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Bolivia vs. Peru

Demographics

BoliviaPeru
Population11,138,234 (July 2017 est.)
31,036,656 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 31.85% (male 1,807,735/female 1,739,763)
15-24 years: 19.46% (male 1,098,097/female 1,069,950)
25-54 years: 37.48% (male 2,041,866/female 2,133,065)
55-64 years: 5.9% (male 303,409/female 353,598)
65 years and over: 5.3% (male 260,424/female 330,327) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 26.31% (male 4,155,672/female 4,009,888)
15-24 years: 18.31% (male 2,847,460/female 2,835,727)
25-54 years: 40.19% (male 5,985,354/female 6,487,232)
55-64 years: 7.78% (male 1,168,533/female 1,247,299)
65 years and over: 7.41% (male 1,086,790/female 1,212,701) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 24.3 years
male: 23.6 years
female: 25 years (2017 est.)
total: 28 years
male: 27.2 years
female: 28.8 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.51% (2017 est.)
0.95% (2017 est.)
Birth rate22 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
17.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 35.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 38.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 18.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 69.5 years
male: 66.7 years
female: 72.4 years (2017 est.)
total population: 74 years
male: 71.9 years
female: 76.1 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.12 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.3% (2016 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups"mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara
note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide ""mestizo"" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of ""mestizo"" and ""cholo"" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchangeably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices (2009 est.)
"
Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS19,000 (2016 est.)
70,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)
Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths<1000 (2016 est.)
2,200 (2016 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, none 0.1%
note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including a few that are extinct (2001 est.)
Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 96.5%
female: 88.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.2%
male: 97.2%
female: 94.3% (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2007)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2010)
Education expenditures7.3% of GDP (2014)
3.9% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 69.3% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.11% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 79.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 75.6% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 24.4% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 86.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 60.8% of population
rural: 27.5% of population
total: 50.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 39.2% of population
rural: 72.5% of population
total: 49.7% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 53.2% of population
total: 76.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 46.8% of population
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSanta Cruz 2.107 million; LA PAZ (capital) 1.816 million; Cochabamba 1.24 million; Sucre (constitutional capital) 372,000 (2015)
LIMA (capital) 9.897 million; Arequipa 850,000; Trujillo 798,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate206 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.6% (2012)
3.1% (2014)
Health expenditures6.3% of GDP (2014)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
1.12 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density1.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate20.2% (2016)
19.7% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 757,352
percentage: 26.4%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2008 est.)
total number: 2,545,855
percentage: 34%
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
22.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
Demographic profileBolivia ranks at or near the bottom among Latin American countries in several areas of health and development, including poverty, education, fertility, malnutrition, mortality, and life expectancy. On the positive side, more children are being vaccinated and more pregnant women are getting prenatal care and having skilled health practitioners attend their births. Bolivia's income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia's high fertility rate - approximately three children per woman. Bolivia's lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.
Bolivia's income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia's high fertility rate - approximately three children per woman. Bolivia's lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.
Between 7% and 16% of Bolivia’s population lives abroad (estimates vary in part because of illegal migration). Emigrants primarily seek jobs and better wages in Argentina (the principal destination), the US, and Spain. In recent years, more restrictive immigration policies in Europe and the US have increased the flow of Bolivian emigrants to neighboring countries. Fewer Bolivians migrated to Brazil in 2015 and 2016 because of its recession; increasing numbers have been going to Chile, mainly to work as miners.
Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.
Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.
Contraceptive prevalence rate60.5% (2008)
74.6% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 63.7
youth dependency ratio: 53.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.6
potential support ratio: 9.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 53.2
youth dependency ratio: 42.7
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook