/female 2,081,796)
65 years and over: 11.62% (male 2,159,811/female 2,987,449) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 32 years
male: 31.1 years
female: 32.8 years (2017 est.)
total: 31.7 years
male: 30.5 years
female: 32.9 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.73% (2017 est.)
0.91% (2017 est.)
Birth rate14.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
16.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 17.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74 years
male: 70.5 years
female: 77.7 years (2017 est.)
total population: 77.3 years
male: 74.2 years
female: 80.6 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.75 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.26 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.6% (2016 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine
Ethnic groupswhite 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
European (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 97.2%, Amerindian 2.4%, African 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS830,000 (2016 est.)
120,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
HIV/AIDS - deaths14,000 (2016 est.)
2,400 (2016 est.)
LanguagesPortuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.2%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 98%
female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Education expenditures6% of GDP (2013)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 86.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 92% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.93% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 82.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.2% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 96.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.8% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
BUENOS AIRES (capital) 15.18 million; Cordoba 1.511 million; Rosario 1.381 million; Mendoza 1.009 million; San Miguel de Tucuman 910,000; La Plata 846,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
52 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.2% (2007)
2.3% (2005)
Health expenditures8.3% of GDP (2014)
4.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
3.76 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
4.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.1% (2016)
28.3% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 959,942
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2009 est.)
total number: 435,252
percentage: 7%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2003 est.)
Demographic profileBrazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Argentina's population continues to grow but at a slower rate because of its steadily declining birth rate. Argentina's fertility decline began earlier than in the rest of Latin America, occurring most rapidly between the early 20th century and the 1950s and then becoming more gradual. Life expectancy has been improving, most notably among the young and the poor. While the population under age 15 is shrinking, the youth cohort - ages 15-24 - is the largest in Argentina's history and will continue to bolster the working-age population. If this large working-age population is well-educated and gainfully employed, Argentina is likely to experience an economic boost and possibly higher per capita savings and investment. Although literacy and primary school enrollment are nearly universal, grade repetition is problematic and secondary school completion is low. Both of these issues vary widely by region and socioeconomic group.
Argentina has been primarily a country of immigration for most of its history, welcoming European immigrants (often providing needed low-skilled labor) after its independence in the 19th century and attracting especially large numbers from Spain and Italy. More than 7 million European immigrants are estimated to have arrived in Argentina between 1880 and 1930, when it adopted a more restrictive immigration policy. European immigration also began to wane in the 1930s because of the global depression. The inflow rebounded temporarily following WWII and resumed its decline in the 1950s when Argentina’s military dictators tightened immigration rules and European economies rebounded. Regional migration increased, however, supplying low-skilled workers escaping economic and political instability in their home countries. As of 2015, immigrants made up almost 5% of Argentina’s population, the largest share in South America. Migration from neighboring countries accounted for approximately 80% of Argentina’s immigrant population in 2015.
The first waves of highly skilled Argentine emigrant workers headed mainly to the United States and Spain in the 1960s and 1970s, driven by economic decline and repressive military dictatorships. The 2008 European economic crisis drove the return migration of some Argentinean and other Latin American nationals, as well as the immigration of Europeans to South America, where Argentina was a key recipient. In 2015, Argentina received the highest number of legal migrants in Latin America and the Caribbean. The majority of its migrant inflow came from Paraguay and Bolivia.
Contraceptive prevalence rate80.2% (2013)
81.3% (2013)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.8
youth dependency ratio: 32.4
elderly dependency ratio: 11.4
potential support ratio: 8.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 56.5
youth dependency ratio: 39.4
elderly dependency ratio: 17.1
potential support ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)

Government

BrazilArgentina
Country nameconventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
"conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina
etymology: originally the area was referred to as Tierra Argentina, i.e., ""Land beside the Silvery River"" or ""silvery land,"" which referred to the massive estuary in the east of the country, the Rio de la Plata (River of Silver); over time the name shortened to simply Argentina or ""silvery""
"
Government typefederal presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
name: Buenos Aires
geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 22 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego), Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
Independence7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
9 July 1816 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 7 September (1822)
Revolution Day (May Revolution Day), 25 May (1810)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
several previous; latest effective 11 May 1853; amended many times, last in 1994 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
civil law system based on West European legal systems; note - in mid-2015, Argentina adopted a new civil code, replacing the old one in force since 1871
Suffragevoluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and the illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-17 years of age - optional for national elections
Executive branchchief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER is serving as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term, which ends 1 January 2019
chief of state: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held in 2 rounds on 25 October and 22 November 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Mauricio MACRI elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 37.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 34.2%, Sergio MASSA (FR/PJ) 21.4%, other 7.3%; percent of vote in second round - Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 51.4%, Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 48.6%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership elected every 2 years) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 2 years)
elections: Senate - last held on 22 October 2017 (next to be held in October 2019); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 22 October 2017 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 12, UC 6, PJ 4, FRC 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 61, UC 28, PJ 18, FR 7, FCS 3, FRC 2, other 8
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: federal level appellate, district, and territorial courts; provincial level supreme, appellate, and first instance courts
Political parties and leadersBrazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
Cambiemos [Mauricio MACRI] (coalition of CC-ARI, PRO, and UCR)
Citizen's Unity or UC [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]
Civic Coalition ARI or CC-ARI [ Elisa CARRIO]
Civic Front for Santiago or FCS [Gerardo ZAMORA]
Dissident Peronists (PJ Disidente) or Federal Peronism (a right-wing faction of PJ which is opposed to the Kirchners) [Eduardo DUHALDE]
Front for the Renewal of Concord or FRC
Front for Victory or FpV (left-wing faction of PJ) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]
Justicialist Party or PJ [Jose Luis GIOJA]
Progresistas [Margarita STOLBIZER]
Radical Civic Union or UCR [Lilia PUIG DE STUBRIN]
Renewal Front (Frente Renovador) or FR [Sergio MASSA]
Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI]
Socialist Party or PS [Antonio BONFATTI]
United for a New Alternative or UNA (includes FR)
numerous provincial parties
Political pressure groups and leadersLandless Workers' Movement or MST [Joao Pedro STEDILE]
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs or CILFA
Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association)
Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association)
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association)
Blue and White CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation)
Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a union for employed and unemployed workers)
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization)
Roman Catholic Church
other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro- or anti-government); students
International organization participationAfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Michael MCKINNEY (since 1 January 2017)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Tom COONEY (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
Flag descriptiongreen with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), white, and sky blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face (delineated in brown) known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
National anthem"name: ""Hino Nacional Brasileiro"" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional Argentino"" (Argentine National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA
note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: sky blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Economy

BrazilArgentina
Economy - overviewBrazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.

Economic reforms, proposed in 2016, aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 78% of GDP at the end of 2017, up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.

Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments too difficult to enact.
Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. In 2016, the World Bank downgraded Argentina from a high-income to upper-middle-income economy, on par with Columbia.

A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and an unprecedented bank run culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic, social, and political crisis in the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - at the time the largest ever - on the government's foreign debt in December of that year, and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, with real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines below the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 8.5% annually over the subsequent six years, taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor, and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased, however, during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER, which responded with price restraints on businesses, as well as export taxes and restraints, and beginning in 2007, with understating inflation data.

Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as president in late 2007, and the rapid economic growth of previous years began to slow sharply the following year as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. The economy in 2010 rebounded strongly from the 2009 recession, but slowed in late 2011 even as the government continued to rely on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies, which kept inflation in the double digits.

In order to deal with these problems, the government expanded state intervention in the economy: it nationalized the oil company YPF from Spain's Repsol, expanded measures to restrict imports, and further tightened currency controls in an effort to bolster foreign reserves and stem capital flight. Between 2011 and 2013, Central Bank foreign reserves dropped $21.3 billion from a high of $52.7 billion. In July 2014, Argentina and China agreed on an $11 billion currency swap; the Argentine Central Bank has received the equivalent of $3.2 billion in Chinese yuan, which it counts as international reserves.

With the election of President Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a historic political and economic transformation, as his administration took steps to liberalize the Argentine economy, lifting capital controls, floating the peso, removing export controls on some commodities, cutting some energy subsidies, and reforming the country’s official statistics. Argentina negotiated debt payments with holdout bond creditors and returned to international capital markets in April 2016. In September 2016, Argentina completed its first IMF Article IV Consultation since 2006.

After years of international isolation, Argentina took on several international leadership roles in 2017, including hosting the World Economic Forum on Latin America and the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference, and is set to assume the presidency of the G-20 in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$3.219 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.195 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.314 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$911.5 billion (2017 est.)
$889.5 billion (2016 est.)
$910 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.7% (2017 est.)
-3.6% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
2.5% (2017 est.)
-2.2% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$15,500 (2017 est.)
$15,500 (2016 est.)
$16,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$20,700 (2017 est.)
$20,400 (2016 est.)
$21,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.2%
industry: 21%
services: 72.8%
(2017 est.)
agriculture: 10.9%
industry: 28.2%
services: 60.9% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line"3.7%
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the ""extreme"" poverty line (2016 est.)
"
32.2%
note: data are based on private estimates (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.7% (2017 est.)
8.7% (2016 est.)
26.9% (2017 est.)
26.5% (2015 est.)
note: data are derived from private estimates
Labor force111.6 million (2017 est.)
18 million
note: urban areas only (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 10%
industry: 39.8%
services: 50.2%
(2016 est.)
agriculture: 0.5%
industry: 24.8%
services: 74.7% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate13.1% (2017 est.)
11.3% (2016 est.)
8.1% (2017 est.)
8.5% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index49.7 (2014)
55.3 (2001)
42.7 (2014)
45.8 (2009)
Budgetrevenues: $726.6 billion
expenditures: $749 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $123.2 billion
expenditures: $161.1 billion (2017 est.)
Industriestextiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Industrial production growth rate1% (2017 est.)
2.4%
note: based on private sector estimates (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Exports$215.4 billion (2017 est.)
$184.5 billion (2016 est.)
$59.69 billion (2017 est.)
$57.78 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiestransport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
Exports - partnersChina 19%, US 12.6%, Argentina 7.3%, Netherlands 5.6% (2016)
Brazil 15.5%, US 7.7%, China 7.6%, Vietnam 4.4% (2016)
Imports$151.9 billion (2017 est.)
$139.4 billion (2016 est.)
$60.78 billion (2017 est.)
$53.24 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
Imports - partnersUS 17.6%, China 16.9%, Argentina 6.7%, Germany 6.6%, South Korea 4.4% (2016)
Brazil 24.3%, China 18.7%, US 12.5%, Germany 5.5% (2016)
Debt - external$554.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$551.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$208.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$190.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesreals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.214 (2017 est.)
3.4901 (2016 est.)
3.4901 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar -
16.92 (2017 est.)
14.7582 (2016 est.)
14.7582 (2015 est.)
9.2332 (2014 est.)
8.0753 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt78.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
69.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
53.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
54.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$377.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$365 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$52.97 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$38.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$28.99 billion (2017 est.)
-$23.53 billion (2016 est.)
-$22.13 billion (2017 est.)
-$14.9 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$2.081 trillion (2016 est.)
$619.9 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$828.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$763.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$84.14 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$72.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$327.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$319.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$40.94 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$39.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$56.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.14 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.25% (31 December 2015)
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate48.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
52.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
24.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
31.23% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.237 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.138 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$216.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$194 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$106.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$106.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.95 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$761.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$727.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$166.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$146.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues34.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
-6.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 16.1%
male: 13.8%
female: 21.2% (2014 est.)
total: 18.3%
male: 15.6%
female: 22.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 63.5%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 16.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 11.8%
imports of goods and services: -11.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 66.5%
government consumption: 18%
investment in fixed capital: 15.3%
investment in inventories: 1.5%
exports of goods and services: 12%
imports of goods and services: -13.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving16.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

BrazilArgentina
Electricity - production559.2 billion kWh (2015 est.)
133.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption500.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
122.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports219 million kWh (2015 est.)
55 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports34.64 billion kWh (2015 est.)
9.018 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production2.515 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
510,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports350,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
10,180 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports518,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
38,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves13 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
2.185 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves429.9 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
316.4 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production20.41 billion cu m (2015 est.)
36.4 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption43.4 billion cu m (2015 est.)
72.03 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports100 million cu m (2014 est.)
80 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports18.98 billion cu m (2015 est.)
10.67 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity155.6 million kW (2015 est.)
38.19 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels25.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
66.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants59.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
23.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels1.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
4.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources16% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
2.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production2.899 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
687,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption3.102 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
803,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports269,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
52,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports559,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
145,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy535 million Mt (2013 est.)
202 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 800,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,500,000
electrification - total population: 96.4%
electrification - urban areas: 99.2%
electrification - rural areas: 96% (2013)

Telecommunications

BrazilArgentina
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 41,846,846
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 9,938,630
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 244,066,759
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2016 est.)
total: 64,033,692
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 146 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 120 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2016)
general assessment: in 1998 Argentina opened its telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service continues to improve to rural areas
domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; fixed-line teledensity is increasing gradually and mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; broadband Internet services are gaining ground
international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2016)
Internet country code.br
.ar
Internet userstotal: 122,841,218
percent of population: 59.7% (July 2016 est.)
total: 30,786,889
percent of population: 70.2% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)
government owns a TV station and radio network; more than 2 dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage (2009)

Transportation

BrazilArgentina
Railwaystotal: 29,849.9 km
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
total: 36,917.4 km
broad gauge: 26,391 km 1.676-m gauge (149 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,745.1 km 1.435-m gauge (41.1 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 7,523.3 km 1.000-m gauge; 258 km 0.750-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
total: 231,374 km
paved: 69,412 km (includes 734 km of expressways)
unpaved: 161,962 km (2004)
Waterways50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
11,000 km (2012)
Pipelinescondensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)
gas 29,930 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 6,248 km; refined products 3,631 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (3,780,000) (2015)
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
major seaport(s): Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Ushuaia
river port(s): Arroyo Seco, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin (Parana)
container port(s) (TEUs): Buenos Aires (1,851,701)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Bahia Blanca
Merchant marinetotal: 766
by type: bulk carrier 14, container ship 16, general cargo 48, oil tanker 37, other 651 (2017)
total: 161
by type: container ship 1, general cargo 9, oil tanker 27, other 124 (2017)
Airports4,093 (2013)
1,138 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2017)
total: 161
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 10 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
total: 977
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 484
under 914 m: 448 (2013)
Heliports13 (2013)
2 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 9
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,039,359
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 149.393 million mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 6
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 107
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 14,245,183
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 243,772,567 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixPP (2016)
LV (2016)

Military

BrazilArgentina
Military branchesBrazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation"18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are ""long-service"" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
"
18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental consent); no conscription; if the number of volunteers fails to meet the quota of recruits for a particular year, Congress can authorize the conscription of citizens turning 18 that year for a period not exceeding one year (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.32% of GDP (2016)
1.36% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
0.95% of GDP (2016)
0.86% of GDP (2015)
0.88% of GDP (2014)
0.84% of GDP (2013)
0.78% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

BrazilArgentina
Disputes - internationaluncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia
Illicit drugssecond-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area
a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs

Source: CIA Factbook